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Name List Of 130 Wetlands of Nepal With Short Information – Ramsar & Simsar Sites In Nepal

  • Khaste Lake

Lake Khaste is the freshwater lake located in the Lekhnath metropolitan city of Pokhara with an area of ​​2.4 km2 and an elevation of 764m from sea level. The body of water covers 1.37 km2 and is used for fish farming and agriculture. It is also represented as “Bird Wetland” and is famous for observing birds.

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Its inflow source is Lake Neureni and the output is Taal Khola. The region is a prospective research midpoint for bird inspection as various bird species visited these lakes. This indicates its importance for biodiversity. It is also affected by fishing, irrigation and agricultural inputs.

  • Lakes Maidi, Niureni, Gunde and Kamal Pokhari lakes

These are small lakes located in the metropolitan city of Pokhara and also play a vital role in the aquatic ecosystem. These lakes have an area of ​​0.01 km2, 0.02 km2, 0.08 km2 and 0.02 km2 respectively.

Despite being small, these lakes are important from the point of view of the ecosystem and the environment, as they play an important role in ecosystem services. They are also heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities that disturb biodiversity.

Other wetlands

  1. Kyangjing wetland

The Kyangjing wetland is an alpine freshwater river located in Langtang National Park and has an oligotrophic nutrient content at the the upper part. The Langsisa and Langtang glaciers are the main sources of water as the discharge at the exit is 20 m3 / second.

The gumba in Kyangjing is among the sites of religious importance for the Lama and Sherpa communities of Langtang VDC. People depend on wetlands for drinking water, domestic use, grazing, agriculture and other livelihoods. Tourism is also dependent on wetlands.

Most lakes have no aquatic vegetation, except phytoplankton and some algae, but the ponds near the town of Langtang support a wide variety of emerging plants. Seventy-eight floral species from the catchment have been recorded.

Invertebrates are more numerous in small ponds near the town of Langtang and Kyangjing. Of the 345 species of birds registered in Langtang National Park, seven are wetland birds, including wagtail  and dipper.

  1. Panch Pokhari wetlands

The “Panch Pokhari” (Five Lakes) wetlands are a permanent alpine oligotropic freshwater lake in a small valley surrounded by ridges. It is located in Langtang National Park.

They form an important source of water for the Indrawati River, which provides water for electricity production at a micro hydroelectric plant in Tipni Village, Sindhupalchowk district. This area is important for its conservation values ​​related to biodiversity and tourism.

Most lakes here have no aquatic vegetation, except phytoplankton and some algae. Some 35 plants were recorded in the Panch Pokhari area, with four endemic species. Invertebrates are more numerous in small ponds near Panch Pokhari.

Of the 345 bird species recorded in Langtang National Park, seven are dependent wetlands. This site is a good habitat for migratory and residential birds and other wildlife species, as it is among the least disturbed remote areas.

  1. Singjema Wetland Series

Singjema Lake, within which believers claim to see a reflection of their own future and fortune, is an alpine freshwater located in the Kanchanjunga conservation area.

It is an oligotrophic lake of 835 m long, with steep slopes that create a unique and representative wetland in the complex of the Eastern Himalayan high ecoregion. It is an important source of fresh water for the Tamor River, one of the tributaries of the Koshi River in Nepal that feeds into the Gangatic River Basin.

There have been around 32 species of flowering plants recorded in the Singjema catchment, including three endemic species of rare, endangered and vulnerable plants. The Brahminy duck and the common Pochard (Aythya ferina) have been recorded in the wetlands of the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area.

Terai wetlands

  1. Bedkot Tal

Bedkot Tal is a small freshwater lake (approximately 10 m deep). It is located in Chhela Bagon Ward 5 of Daiji VDC, 23 km north of Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur.

Before the construction of the East-West Highway, Bedkot was an important point of departure to India for the people of the Nepali hill people. It is a scenic lake of exceptional genetic and ecological diversity and is located on top of a hill in the middle of a dense salt forest.

