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Soil in Nepal
About soil in Nepal:
Nepal is a country of different landforms. The altitude of Nepal increases from south to north. According to the difference in height and landform, soil also differs from place to place. The soil is one of the important natural resources. It has great importance for the agricultural country like Nepal.
Terai region lies in the southern part of Nepal. Alluvial soil is found in this region. This type of soil is made by the deposition of the river. So it is mostly found in the river basin. This type of soil is very fertile and suitable to grow paddy, wheat, jute, sugarcane, tobacco and vegetables.
In the north of Terai region, there is the range of small hills extended from east to west. This is called the Chure hills. The land area around the south of Chure hills is called “Bhabar Pradesh”. This region is made up of stone, sand and soil. The soil of this region consists of small pieces of stones and sand. So the soil of this region is not suitable for agriculture. However, this region is favourable for the forest.
Different types of soils are found in the Hill region of Nepal like red soil, dry soil, sandy soil, etc. However most of the soils are formed by pieces of rocks, stones and sand. This type of soil is called Rocky-sandy soil. This type of soil is not suitable for agriculture. However potatoes, barley, Phaphar, millet, etc can be grown in this type of soil. Tea, coffee, cardamom and fruits also can grow in some part of this region.
The soil is made up of by different natural and biological elements. The soil is the basic element of earth which is solid. The soil is an important natural element which has direct relation between forest, climate, minerals and water resources. To form 1 cm soil in Earth it takes around 400 yrs. The soil is the major element for agriculture in which people of Nepal depend on . As Nepal is an agricultural country the importance of soil is high in Nepal.
Soil found in Nepal:
The valleys which lie in hill region like Kathmandu has different types of soil. The soil of Kathmandu valley is as fertile as the Alluvial soil. The soil found in this place is called Lacustrine soil. It is formed by / drying of lake water. This type of soil is suitable for growing paddy, wheat and varieties of vegetables. But this soil is mostly affected by insects.
Himalaya region lies in the northernmost part of our country. The soil of this region is formed by different rocks, sand and stone. The soil found in this region is called Debris soil. This type of soil is not suitable for growing crops. However, potatoes, phaphar, jau and fruits can grow here.
As Nepal is geographically diversified, the soil found are also : diversified. Mainly the soil found in Nepal are of 5 types which are as follows: Get classification or types of soil in Nepal.
Types of Soil in Nepal
1. Alluvial Soil: It is formed by a mixture of materials deposited by rivers and decayed vegetation.
- Found especially in Terai and River basins
- Calcium, Phosphorus, Potash and another mineral rich soil-
- Soil is very fertile
- Suitable for growing Paddy, Wheat, Jute, Oilseed, Tobacco and Sugarcane
2. Sandy Boulder Soil: It is made up of a mixture of sand, rocks and other rough loose particles deposited by the river.
- Mainly found in Bhabar Tract, Inner Terai and Chure Range.
- The ratio of Biological elements and Fertile soil is less in Sandy Boulder and the
fertility of these soil is very less. Water holding capacity of this soil is very less.
- Its difficult to irrigate and agriculture this soil.
- These soil’s maximum part is covered by forest.
- Sal, Sisso grows very well in this type of soil.
3. Red Brown Soil: The broken rocks mixes with decayed vegetation in Mahabharat range
and form a soil named Red brown Soil.
- As these soil have less iron it is of red-brown or yellow in colour.
- The deepness of the soil is less and nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium is also less.
- Fruits, Tea, Potato, Maize, Millet grows well here.
4. Lacustrine Soil: The soil made due to the dryness in.lakes of basins and valleys is lacustrine soil.
- The colour is black
- Best soil for agriculture
- Rice, Wheat, Vegetable grow well
- We can cultivate even in low rainfall in this soil.
- Kathmandu valley has this type of soil
5. Glacial soil: It is formed by boulders, sand and stone deposited by a glacier.
- It is found in base of inner Himalaya and main Himalaya
- Fertility of this soil is minimum as the climate is too cold and the deepness of the soil is less. Biological elements are also less.
- Maize, Potato, barley etc. grows well here.
Writer: Prakash Lamichhane.
This is article send by Prakash Lamichhane from Dang Ghorahi.