States or Province in Nepal
Location: Nepal is located in the Himalayan Mountains of South Asia, with India extended to the east, south, and west and China onto the north.
Size: Nepal’s total area is 147,181 square kilometers which include 0.3% of the Asia land and 0.03% of the world land.
Land Boundaries: Nepal’s northern boundary is 1,236 kilometers in Length which are shared with China, and the remaining other borders about 1,690 kilometers) are shared with India.
Disputed Territory: Nepal and China do not have any territorial disputes, but Nepal and India have several disputes over territory for example; possession of the75-square-kilometer area of Kalapani, which is further being complex by its proximity along the Chinese border. The boundary of the Maha Kali River which is also called as Sarda River in India, with with the responsibility for preservation, development and distribution of resources like sand, stone, fishes etc. as well hydropower and water resources with possession of about 209 hectares of land after land cutoff made up of the Mechi River.
Length of Coastline: there is no any coastal area on Nepal because Nepal is landlocked country.
Time Zone: Nepal is 5:45 hours ahead of that of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Nepal is a federal democratic republic. The political system is based on the constitution, which was promulgated in September 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 (2007). The constitution establishes a framework for a prime minister as the chief executive, a bicameral parliament, and seven provinces.
The Constituent Assembly, which had been charged under the interim constitution with bringing Nepal a constitution, transformed into the country’s parliament upon the promulgation of the constitution. In November 2013 the country held national elections for the Constituent Assembly, which domestic and international observers characterized as credible, free, and fair.
The Constitution of Nepal, 2072 BS has the provision of seven provinces in Nepal. These provinces have been created on the basis of their geography, resources and economic efficiency. However, they may differ in their strength from one to another. The name of proposed states or province in Nepal are as follows:
Execution of Federalism in Nepal
Article 4’s sub-article 1 in part 1 of The Constitution of Nepal 2072 declares that Nepal is a Federal Democratic Republican State. A brief description of the seven provinces created in the constitution follows next.
Province 1 lies in the easternmost part of Nepal. This province stretches from the Terai in the south to the Himalayas in the north. The highest and the third highest mountain peaks of the world, Mt. Everest (8848 m) and Mt. Kanchanjungha (8586 m) lies here. Other notable peaks are Lhotse (8516m), Makalu (8,485 meters), Choyu (8201m), Nuptse (7555m) and Pumori (7161m). It contains the subtropical evergreen forest to the tundra vegetation. Province 1 possesses the possibility of agriculture, hydro-electricity, and tourism.
The province has 14 hydro-electricity projects in operation. This province has 727 industries. The province has Kanchanjungha Conservation Area, Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve, Makalu Barun National Park, and Sagarmatha National Park. The religious sites like Pathivara and Halesi fall in the same province. Other important heritages are Maipokhari of Ham, Milke area, Tinjure, etc.
The major trade centers of the province are Biratnagar, Dhulabari, Dharan, Ham, Okhaldhunga, Gaighat, etc. In the same ways, Kakarbhitta and Pashupatinagar are the main trade transits to India and Olangchunggola is the trade transit to China. The province can be prosperous if the natural resources are utilized to the fullest.
As of 20 September 2015, Nepal is divided into atlas provinces and 75 districts.
Province No. 1
Name of districts in province or states no. 1 of Nepal
1 – Bhojpur District
2 – Dhankuta District
3 – Ilam District
4 – Jhapa District
5 – Khotang District
6 – Morang District
7 – Okhaldhunga District
8 – Panchthar District
9 – Sankhuwasabha District
10 – Solukhumbu District
11 – Sunsari District
12 – Taplejung District
13 – Terhathum District
14 – Udayapur District
The province 2 elongates only in the Terai region with the huge potentiality of agricultural production. It is the smallest province of Nepal. The majority of the population is Madhesi. However, the population density is the highest in this region.
The province is very important from the perspectives of agriculture, industry, and tourism with the least possibility of hydro-electricity development But the region is highly significant in terms of business since it has a direct link with Indian borders. Rajbiraj, Mirchaiya, Janakpur, Jaleshwor, Malangwa. Chandranigahapur and Simara are the major trade centers of the province. Janakpurdham, Gadhimai, and Chhinnamasta are the main religious site of the province.
