10 Most Venomous Snakes in Nepal
What is a Snake?
Snakes are basically limbless reptiles having the elongated body and covered with scales. The scales, forms, and structure of snakes differentiate one species of snake from another. Snakes are different from mammals and birds in lots of ways. For ex, snakes are vertebrate animals having inner skeleton while birds and mammals are generally warm blooded animals. Snakes are cold blooded and they regulate body temperature by choosing the appropriate place for them. This is the reason snakes are sensitive to weather and climatic changes.
Species of snakes
It is recorded that there are 3400 different types or species of snakes on earth. Found in almost all continent, snakes have conquered the divergent environment from the Himalayas to the reefs of the Pacific Ocean. They usually spend their lives in water, holes or in trees or canopy. Snakes have a significant role in the natural ecosystem and agro ecosystem. For farmers, snakes are useful as they help to control the population by eating the rats and mice that otherwise damage crops or eat food.
Which snakes are dangerous for humans?
Most of the species of snake are usually harmless for humans as they have no venom at all. Such snakes usually kill their prey by tightening or by persistent it to the ground while some simply swallow it alive. Whereas, there are many other species of snakes that produce secretion in their oral glands that help them to stop, kill and digest their prey. These oral secretions are usually called venom as well. Such snakes are usually dangerous for humans as their bite inject the poisonous venom on the body of the human leaving them intoxicated. And, if no treatment is available, the intoxication can lead a person to lose life as well.
Snake species found in Nepal
So for, it is recorded that there 89 different species of snakes found in Nepal. Among all, the snakes are not venomous. What the biologist have surveyed is that there are 17 species of snakes that are seen in Nepal and are considered to be extremely dangerous and venomous as they have the front flanged type of venom apparatus. These snakes are found in almost every part of Nepal. However, the kind of the snakes differs based on the location as well. mostly, snakes are seen in the low lands, agricultural lands that are near water sources. Similarly, in the hilly regions as well, various types of snakes are found. For example, Kraits are found in almost every part of Nepal where there are agricultural lands are water resources are nearby.
Below are listed 10 most venomous snakes that are found in Nepal. Most of the snake’s venom causes paralysis of the nervous system that leads to paralysis of the respiratory system and finally leads to the death of the victim as well. hence, these are supposed to be the dangerous snakes available in Nepal as well.
10 Most Venomous Snakes in Nepal
BungarisBungaroids are also popularly known as Himalayan Krait in English, and PahadiKaret, HimaliKaret in the Nepali language. These snakes are usually 1-1.5 m long. The distinguishing factor of this snake is that it is normally shiny black or brownish black or gray body with the tail very narrow having yellow or white rings. It should be predictable that it is alike other Krait venoms that cause progressive of the nervous system, and also lead to respiratory paralysis. If not treated in time, it can lead to death due to asphyxia as well. Similarly, it might also cause systemic damage of muscles, acute renal failure as well as hyperkalemia.
Other names of BungarusCaeruleus include Common Krait in English, Seto-kaloChureSarpa, as well as only ChureSarpa in Nepali.
These snakes are Usually 0.8-1.2 m long, with hatchlings about 25 cm. The distinguishing factor about this snake is that it has very narrow white bands and also has shiny black to the dark brown tail as well as body. Its belly is uniformly light and has tail tip almost pointed. Upon bite of this snake, their venom of this snake leads to abdominal pain and simultaneously cause progressive paralysis of the nervous system. This simultaneously leads to respiratory paralysis and death due to asphyxia. Early signs include abdominal pain; paralysis, headache, convulsions and all these usually start with the infection in the eyelid. Early abetted airing and management of wound are vital and life-saving.
Other names include Banded Krait (English), , Kanthamala, LaxmiSanp, Raja Sanp, Maher, GwalaSarpa, AhiriniyaSanp (Nepali)Gangawari, Panhelo-kaloChureSarpa as well.
These snakes are usually 1-2 m with hatchling of about 30-35 cm. the major distinguishing factor about these snakes is it has broad black and light rings on its tail as well as body. In adults, light rings are found which cream in Juveniles that are extended completely across their bodies. The tail of such snakes are blunt and are sometimes mistaken for a second head as well.
Upon bite of this snake, their venom of this snake leads to abdominal pain and simultaneously cause progressive paralysis of the nervous system. This simultaneously leads to respiratory paralysis and death due to asphyxia. Early signs include abdominal pain; paralysis, headache, convulsions and all these usually start with the infection in the eyelid. Early abetted airing and management of wound are vital and life-saving.
Other names include Black Krait (English) also Sano KaloKaret in Nepali
These snakes are usually 60-90 cm long and are rarely more than 1 m. The major distinguishing factor in this snakes is they have shiny black and brownish black or brown head tail and body. It has no bands or lines as well. it has whitish anterior body and head as well. The venom of this snakes are dangerous, however, not much studied. Having said that, the venom causes burning sensation over the entire body, vomiting, abdominal pain, ptosis as well as progressive neuro muscular paralysis that eventually leads to respiratory distress as well as death.