Bedkot Lake Nepal

Bedkot Lake

The vegetation of the lake is rich in plant species. The lake is located in the Churia / Siwalik mountain range, surrounded by dense salt forests covered by a large growth of lianas and a thick undergrowth beneath the heavy forest canopy.

The surrounding forests are known for their rich mammalian fauna, with 21 species recorded to date, including threatened species such as the Dhole (Cuon alpinus), a species of wild dogs); lazy bear (Ursus ursinus), the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), the Bengal fox (Vulpes benghalensis) and the Himalayan ghoral (Naemorhedus sumatranensis).

Three species of freshwater turtles have also been recorded.

  1. Padereni Tal

It is located in Bani, Krishnapur District, VDC 2, Kanchanpur District, 11 km west of Atariya. Padereni Tal is a large, shallow and eutrophic lake (1-3 m deep) formed by the Donda River. It is surrounded by Syzigium forests and supports a small number of resident and migratory waterfowl.

The lake’s vegetation is not rich in species diversity, but it is densely covered with floating azolla imbricata and Pistia stratioites, and submerged plants Hydrilla verticillata and Nvmphoides indica.

The lake is a wintering area for a considerable number of several species of waterfowl and provides a staging area for many species during migration. The wetland has a considerable area of ​​20 ha of grassland that provides an excellent habitat for Houbaropsis bengalensis, Sypheotidus indica and other grassland birds.

It is known that the lake supports a population of swamp crocodiles (unknown status), monitor lizards and pythons.

  1. Rampur Tal

It is located in 7 km south of the East-West Highway in ward no. 9 of Urma VDC, Kailali District. Rampur Tal is a shallow and eutrophic oxbow lake of 0-3 m.

The water level decreases significantly in the lake during March and April. The site is a medium-sized complex of oxbow lakes set in a scenic environment surrounded by dense salt forests along most of the lake’s shoreline.

The vegetation of the lakes is medium in species diversity and is found in an area of ​​dense salt forests.

The lake is a wintering and staging area for several species of waterfowl. Resident species include the White egret (Egretta alba), E. intermedia, Bronze winged jacana and Pheasant- tailed Tacana. Migrants passing through and winter visitors include Falco severus. Seven species of fish have been recorded in the area.

  1. Nakhrodi Tal

This wetland is located 5 km north of the east-west highway, in ward no. 8 of Sandepani VDC, Kailali District. Nakhrodi Tal is a large eutrophic oxbow lake 10 m deep with an island in the middle.

The lake is surrounded by dense salt forests, is fed by precipitation, a few springs and inflow of the Kauwa Khola canal. The lake is located about 600 meters northeast of Ghodaghodi Tal and is within the Ghodaghodi lake system cluster.

The wetland and surrounding forests are famous for their rich mammal fauna. Twenty-one species of mammals have been recorded in the lake, including threatened species such as the dhole (Cuon alpinus), the sloth bear (Ursus ursinus), the otter (Lutragale perspicillata, Aonyx cinera) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

The lake is a wintering area for a considerable number of several species of waterfowl and provides a staging area for many species during migration. The lake is rich in herpetofauna, with 12 recorded species.

Three species of freshwater turtles have been recorded, as well as endangered Python molurus and monitor lizard. There is evidence of 20 species of fish, including the riverine species, Glossogobius giurus.

  1. Badhaiya Tal

This wetland is located in wards 1 and 3 of Soraka VDC of the Bardia district. Badhaiya Tal is a shallow and eutrophic rain fed lake that reaches maximum depths of 4m.

The lake is surrounded by rice fields everywhere. It is a great swampy natural depression that supports a large number of resident and wintering populations of several species of waterfowl.

Badhaiya Tal Bardiya Nepal

Badhaiya Tal

The vegetation of the lake is abundant in diverse rooted floating plants. The lake supports a small population of otters and a series of wild ungulates, including spotted deer and Indian Sambar or Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) that use the lake as a waterhole.

A large variety of water birds visit the lake, which offers an excellent feeding habitat for resident and migratory species. The site is rich in herpetofauna and fish.

The local community has recorded eight reptile species, including the protected Monitor lizard. Seven species of fish have also been recorded in the lake.