Hence, this province can collect good revenue from customs duty. It has Parsa Wildlife Reserve, a part of Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve.
Province No. 2
Name of districts in province or states no. 2 of Nepal
1 – Bara District
2 – Dhanusha District
3 – Mahottari District
4 – Parsa District
5 – Rautahat District
6 – Saptari District
7 – Sarlahi District
8 – Siraha District
The province is located between Tibet (China) in the north and province 2 in the south. It is the third smallest province of Nepal. Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal which lies in this province, The number of industries is 979 and has the highest number of hydro-electricity project. In total 38 hydro-electricity projects are running here with the biggest Upper Tamakoshi Hydro-electricity Project.
The province has three types of physical features. The major mountain peaks are Mt. Ganesh (7163 m), Langtang (7205 m), Mt. Gaurishankar (7134 m), etc. This is the most developed province.
The Tamakoshi, the Indrawati, the Trishuli, the Kamala and the Bagmati rivers flow through this province. People are involved in agriculture, industry, and service. The major trade centers of this province are Kathmandu, Hetauda, Chitwan, Banepa, Sindhuli Gadi and Tatopani. The major Nepal-China trade transit – Tatopani lies here. Toureits come to visit Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Nagarkot, Dhulikhel, Chitwan, and so on. Here are Langtang National Park, Shivapuri National Park and Chitwan National Park, and Gaurishankar Conservation area.
Province No. 3
Name of districts in the province or states no. 3 of Nepal
1 – Bhaktapur District
2 – Chitwan District
3 – Dhading District
4 – Dolakha District
5 – Kathmandu District
6 – Kavrepalanchok District
7 – Lalitpur District
8 – Makwanpur District
9 – Nuwakot District
10 – Ramechhap District
11 – Rasuwa District
12 – Sindhuli District
13 – Sindhupalchok District
The province 4 lies’ between China in the north and province 5 in the south. As others, the Himalayan region lies in the north. The province has the good potentiality of hydro-electricity generation with existing 29 hydro-electricity projects. Sufficient lakes and perennial rivers can be a good advantage for this.
The major mountain peaks are Annapurna I ( 8091 m), Dhaulagiri ( 8176 m), Manaslu (8163 m), Himalchuli (7893 m) and Machhapuchchhre (6993 m). The Hilly region is in the middle and the Terai is in the south of this province. The province is drained by the tributaries
of the river Gandaki ( Kali Gandaki. Budhi Gandaki, Seti Gandaki, Marsyangdi, Madi, Daraundi, and Seti). This region is rich in lakes. Fewa, Rupa, Begnas, Khaste, Dipang, and Tilicho are the major lakes.
The people of this province are involved in agriculture, tourism, industry, services as well as foreign employment. This province collects the highest remittance. The major food crops grown in this province are paddy, maize, millet, wheat, etc.
The cash crops include sugarcane, coffee, apple, oranges, etc. The province is very good for tourism industry with the sufficient attraction for mountaineering, trekking, rafting and paragliding centers. Tourists visit Annapurna Conservation Area, Ghale Gaun, Upper Mustang. Kagbeni, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, and Pokhara for eco-tourism.
Province No. 4
Name of districts in province or states no. 4 of Nepal
1 – Baglung District (eastern part)
2 – Gorkha District
3 – Kaski District
4 – Lamjung District
5 – Manang District
6 – Mustang District
7 – Myagdi District
8 – Nawalparasi District (east of BardaghatSusta)
9 – Parbat District
10 – Syangja District
11 – Tanahun District
Tangbe village, Mustang District
Province 5 lies in the Hilly region and plain land of the Terai. It is bordered by India in the south and province 4, 7 and 6 in the east, west, and north respectively. Bardiya National Park and Banke National Parks cover a considerable part of the province.
The rivers Karnali, Bheri, Rapti, and Babai drain the province. Sikta irrigation project and Babai irrigation project have benefited from the agricultural production. The land is very fertile. The major crops are paddy, mustard, wheat, maize, cotton, etc.
