Population Distribution In Nepal by Geographical Region
Normally, population distribution refers to the arrangement of the population on the basis of geographical structure, regional division, and administrative units. The facts and statistics regarding the distribution of population are useful not only to the government but also to the various other organizations and individuals in order to make a plan and strategies for the development of a particular place. The information on population distribution helps in the provision of effective services and facilities to the needy people.
Population distribution means the pattern of where people live. Nowhere in the world do we find an equal distribution of the population. Places which are sparsely populated have few people because such places are difficult to live in. Places which are densely populated have more people because such places have a suitable environment to live.
Normally, population distribution refers to the distribution of people on the basis of geographical structure, regional division, and administrative units.
If we look at the population distribution of Nepal, we find that the population is not equally distributed in all parts of the country. The distribution of the population is unequal due to the diversity in land structure, climate, soil and available natural resources and means. More population is concentrated in the places where the facilities such as transportation, employment, education, health services, communication, etc. are available. The places where these facilities are not available to have less population pressure. For example, the Terai region of Nepal has many facilities such as employment, transportation, communication, etc and because these, more population is concerned in this region. But the mountainous region of Nepal is pretty cold with difficult land topography. The facilities of transportation communication, employment etc. is also not available there. Therefore, the population is sparsely distributed in the mountainous region of Nepal.
Population means the total number of people living in a certain place in a certain time. It includes size, distribution, composition, and charge of the population. The population is dynamic in nature. It doesn’t remain constant, and keeps changing. Birth, death and migration cause population change. The term population is derived from latin word ‘populus1 that means ‘people . So it refers to all human beings of certain places.
The population is characterized by birth, death, migration, literacy, census, density, life expectancy, growth, dependency group, sex ratio etc.
It includes children, youths, adults and old people living in a certain place, village, town, district region or a country for a specific time period. The population is described by time, area, number, and kind. So. time is the most important and crucial parameter which describes the population.
As you already know population management refers to all efforts made to maintain appropriate population size and distribution according to means i and resources available. There is a very close relationship between population management and quality life. If population is properly managed, there are desirable number of children in a family and needs of the family are properly fulfilled. On the contrary, if population is not properly managed, the balance between natural resources, environment and living beings is disturbed. It directly affects the fulfilment of our needs and requirements. In the absence of enough means and resources, our needs cannot be fulfilled well. As a result quality of life degrades. No quality life can be imagined when even the basic needs of food, shelter, clothes, medicine, education and security are not properly fulfilled. Thus population management is essential for maintaining quality life.
It tells us the total number of people in a place in a certain period of time. It includes both the male and female. Different places have different size of the population. It is dynamic. Birth, death, and migration are the factors of population change. It also depends on upon the facilities and the opportunities of a certain place.
It means how the people are dispersed over a particular place. It is related to density and differs according to the ecological belt.
The counting process of the total number of people living in a particular place is known as the census. In Nepal census is taken in every 10 years. The latest census was taken in 2068 (2011).
According to the population census 2068Bs, the total population of Nepal is 2,64,93,504 (Two cores sixty-four lakhs ninety-three thousand and five hundred and four).
Size of Population of Nepal:
The size of the population of Nepal according to the latest population census 2068 is 2,64.94,504. Among them, 12,849,041 (48.5%) and 13,645,463 (51.5 %) numbers of people are male and female respectively. The annual population growth rate is 1.35%.
The density of population means the number of people living in per square kilometer of land. It is calculated by dividing the total number of population by the total land area of that place. The average density of Nepal is 180 per persons per km2. The density of population is highest in Kathmandu (4416 persons per km2) and lowest in Manang (3 persons per km2) respectively. Similarly, Terai has the highest and mountain has the lowest density of population.
The density of population depends on upon various factors like facilities such as education, health, employment, transportation, communication, security, entertainment etc.
The development of a country and population are like two sides of a coin. A country cannot develop without population and without development the population cannot enjoy the facilities. Human beings want comfortable and prosperous life. It is possible only if the country is developed. Who will develop the country? Of course, it is the people or the population. A country needs skilled and semiskilled human resource to develop the country. These human resources will utilize the country’s natural resources and means rationally and effectively and bring about development. In other words, a country needs quality human and not the quantity human resource.
At present population growth has become a global problem. No country is free from population explosion. There should be a balance between population and natural means and resources. The population should not be more than available means and resources of the country. The proper balance Between population and natural means and resources are the key to the development of a country.
Some of the importance of population are as follows:
- The population is necessary for the development and welfare of the country.
- The population is needed for utilization of available means and resources of a country.
- The population is important for the conservation of the environment.
- Better is the quality of population, faster will be the pace of development
- Proper management of population will help to maintain the quality of life.
- Skilled population bring development and make the country economically strong.
Geographically, Nepal is divided into three ecological regions. They are Terai Region, Hilly Region, and Mountain Region. The population is very unevenly distributed in these three ecological regions.
The causes for unequal distribution of population are diversity in landform, climate, soil and available means and natural resources. Similarly, the population will be more in places where there are well-developed infrastructures like transport, communication, employment, education, health services etc.
The Terai region of Nepal our country has better infrastructures along with plain land, fertile soil and favorable climate for agriculture. The concentration of population is very high in Terai region compared to Hill and Mountain regions.
Population in the Mountain Region of Nepal
The mountain region lies in the northern part of the country. Here lie some of the highest peaks of the world. This part is always covered with snow. This region is inhabited by Sherpa Thakali, Tamang. They have their own way of living and are different from that of others. Only 7% of the total population lives in this region. Life in mountain region is comparatively hard due to severe cold climate and difficult terrain.
Table of Population distribution by geographical region in Nepal
2058 B.S. (2001 AD)
Population Distribution of Nepal (Census 2011) by Geographical Regions
|(Source: CBS, 2011)|
So, the population of the hilly region of Nepal is 1,13,94,007. The population of the mountain region of Nepal is 17,81,792 and population of terai region of Nepal are 1,33,18,705. The population of Madhesi in Nepal is about 80 percent of the terai population.
Population, which is dynamic and changing, means the total number of people in a certain place in a certain time. The population is characterized by birth, death, migration, literacy, census, density, life expectancy, growth, dependency group, sex ratio etc. Population distribution, which is related to density, is dispersal of people over a specific place. Population composition is asserting of the population on the basis of age, sex, caste, religion, etc. Counting of the total number of people living in a particular place is known as the census. Nepal’s population according to the census of 2068 is 26,494,504, (male 48.5%, female 51.5 %). The density of population means the number of people living per square kilometer of land. Nepal’s average density is 180, highest in Kathmandu (4416) and lowest in Manang (3) per sq km.