  1. Gaidahawa Tal

This is located in wardno. 1 of Bishnupura VDC of the Rupandehi district. Gaindahawa Tal is a shallow (1-4m deep) rain fed ox-bow lake. The lake’s sources of water are an artesian well and superficial forest discharges.

During the rainy season, the lake’s water level is regulated through an irrigation intake structure. Dense forests to the west and north, private lands to the east, and forest areas and settlements to the south surround the lake.

Gaidahawa taal, Nepal

Gaidahawa taal

A number of free floating weeds, grass and plant species with submerged species, rooted floating species and emergent species comprise the vegetation of the lake.

The wetland is an important waterhole for the remaining population of blue bulls. The lake is rich in herpetofauna and fish. The incidence of 10 reptile species of reptile including the endangered lizard Monitor is presumed.

Weltlands of Chure mountain range

  1. Halkhoria Daha

Halkhoria Daha is a natural wetland located within the dense mixed tropical forest of Charkose Jhadi in the southern part of the Chure hills. The Halkhoria daha is associated with six other small ponds of different sizes.

This unique wetland provides an important refuge for birds and is a key waterhole for wildlife, including wildlife in the Parsa Wildlife Reserve. The Wildlife Reserve is located about 12 km west of the wetland.

The Daha is surrounded by a forest along the foothills of the Chure to the north. It is bordered by the Bakaiya stream to the east, the Mahendra (east west) to the south, the Balganga stream (Bhandri) to the west and the Hatia and Chhatiban VDCs from the Makawanpur district to the north.

Halkhoriya Dah, Nepal

Halkhoriya Dah

Much of the lake has been covered by deposits of sand and the growth of vegetation converting as grass land drying the wetland.

The Halkhoria Daha support the habitat of 17 species of mammals. The Bengal tiger, nilgai and sambar deer are commonly visited in this wetland area of ​​the Chure-Bhawar region. More than ten species of each herpeto-fauna and fish have reported in this wetland.

The Halkhoriya harbors diverse tree species of riparian nature throughout the flooded area. The vegetation around the lake is formed by Sal, Dumri, Rajbrikshya, Bhalayo, Bhelar, Simal, Amala, etc. This wetland has no floating floral species.

  1. Baba Tal

The Baba Tal is about 2 km north of the Bandipur bazaar on the East West Highway in the Siraha district. The Baba Tal is a renovated wetland and has a relatively large open water body.

This wetland is an expansion of a small previously existing wetland where a dam has been built at the outlet of the wetland to retain water. It is located in the foothills of the Chure range and is connected to a small upstream wetland called Jordaha.

It has become a good refuge for wild animals and bird species due to effective conservation practices.

Baba Tal and its surrounding area support more than ten species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are the rhesus macaque, the golden jackal and the wild boar.

Similarly, the lake and its surrounding forest provide habitat for many species of residential and breeding birds. Forest vegetation is composed of Banjhi, Khayar, Diospyros, Badkamle, Gayo, Rajbrikshya, Indrajau, Bel, Bayar, Sindure and Aule species, Ceropegia species, etc.

A high value medicinal plant Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina) can also be observed in this wetland area.

  1. Kamal Daha

Kamal Daha is approximately 7 km north of Fatepur (Fulbaria-3) along the East West Highway. Kamal Daha, is a natural wetland is located in the foothills of Chure, in the middle of the degraded forest.

It has been managed by the group of users of the community forest of Ghurmi Danda. The entire community forest is divided into 7 blocks and Kamal Daha is located in block 2, as can be seen in the approved Forest Operational Plan.

Kamal Daha and its surroundings  area support more than ten species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are the rhesus macaque, the golden jackal and the wild boar.

Similarly, this lake and its surrounding forest have housed numerous residential and breeding birds. The forest around the lake is mixed type and is composed of species of Sal, Khayar, Diospyros, Karam, Tikuli, Archal, Indrajau, Saj, Sindure, Bot Dhayera, Chhatiwan, etc.