The availability of abundant natural resources, religious sites like Lumbini, Bageshwori, Thakurdwara, Resunga, and Swargadwari are the major tourist attractions. The main trade centers are Nepalgunj, Kohalpur, Tulsipur, and Gulariya.
Province No. 5
Name of districts in the province or states no. 5 of Nepal
1 – Arghakhanchi District*
2 – Baglung District (western part)
3 – Banke District
4 – Bardiya District
5 – Dang Deukhuri District
6 – Gulmi District*
7 – Kapilvastu District
8 – Nawalparasi District (west of BardaghatSusta)
9 – Palpa District*
10 – Pyuthan District*
11 – Rolpa District*
12 – Rukum District (eastern part)*
13 – Rupandehi District
The province lies in the western part of Nepal. This is the biggest province in size. The bordering provinces are province 7 in the west, province 5 in the south and east, a part of province 4 in the east and China in the north. The province does not cover any fertile land of the plain Terai.
The province is the poorest among other and is developmentally challenged, too. This region has complex topography. Mt. Kanjirowa (6612 m), Mt. Kanti (6859 m), Mt. Gorakh (6088 m) and Mt. Changla (6563 m) are remarkable peaks of the province. Rara National Park and Shey- Foksundo National park have been delineated in the province.
The biggest lake Rara falls here. Other main attractions of the province are Badimalika, Deuti Bajai and Chandannath temples, Bulbule and Shey-Foksundo lakes, etc.
The major trade centers of the province are Birendranagar, Gumgadhi, Khalanga, Dunai, etc. The province is fertile for fruits like apples, oranges, pomegranate, walnut, etc. which are traded all over the country. Besides Humla and Dolpa, all other districts have an access to roads but they are very narrow, just graveled and risky.
Surkhet, Dunai and Simikot, and Jumla are some of the airports of the province. Maize, barley, wheat, millet, and paddy are the staple food crops. Similarly, mustard, soybean and hot chili are some of the noteworthy cash crops of this province. The paddy crop is known as ‘Jumli Marsi’ is the very popular breed of paddy which is produced in Jumla.
Province No. 6
Name of districts in province or states no. 6 of Nepal
1 – Dailekh District
2 – Dolpa District
3 – Humla District
4 – Jajarkot District
5 – Jumla District
6 – Kalikot District
7 – Mugu District
8 – Rukum District (western part)
9 – Salyan District
10 – Surkhet District
The province is located in the western-most part of Nepal. There are three geographical features in this province: the Himalayan in the north, the Hilly in the middle and the Terai in the south. The river Kamali flows in the east and river Mahakali drains the border in the west.
It borders India in the west as well as south and Tibet (China) in the north. Thus, the region has the good potentiality of external trade. It is the second smallest province of Nepal. Mt. API (7132 m.) and Mt. Saipal(7025m)? Mt.
Yokapahad (6644m), Mt. Lassa (6189m) are the major Mountain peaks of this province. Khaptad and Ghodaghodi lakes fall in the province. Khaptad National Park and Shuklaphanta National Park conserve a lot of living and Non-living things.
Api Nampa Conservation Area lies in the same province. The major trade centers of this province are Dhangadhi, Dadeldhura, Mahendranagar, and Dipayal. The principal crops grown in this province are wheat, mustard, maize, and cotton.
The province is remote and developmental challenged. Some 44% of people in the Far West Hills and 49% in the Himalayan districts live below the poverty line. The province has limited access to basic services. It has complex socio-economic structures and there is both widespread gender- and caste-based discriminations.
Likewise, this province is badly affected by Dowry Pratha, Deuki Pratha, Chhaupadi Pratha, etc. In addition to this, other traditional systems associated with the province, its culture and customs also pose impediments for overall development.
Province No. 7
Name of districts in the province or states no. 7 of Nepal
1 – Achham District
2 – Baitadi District
3 – Bajhang District
4 – Bajura District
5 – Dadeldhura District
6 – Darchula District
7 – Doti District
8 – Kailali District
9 – Kanchanpur District
* – denotes the districts that are proposed to be re-allocated to Province No. 4 and Province No. 6.
Emailed by the Writer R.K. Timilsina