This post is about weather and climate of Hilly Region of Nepal. It is a part of introduction of hilly region of Nepal and some relates to physical aspect of hilly region of Nepal. It helps you for some biological aspect of hilly region of Nepal.
Weather and Climate of hilly region of Nepal
Climate refers to the annual profiles of a given location in terms of temperature and precipitation. In contrast, weather means the physical properties of atmosphere at any given moment, i.e., 1 day, at a given location, in particular temperature, moisture, barometric pressure and surface winds. Climate determines a number of ecologically important patterns. It has direct link with the landform processes such as weathering and erosion. It has crucial role in formation of soils. The life existence in a particular area is also depends on the climate of that area. Climate permits the different types of plant to grow and interact with the other physical environments. Climate also forms cyclic relation between water, energy and nutrients through the food chain for a particular region.
The Himalaya, containing the highest mountains, the highest passes and the deepest gorges on earth and with some of the world’s largest and most violently erosive rivers, is a region liable to frequent earthquakes, landslips and floods. The region is dissected by alternating ranges of hill and mountain interspersed with stretches of plains and huge water courses. In heavy floods during the monsoon, villages are washed away bridges and ferries carried way and low-lying crops destroyed Sometimes earthquakes and avalanches compound the distasted Entire hillsides may break away and slide down in one piece leaving an immense scar of raw earth on the side of the hill and a tangle of wreckage in the valley.
Weather and Climate of hilly region of Nepal
Weather and climate of Hilly Region of Nepal, let’s talk something about temperature. Mountains display no uniformity in temperature or even the kind of weather they may swirl about their peaks; their location, elevation and topography determine this. But all have climates which bear little resemblance to those of their surrounding lowlands. By combining differences in rainfall with differences in temperature and humidity, a single mountain range can produce a bewildering variety of climates Thus, as one ascends from the Terai or jungle in the lower valleys to the tree-line and the snow-line in the Himalaya, one passes over the whole range of the world’s climate from tropical jungles to frozen slopes. For every 1000m the mean temperature falls by as much as 6 degree C; however, the temperature varies greatly from place to place and from hour to hour, so thin is the air and so intense the radiation from the sun at higher altitudes. During the day one can suffer from sun stroke and at night from acute frostbite. Freezing nights are followed by days of bitter piercing winds, but in areas sheltered from strong winds the sun is often pleasantly warm. The sun blisters the skin at high altitudes, although little heat is felt because the ultraviolet radiation is not filtered out by the this almost unlimited.
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Mountains also produce the most astonishing contrast living conditions that may be found anywhere on the globe harsh almost beyond belief. They impose problems of sun in the face of. strong winds, of cold with large fluctuation temperature, of floods, of rain or none at all, of rocky soil, of snow and ice, blizzards and avalanches, and atmosphere that contains little oxygen but transmits a great of radiation. Furthermore, conditions are not the same of mountains in the same range or on two mountains on opera sides of the same valley or at different levels of the mountain.
Local relief gives rise to some peculiar thermal effect mountainous regions. An east-facing slope has warm monsoon and cool afternoons, and a west-facing slope the opera Pronounced inversions in temperature are observed when cooled by radiation at night flows down slopes to the both a valley and settles in the hollows. In calm weather undisturbed by winds, the stagnant air in the hollows is many degrees more than at stations several hundred meters up, and the hollow filled with fog when there is sufficient moisture. In the mountain with the rising sun, the currents melt the mists and calm moisture upwards to form small cumulus or stratocism clouds. The clouds disappear at night and at high level nights are fine and dry, and the best views are obtained early morning. Generally the diurnal range of temperature higher at the bottom of valleys and lower on convex tops, than over level terrain.
Weather and Climate of Mountain Region of Nepal
Another feature is the extreme dryness over mountains. As a consequence, evaporation is rapid and skin becomes parched and cracked. There are other features in an extended mountain range which create the climate. The mountain or katabolic wind flows at night for upper slopes into the valleys or gorges, while the anabatic wing flow towards the highland during the day accompanied by the formation of cumulus clouds are mountains or escarpments and slopes. These winds can develop over a single mountain or valley or even an individual slope; such large-scale wind systems generally occur between the Himalayan massif and the plain to the south. When isolation is strong in summer and the nights are very short, the anabatic winds, if developed on a large scale, continue throughout the night at the foot-hills of the Himalaya. In the neighborhood of snow fields and glaciers, the katabolic wind, which flows with considerable force, is strengthened by the cooling of the air through contact with ice and snow.
A local wind blowing through mountain gaps is sometimes observed in mountainous area. Under favorable conditions, such winds can attain considerable speed and emerge as a jet with standing eddies on the downwind side. Such winds are observed at Banihal in winter, when the stratification of air] stable and the general direction of the wind are westerly.
Another hilly region phenomenon is the lee waves or standing waves that occur on the leeward side of a mountain, depending on the shape and the size of the obstacle, the speed profile of the wind, the stability of the atmosphere, etc. The existence of these waves is at times revealed by certain characteristic cloud forms. Lee waves and eddies are aviation hazards is mountainous terrain.
Hot, dry winds, akin to the Alpine, that blow down valleys raising temperatures by several degrees, is another important feature in hilly regions.
Topography is the most immediate cause of precipitations in the mountains. The precipitation rapidly decreases westwards; thus at Darjeeling, near the border of Sikkim, the rainfall is over 3000 mm in a year; at Simla, north of Delhi, it is about 1500 mm; at Leh in Kashmir it is only about 100 mm.