  1. Devi daha

The wetland can be reached through the Gol Bazar of the Siraha, after driving 3-4 km north. Gol Bazar is near Lahan along the East West Highway. Devi daha is a natural lake, located in the foothills of the Churia mountain range along the Sal forest.

The Devi Daha and its surrounding forests are home to six species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are Golden Jackal, Indian Gray Mongoose and Indian Crested Porcupine.

Similarly, the lake area is home to numerous species of residential and breeding birds. The vegetation along the catchment area is dominated by Sal (Shorea robusta). Associated forest tree species include Karam, Khayar (Acacia catechu), Simal, Sindure, Saj, Bhelar, etc.

  1. Pathru daha

Pathru Daha is approx. 2 km north of Bhawanipur Bazaar along the East West Highway. Pathru daha is a modified pond in a previous natural wetland; It is fed by a permanent inflow that originates in the hills of Chure (3 km away) and runoff from the forests of the Pathru community.

It consists of two ponds that are protected by the construction of the sand trapping tank in the stream of foothills of Chure Hill. Pathru daha is currently being administered by the Pathru daha Community Forest User Group. The bioengineering practice is applied to control soil erosion and silt.

Pathru Daha and its surroundings are support a dozen species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are the rhesus macaque, the golden jackal and the wild boar.

Similarly, this lake and the nearby forested areas have housed numerous residential and breeding birds. The vegetation around the lake shows riverine elements. The dominant species are Marchaiya, Indrajau, Carissa carandans, Khayar, Satisal, kadam, Ficus, Antidesma, etc. The trees and shrubs around the lake are covered by Gurjo (Tinospora sinensis).

  1. Jandaul Pokhari

Jandaul Pokhari is located approximately 1-1.5 km north of Jandol Bazzar along the East West Highway. Jandaul Pokhari consists of a series of four ponds built along the small stream called Banaha Khola.

Wetlands are created along the chure originated stream with the objective of trapping sand and silt to protect downstream agricultural land from siltation.

Jandaul and Pathru Daha, both are artificial ponds and are located in the same place. So, both have similar wildlife species. The ponds are surrounded by mixed tropical forest dominated by Shorea robusta. Other associated forest species are Diospyros species, Sindure, Antidesma, khayar, Marchaiya, Rajbrikshya, Indrajau, etc.

  1. Bagh Jhora wetland

Halkhoria Daha is located in the Ratanpur VDC-1 and 2 of the Bara district at an altitude of 160 m. Its natural lake extends around 46 ha within the dense mixed tropical sal mixed forest of Charkose Jhadi.  Bagh jhora is approx. 2.5 km north of Birat Chowk located on the east west highway.

The Bagh Jhora wetland is located in the foothills of the Churiya mountain range. It has swampy land and deep water pool up to 6 m deep. It is an important waterhole that includes the wildlife of the Parsa Wildlife Reserve. The wetland is completely dry.

Siltation, succession, overgrazing, unsustainable harvest of natural resources that include NWFP, forest fires, etc., are the main threats to the wetland. The renovation of the Daha and the conservation of the adjacent forest is urgent.

The Bagjhora wetland and its surrounding forest are home to more than a dozen species of mammals. The most common mammal species are the golden jackal, the mongoose and the rhesus macaque.

The one of the legally protected species in Nepal is “Indian Pangolin” which was also reported from this area. The area is rich for several species of residential and breeding birds.

The dominant vegetation in its surroundings is Sal (Shorea robusta). The associates of Sal are Karam (Adina cordifolia), Khayar (Acacia catechu), Saj (Terminalia alata) and Aule. Wetland vegetation consists of floating, submerged and emerging weed flora.

  1. Betani Daha

Betani Daha is a natural wetland located in Urlabari VDC-7 of Morang district at an altitude of 120m. It extends about 3.3 ha inside Sal forest. It has both inflow and outflow. . Betani Daha is a natural wetland, located within the Sal forest.

Betani Daha and its surrounding forests are home to ten species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are the golden jackal, the wild boar and the rhesus macaque.

The one of the “endangered” species on the IUCN Red List, that is Asian elephant also visited this area. The lake and nearby forested areas have housed several species of residential and breeding birds. Sal (Shorea robusta) is the dominant forest species in this area.

