The fourteen days of ancestors, also known as Pitri Paksha in Nepali and commonly known as Shorah Shraddha, are a period of sixteen lunar days in which Hindus worship and honor their ancestors, especially through food offerings. Sohra Shraddha is also written as Sora Shraddha, Shora Shraddha or Shora Sharada. Sohra Shraddha is celebrated in Nepal and India.
This period (Sohra Shraddha) is also known as Pitri Pokkho, Kanagat, Jitiya, Mahalaya Paksha, and Apara Paksha. Since Shraddha and Tarpan are administered during this time, the Hindus consider it unfavorable.
Shorah Shraddha falls on the Hindu lunar month Bhadrapada (September – October), which begins on the day of the full moon (Purnima) and immediately after the Ganesh festival and ends on the day of the new moon with the beginning of the Hindu holy festival of Dashain.
During this time, although the older male family member delivers Tarpan to the previous three generations every day, a specific day is set for the Shraddha (depending on the day of death, based on the traditional Hindu calendar called patronage).
Legend has it that when the legendary donor Karna died in the epic battle of Mahabharat, his soul transcended to heaven, where he was offered gold and jewelry as food.
However, since he wanted real food, he went to ask the king of heaven Indra about it (in some legends, Indra is replaced by Yama, the Lord of Death). Indra then told him that Karna had only given gold and never a grain of food to his ancestors in Shraddha all his life.
Since Karna didn’t know who her ancestors were, she had never donated anything in her mind. To make up for this, Karna was allowed to return to Earth for 16 days to perform Shraddha and donate food and water in memory of her ancestors.
This 16-day period is now observed as Pitri Paksha or Shorah Shraddha.
It is done with the belief that this will ensure that your ancestor’s soul rests peacefully in heaven. In addition, the forgotten or lost annual shraddha can be performed during this time, and during this time, the purity of eating habits must be maintained, which means that people, especially those whose parents are dead, should be kept away from unclean foods. like meat, garlic. and onions, etc.
One day before Shraddha, Ekchhaki is performed when the children eat only one meal in the morning and generally eat roti from wheat flour, which is considered pure, at dinner, without vegetables with oil, spices or salt.
In addition, ancestors cooked in silver or copper containers and placed on a banana leaf or cups with dried leaves are offered menu items such as kheer, milk, rice, dal and spring bean vegetables. Dune or boots). The Hindus consider Pitri Paksha to be unfavorable because during the ceremony a death rite known as Shraddha or Tarpan was performed.
According to Hindu mythology, the souls of three previous generations of an ancestor lived in Pitri-Loka, an empire between heaven and earth. This kingdom is ruled by Yama, the god of death, who brings the soul of a dying man from Earth to Pitri-lok.
When a person of the next generation dies, the first generation goes to heaven and connects with God so that victims of Shraddha are not offered. Therefore, only the three generations in Pitri-lok receive shraddha rites, in which Yama plays an important role.
According to the sacred Hindu epics (Itihas), the sun enters the zodiac sign Virgo (Kanya) at the beginning of Pitri Paksha. Simultaneously with this moment, the spirits are believed to leave Pitri-Loka and live in the houses of their descendants for a month until the sun enters the next zodiac, the scorpion (Vrichchhika), and there is a full moon. Hindus are expected to appease ancestors in the first half of the dark fortnight.
However, Karna needed real food and asked Indra, Lord of Heaven, why he should serve gold as food. Karna said that since he did not know his ancestors, he never donated anything in his memory.
To compensate for this, Karna was allowed to return to Earth for a period of 16 days so that he could perform Shraddha and give him food and water. This period is known today as Pitri Paksha. In some legends, Yama replaces Indra.
Tithis in Sohra Shraddha
Malaya Paksha’s fifteen days consist of 15 Tithi (also called thithi). They are Pratipat, Dvitiya, Tritiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Shashti, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadasi, Dvadasi, Trayodasi, Chaturdashi, Amavasya (new moon). According to Hindu mythology, anyone who wishes to perform this Pitri Tarpan must do it on the same day that his ancestor died, within one of those fifteen days.
Why older son should have more responsibility in Sohra Shraddha?
Shraddha’s performance by a son during Pitri Paksha is considered mandatory by Hindus to ensure that the soul of the ancestor goes to heaven. In this context, Garuda Purana’s scripture says: “There is no redemption for a man without a son.”