Other names of this snake are Greater Black Krait in English and similarly, it is known as ThuloKaloKaret in Nepali.
These snakes are usually 70-90 cm long however are rarely up to 1.3 m. The major distinguishing factor in these snakes is they have Shiny black, dark chocolate as well as brownish head, body as well as tail. Their venom of this snake leads to abdominal pain and simultaneously cause progressive paralysis of the nervous system. This simultaneously leads to respiratory paralysis and death due to asphyxia. Early signs include abdominal pain; paralysis, headache, convulsions and all these usually start with the infection in the eyelid. Early abetted airing and management of wound are vital and life-saving.
Other names include Wall’s Krait in English and BairiKaret, Gadaich in Nepali
These snakes are usually 1-1.3 m long having hatchlings of about 25-30 cm. These snakes have shiny black, gray or brownish head, tail and body with a lot of narrow white and yellowish bands. These snakes are found in Nepal in various hilly as well as Terai region. The venom of walli has not been studied much so far. However, biting by this species has recorded to cause a clinical syndrome that is very similar to that of Calculus’s envenoming. Similarly, in addition to paralysis of the peripheral nervous system that leads to respiratory paralysis simultaneously, patients are also recorded to have cardiac complications and different degree of myoglobinuria.
Other names include Common Cobra and Spectacled Cobra in English. Similarly, in Nepal, it is known as Gorman, and nag.
These snakes are usually 1.5-1.6 m long with hatchlings about 25-30 cm. Major identifying characteristics of these snakes are they have Light brown, black ground color with sight shaped mark on the neck. Similarly, these have two spots that are black on the lower side of their throat and 2 -3 broad black cross bars on the belly. These are usually found in the lowlands and lower mountains of Nepal. Similarly, these are also found in Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh where there are grasslands, forests, or in residential areas as well. Envenoming by naja grounds local swelling at the bitten part and in a different number of situations they also cause paralysis of the peripheral nervous system that simultaneously leads to respiratory paralysis and finally to death.
Other names of this snake include-mon ocellate Cobra and Monocled Cobra in English. Similarly, it is known as Goman and Paniyadarad in Nepali.
These snakes are usually 1.5-1.6 m long and have hatchlings about 25-35 cm. These snakes are Light brown in color and have o- shaped mark on its neck and have two spots on lower throat. Similarly, it has around 3 broad black crossbars on his belly. These snakes are expected to be found through the plains and lower mountains of eastern and central Nepal up to at least 3200 m. similarly, these are found in Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, and different other nations and mostly live in grasslands, agricultural lands, and residential areas that are close to water. Envenoming by kaouthiagroundsswelling at the bitten part. Similarly, it can lead to paralysis, and respiratory paralysis and finally death of the patient.
Another name of this snake is King Cobra in English and, Raj Goman in Nepali.
These snakes are usually 3-3.5 m long that have hatchlings about 40-60 cm. These snakes are also the largest snakes in the world with shiny black, tan or gray color. The major distinguishing characteristics of this snake is that it has yellowish or narrow white body, tail in almost all adult snakes. These snakes are expected to be found through the plains and lower mountains of eastern and central Nepal up to at least 3200 m. similarly, these are found in Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, and different other nations and mostly live in grasslands, agricultural lands, and residential areas that are close to water.
Envenoming bynaja grounds local swelling at the bitten part and in a different number of situations they also cause paralysis of the peripheral nervous system that simultaneously leads to respiratory paralysis and finally to death. So, this is regarded as one of the most dangerous snakes in the world.
- Sinomicrurus macclellandi uni virgatus McClelland´s Coral Snake (English), Mugasanp, Karkat Nag (Nepali)
These snakes are also known as Carol snake in English and Karkat Nag in Nepali.These snakes are usually 50-80 cm long. These have to Head that is black above with a wide white as well yellow or cream colored stripe behind the eyes. These snakes are generally found in lowlands and lower mountains from central, western to Eastern Nepal. Other than in Nepal, these are frequently seen in north eastern Indian states. The venom of this snakes has not been studied so far, however, based on the available information, it is seen that it causes severe neurotoxic envenoming finally leading to respiratory paralysis.
These are few of the snakes whose venom are dangerous for any humans or living organisms. Other than this, there are many other dangerous and venomous snakes that are found in Nepal. In rural Nepal, one of the most neglected public health problems is snake bite where up to 162 per 100000 people die from snake bite. So, every person should be well aware of the snake bite, its clinical features and ways to reduce the injury. For this, proper education regarding the prevention of Snake Bite is very important from the community or even national level.