Associated species include Saj (Terminalia alata), Sindure (Mallotus phillipensis), Rajbrikshya (Cassia fistula), Aule, Badkamle (Caesaria glomerata), Bot Dhayero (Lagerstroemia parviflora), Mirchaiya and Kusum (Schleichera oleosa).

  1. Hasina wetland

Hasina Simsar is natural wetland located in Sundarpur VDC-6, Morang district at an altitude of 125m. The wetland extends approx. 48 ha along with swamp, marsh, pond and streams. It feeds by 4-5 ground springs (Jaruwa). The Hasina wetland is located in the foothills of Churiya hill.

It is a natural wetland within the forest. The wetland was rich with rattan plants (Calamus spp.) before 2 decades. The Hasina Simsar Conservation Committee (a subcommittee of the Namuma Community Forest) is actively working for the restoration and sustainable conservation of this wetland.

Hasina simsar Wetland Sundarpur Nepal

Hasina simsar, Sundarpur Nepal

Hasina Simsar and its surrounding forests are home to 15 species of mammals. The common mammal species are the Indian pangolin (a species protected by the government of Nepal), the golden jackal, the rhesus macaque and the black giant squirrel.

Similarly, this wetland system also hosts numerous species of residential and breeding birds. The main vegetation around the wetland is composed of tropical elements, including Shorea robusta, Syzygium cumini, Ficus, Anthocephalus chinensis, Diospyros species, Bombax ceiba, Aegle marmelos, Trewia nudiflora, Callicarpa arborea, Mallotus phillipensis, etc.

This wetland also provides a good habitat for a rare Chhatiwan tree (Alstonia scholaris). This wetland provides habitat for different species of floating and submerged macro flora.

  1. Raja Rani Pokhari

Raja Rani Pokhari, also called “Raja Rani Dhimal Pokhari”, is one of the most important wetlands in Nepal. It is located northwest of Letang, in Dhimal Danda, covered with mixed forest.

There are three lakes, namely Raja, Rani and Chhori (Rajkumari), located within the southern part of the Sal forest along the Chure hill. The local people formed a Raja Rani Pokhari Conservation Committee particularly to manage this wetland.

The three lakes cover about 20 ha of land along the catchment area of about 133 ha. It feeds by ground source “Jaruwa”, seasonal forest fed streams and direct precipitation. The area houses legally protected bird ‘Great Hornbill’ and V several species of epiphytic orchids and evergreen species of trees.

The Raja Rani wetland supports 14 species of mammals The most common mammal species of this lake are the rhesus macaque, the golden jackal and the barking deer. Civets are observed only in this wetland.

Similarly, this lake and its dense surrounding forest have harbors 110 bird species. The wetland area is home to 45 species of epiphytic orchids, including 2 species of Eria that were reported as a new addition to the flora of Nepal.

  1. Jamunkhadi Daha

Jamunkhadi Daha is approximately 3 km from the Surunga Bazaar located on the East West Highway in Jhapa at an altitude of 110m. The Jaman Daha has some fissures as a structure.

Several wild animals, including the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) ’a‘ Vulnerable ’species on the IUCN Red List and the Asian Rock Python and legally protected by the Nepalese government are kept in congested cages for public exhibition.

Jamun Daha supports more than ten species of mammals. The most common mammal species in this area are the golden jackal, the wild boar and the rhesus macaque. The lake and nearby areas have been harbor a good number of residential and breeding bird species.

Similarly, it was known that six species of herpeto were found in the lake and the surrounding habitat. The Jamuna Daha area has a sal forest. The associates are Saj (Terminalia alata), Karam (Adina cordifolia), Sindure (Mallotus phillipensis), Rajbriskhya (Cassia fistula).

  1. Rani tal

This wetland is located in the terai of extreme southwestern Nepal, 12 km SSE of Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur district, which covers an area of ​​220 ha. It is a small permanent lake of fresh water and associated grass swamps, surrounded by forest.

