5. Mountain Makalu – Top 10 Highest Mountain (Peak) in The World With Pictures
It is the fifth highest peak in the world and 4th highest mountain of the world. It has the height of 8,485 meters. It is situated in the Mahalangur Himalayas on the border of Nepal and China. It is at the height of 19 km southeast of Everest. Makalu is such as isolated peak which is Four- sided pyramid. It has two peaks. Kangchungtse is situated in the north-west of the main summit in about 3 Km. The base of this mountain also consists of the Himalayan glacier which is situated in the Sankhuwasabha district of Nepal.
The valley of Makalu lies entirely in Makalu Barun National park. Makalu Barun National park consists of wide variety of vegetation which varies depending on the moisture of seasons, temperature and covering the elevation and snows by snow. Forests which are below the height of 2,000m are affected strongly by subsistence agriculture. Above the height of 2,000m forests are extensive due to cold, humid climate which eventually suppresses agricultural activity. Forests consist of five bioclimatic zones. Also, the area consists of an extensive diversity of animals. There are 43 species of Reptiles, 16 species of Amphibian, 315 species of Butterflies, 78 species of fish. As well, 440 species birds and 88 species of Mammals were recorded.
American expedition led by Rilet Keegan first climbed the mountain in 1954. They attempted the climbing of southeast ridge but they couldn’t go further and returned back at 7,100m due to storms. In the spring season, Sir Edmund Hillary also attempted to climb the mountain but he couldn’t due to injuries and illness. French reconnaissance expedition attempted the first ascent of the summit Kangchungste in 1954. The mountain Makalu was first summited by Lionel Terray and jean couzyled by Jean Franco, G. Magnone, and Sardar Gyaltsen Norbu on May 15, 1955, through the north face as well northeast ridge through the saddle between Kangchungtse.
Various ascents are done with the times which are noted below;
- In 1955, Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of France reached the North face of Northeast ridge.
- In 23rd may 1970, Japanese expedition led by Y.Ozaki and A. Tanaka attempted the climbing of Southeast ridge.
- In May 1971; Frenchmen B. Mellet and Y. Seigneur climbed the west pillar route.
- In 1975; An expedition led by Ales Kunaver reached the peak at the southern side and became the first Slovens to reach the summit of Eight- thousand. Also, Marjan Manfred successfully reached the summit without the supplement of oxygen.
- In 1976; Czechoslovak expedition completed the south pillar route which goes via the south buttress to Makalu south. The route hasn’t been used today.
- In 1980, John Roskelley completed the second ascent of the west pillar. James States, Kim Momb, and Chris Kopczynski climbed the mountain without the support of Sherpa climber and also without bottled oxygen.
- On 15th October 1981; Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu through the route of north-western side and northern crest. Kukuczka also climbed the mountain without the supplement oxygen.
- On 10th October 1982; Polish climber Andrzej Czok reached the summit through the west face till 8000m.
- On April 27, 1988; Marc batard from France climbed to the summit through the western Buttress in one day.
- In 1989; Pierre Beghin directed the south face via the Yugoslav route.
- In 1990; Kitty Calhoun ascended the summit being the first female to climb the mountain via the western pillar route.
- In 1997; the west face was conquered by Russian expedition led by Sergey Efimoy after the seven failed attempts.
- On January 27, 2006, the mountaineer Jean-Christophe lafaille from France disappeared during trying to make first winter ascent.
- On May 11, 2008, Waldemar Niclevicz and Irivan Burda from Brazil reached the top of Makalu.
- On February 9, 2009, Simone Moro and Kazakh Denis Urubko from Italy ascended the peak in the winter season for the first time. Also, it was the Nepali final eight-thousander to be climbed in the winter season.
6. Cho Oyu; – The 6th Highest Mountain (Peak) in The World
Cho Oyu is the world sixes tallest mountain of the world and it is the Nepal’s fifth mountain. Its height is 8,188 meters or 26,864 ft. above sea level. It is derived from the Tibetan word which means Turquoise Goddess. It is located on the border of Nepal and China. It is the western major mountain of the Khumbu Sub-section of Mahalangur Himalaya which is 20 Km west from Everest. Nangpa La which is 5,716 meter in height is a glaciated pass situated a few kilometers west of Mountain is the main trading route between Khumbu’s Sherpas and Tibetans. This route separates the Rolwaling Himalayas and Khumbu. As Cho Oyu mountain is considered as the easiest peak to climb among 8,000 meters peaks due to the proximity of Nangpa La pass and the routes of slopes of the northwest ridge.
Cho Oyu was measured as the height of 8,150m. During the time of 1st ascent, the mountain was considered as the 7th highest peak in the world. But in 1984, the height of the mountain was re-measured and the height of 8,201 meters was estimated and it was considered as the world 6th highest peak. In 1996, Government of Nepal survey department with the Finnish Meteorological Institute did the new measurement and they put the height of 8,188 meters which was the similar height mentioned by Edmund Hillary in his 1955 Book titled as High Adventures.
In 1952, an expedition led by the joint Himalayan committee of Great Britain attempted first to climb the mountain but they were returned back due to technical difficulties and avalanche danger. The mountain was first climbed by Austrian expedition led by Herbert Tichy, Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama via the north-west ridge in 19th October 1954. It is the fifth mountain of 8000 meters to be climbed after Annapurna in 1950, Mount Everest in 1953, Nanga Parbat in 1953 and Mount K2in 1954. Various attempts were done to reach the summit of this mountain. Some attempt is being successful and some are unsuccessful. So, here is the information about various events took place with time.
- In 1958 An Indian expedition secondly ascended the peak. Also, Pasang Dawa Lama reached the summit for the second time but he died. So, it is the first death on the Cho Oyu mountain.
- In 1959, Four members of International women’s expedition killed in an avalanche.
- In 1964, German expedition completed the controversial ascent as there is an absence of proof of reaching the peak. At the height of 7,600m, Two climbers were died by exhaustion in camp 4.
- In 1978, Edi Koblmuller and Alois Furtner from Austria reached the summit of the mountain through the extremely difficult south-east face.
- In 1983, Reinhold Messner succeeded to reach the summit in his fourth attempt.
- In 1985, Maciej Pawlikowski reached the summit in the winter for the first time.
- On November 2, 1988, Slovenian expedition reached the summit through the North face which hasn’t which was never been climbed.
- In 13th May 1994, Carlos Carsolio made a world record to ascent from the base camp to Summit being Ascended in 18 hours 45 minutes.
- In1994, Yasushi Yamanoi made the first solo ascent via the south-west face.
- In 2007; Indian Expedition led by Abhilekh Singh Virdi made the second ascent.
- In2011, Ronald Naar a Dutch climber died after becoming unwell at the height of 8,000m