The lake is located near the eastern border of the Royal Sukia Phanta Wildlife Reserve, and is the only lake in the Reserve.

The vegetation of the lake includes Pistia sp; the surrounding marshes are dominated by tall grasses Saccharum spontaneum, Vetiveria zizanioides, Eulaliopsis binata, Heteron contoratus, Arundo donax and Phragmites karka. In a region of the Sal forest (Shorea robusta), with thick lianas and dense undergrowth under a canopy of the heavy forest.

The lake is visited by a wide variety of water birds, both residents and migratory species. The lake is home to a small population of Marsh Crocodile or Mugger Crocodylus palustris, and 14 species of fish have been recorded, including Tor tor, Ghanna spp and Mystus spp.

The Wildlife Reserve has a rich mammal fauna that includes tiger, smooth- coated otter, hispida Hare (Panthera tigris, Lutra perspicillata, Caprolagus hispidus), and Nepal’s largest remaining population of swamp deer Cervus duvauceli (at least 900 in 1976). The Pigmy Hog Sus salvanius in danger of extinction may also be present.

  1. Karnali River wetland

It is located in western Terai, 50 km northwest of Nepalganj, Bardia district that covers the area of ​​9,000 ha. A stretch of the Karnali River on a wide alluvial plain at the base of the Himalayan foothills in southwestern Nepal.

The river is wide and shallow, with numerous canals, sandbanks and stony islands, some associated riverine forests and seasonally flooded grassland in adjacent areas.

Seasonally flooded riverine forest dominated by Acacia catechu and Dalbergia sissoo; mixed moist riverine forest dominated by Ficus glomerata, Eugenia jambolana and Mallotus philippinensis; seasonally flooded grasslands dominated by Saccharum spontaneum and the shrub Tamarix dioica.

In a region of the Sal forest (Shorea robusta) with grassland and savanna areas. The Karnali River supports one of the largest populations of Gharial Gavialis gangeticus which is in danger of extinction in Nepal.

The river is characterized by its Mahseer Tor tor, a premier sports fish. The smooth- coated Otter Lutra perspicillata is common, and Ganges Dolphin Platanista gangetica has been reported.

  1. Titi tal

It is located 2.5 km east of the Kali Gandaki River, 55 km northwest of Pokhara, central Nepal, covering an area of ​​6 ha. It is a small freshwater lake and associated swamps in the upper drainage of the Narayani River, in the main Himalayan range. The nearby peaks rise to more than 8,150m.

A dense growth of swamp grasses and other aquatic plants covers more than half of the surface of lake. Anas platyrhynchos was found nesting in 1970 and 1977, constituting the only recent breeding records of this species in Nepal.

  1. Taudaha Lake

It is located at the southern edge of the Kathmandu Valley, seven km southwest of Kathmandu, covering an area of ​​4 ha. It is a freshwater pond surrounded by rice paddies, at the southern end of the Kathmandu valley.

The pond has a maximum depth of six meters; It is fed by several intermittent streams from adjacent rice terraces, and drains through a permanent outlet. The water level increases during the rainy season in summer and recedes during winter. A pH value of 7.8 has been recorded.

39 species of aquatic plants are recorded, the dominant species include Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphoides vindicum, Trapa quadrispinosa and species of Lemna, Wolfia, Spirogyra and Ulothrix. The surrounding areas are under cultivation for rice.

The lake is home to a rich fish fauna, and 36 taxa of macro-invertebrates, mainly Oligochaeta, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and Mollusca are recoded. Some waterfowl have been reported in the past (for example, Tachybaptus ruficollis and Porzana pusilla), but very few birds have been present in recent years due to the greater disturbance.

  1. Bagmati River and Gaon Basant ponds

It is located near Chobar Gorge, 5-10 km south of Kathmandu. Like, Basant Gaon Ponds covers the area of 25 ha. There is a group of small water storage tanks in Basant Gaon, and a five-kilometer stretch of the Bagmati River south of Basant Gaon.

The river is shallow and flows rapidly, with large banks of mud, sand and pebbles. Unlike much of the Bagmati River in other parts of the Kathmandu Valley, this stretch is relatively undisturbed.

There is very little aquatic vegetation. Adjacent areas are under cultivation, mainly for rice. The ponds and the river provide a staging and wintering area for a wide variety of migrants ducks and shorebirds.

The numbers are generally small, but it is believed that if disturbances could be reduced, the area could contain many more birds. The most common shorebirds include Vanellus vanellus, V. duvaucelii, V. cinereus, V. indicus, Charadrius dubius, C. alexandrinus, Tringa nebularia, T. ochropus, T. glareola, Actitis hypoleucos, Gallinago gallinago and Calidris temminckii.

The Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii is regular in the autumn passage, and Himantopus himantopus and Charadrius placidus have been recorded.

  1. Shivapuri watershed

It is located on the north side of the Kathmandu Valley, 10 km north of Kathmandu. As, the Reserve covers the area of ​​14,487 ha; area of Wetland is unknown.

Fast-flowing rivers and streams in the Shivapuri watershed and Wildlife Reserve on the southern slopes of Shivapuri Dada, the second highest hill on the edge of the Kathmandu Valley.

Around 50% of the watershed is still covered by forests with associations of oaks and pines dominated by Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. lanata, Pinus roxburghii and P. wallichiana.

Shivapuri is notable for its population of the relict Himalayan dragonfly Epiophlebia laidlawi, a threatened species restricted to the Himalayas between the Kathmandu Valley and Darjeeling.

The dragonfly depends on clear, cold and rapidly flowing streams in steep forested valleys at altitudes from 2,100 to 2,700m, a habitat type under threat throughout the eastern Himalayas.

  1. Wetlands in Langtang National Park

It is located near the Tibetan border in north-central Nepal, 60 km northeast of Kathmandu. As, the national park covers the area of ​​171,000 ha; as area of wetland is unknown.

Numerous small lakes and ponds, and a river that flows rapidly with gravel banks, at high altitude in Langtang National Park in the central Himalayan region of Nepal.

The main lakes are the three Gosainkunda lakes (Gosainkunda, Bhairavkunda and Sarawastikunda) at the source of the Trisuli River (4,380 m), the two Naukund lakes at 3,750 m and the five Panch Pokhari lakes, also at 3,750 m. Gosainkunda, Bhairavkunda and the Naukund lakes are deep and oligotrophic lakes with crystal clear turquoise-blue waters and no aquatic macro-vegetation.

The main river is the Langtang Khola, which originates from the 20 km long Langtang Glacier. The river descends rapidly through a wide glacial valley, and in the Kyanjin region, at 3,800 m, there are large gravel banks and numerous gravel islands.

Most lakes do not have aquatic vegetation apart from phytoplankton and some algae, but seasonal ponds near the Langtang village support a wide variety of emerging plants. There is some Salix scrub in the Langtang Khola valley, and Myricara rosea grows on the riverside gravels and flats.

Most lakes are surrounded by alpine meadows. Schizothorax plagiostomus (snow trout) is found in the lower reaches of the Langtang Khola, but the lakes lack fish and maintain very little animal life. Very few water birds have been recorded in the lakes, despite numerous visits to some of the lakes by birdwatchers.

This is the highest breeding concentration of Ibisbills known in Nepal. The birds arrive in April and leave again in September.

  1. Lakes in Sagarmatha National Park

It is located on the southern slope of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest), in the Solu-Khumbu district of the Sagarmatha area, in northeastern Nepal, near the border with Tibet, covering the area of ​​500 hectares of lakes.

Seventeen small glacial lakes in the upper catchment of Dudh Kosi and its tributaries, on the southern slope of Mount Everest. All are oligotrophic lakes devoid of macro-vegetation, and with clear blue water.

The lakes are devoid of macro vegetation. There are some dwarf rhododendrons, other low alpine shrubs and grasses around the lower lakes (for example, Longponga and Toujung), but most of the surrounding areas are bare rock, moraine and scree.

The lakes are devoid of fish and support very little animal life of any kind. Small quantities of water birds of a variety of species have been recorded in Gyoko lakes, particularly at the height of spring migration in May.

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