The scriptures preach that the homeowner must appease the ancestors (Pitris) along with gods (Devas), spirits (Bhutas) and guests. Markandeya Purana’s writing says that if the ancestors are satisfied with the Shraddhas, they will give the actor health, prosperity, knowledge and longevity, and finally heaven and salvation (moksha).
Rites of Soraha shraddha
Performing the Sarvapitri Amavasya rites can also compensate for a neglected or neglected annual shraddha ceremony, which should ideally coincide with the date of the deceased’s death.
According to Sharma, the ceremony plays a central role in the concept of lineage. Shraddha includes offerings to three previous generations, reciting their names, and to the ancestors of the mythical line (gotra).
In this way, a person knows the names of six generations (three previous generations, his and the two subsequent generations, his children and grandchildren) in his life and confirms the relationship.
There are exceptions to the lunar day rule. Special days are provided for people who have died in a certain way or who had a certain state of life. Chautha Bharani and Bharani Panchami, the fourth and fifth lunar days, respectively, are awarded to those who died in the past year.
Avidhava navami (“Ninth Widower”), the ninth lunar day, is for married women who died before their husbands. The widowers invite the Brahmane guests to their wife’s Shraddha. The twelfth day of the moon is for children and ascetics who had given up worldly joys.
The fourteenth day is known as Ghata Chaturdashi or Ghayala Chaturdashi and is reserved for people who have been killed by firearms, who have been at war or have suffered violent deaths.
Starting day of Sohra Shraddha by lunar day
Sarvapitri amavasya (“All Fathers New Moon Day”) is intended for all ancestors, regardless of the lunar day on which they died. It is the most important day of Pitri Paksha.
Those who have forgotten to do Shraddha can do it on this day. A shraddha ritual performed that day is considered as fruitful as one performed in the holy city of Gaya, which is considered a special place to perform the rite and celebrate a mass during the Pitri-Paksha period. Mahalaya is the day that the goddess Durga probably came down to earth.
Bengalis traditionally wake up to Mahalaya early in the morning to recite hymns from the Devi Mahatmyam (Chandi) script. Offerings to ancestors are made in houses and in puja mandaps (temporary shrines).
Matamaha (“father of the mother”) or Dauhitra (“daughter of the daughter”) also mark the first day of the month Ashvin and the beginning of the brilliant fortnight. It is intended for the maternal grandson of the late grandfather.
The ritual also takes place on the day of the ancestor’s death. Shraddha is only performed at noon, usually on the banks of a river or lake, or internally. Families can also make pilgrimages to places like Varanasi and Gaya to do shraddha.
Sohra Shraddha is important that Shraddha be performed by the son, usually the eldest, or a male relative of the paternal branch of the family, which is limited to the previous three generations. In Sarvapitri amavasya or matamaha, the son can offer the daughter Shraddha on the maternal side of her family when a male heir is absent from his mother’s family.
Some castes only do shraddha for a generation. Before performing the rite, the male should have undergone a sacred thread ceremony. Since the ceremony is considered unfavorable due to its connection to death, the Kutch royal family, king, or heir to the throne are prohibited from performing Shraddha.
Fooding on shora sharada
Ancestral menu items are generally cooked in silver or copper jars and are usually placed on a banana leaf or dry leaf cups. The food should contain kheer (a type of sweet rice and milk, rice, dal (lentils), the vegetables of spring beans.
Shraddha procedure and process
The man who does the shraddha should take a cleansing bath and wear a dhoti beforehand. He wears a Kush ring. Then the ancestors are called to live in the ring.
The shraddha includes Pinda-Daan, a sacrifice to the ancestors of the Pindas (cooked rice balls and barley flour mixed with butter and black sesame seeds), which is accompanied by the release of water from the hand. This is followed by the worship of Vishnu in the form of Kush, a gold image or a Shaligram stone and Yama.
The menu will be cooked specifically for the rooftop ceremony. The offer is considered accepted when a crow arrives and devours the food; The bird is believed to be a messenger from Yama or the spirit of the ancestors.
A cow and a dog are also fed, and food is also offered to Brahmin priests. Once the ancestors (crow) and the Brahmans have eaten, family members can begin to have lunch. Sora Shraddha, also known as Pitri Paksha or Mahalaya, is a 16-day period on the Hindu calendar in which people pay homage to their ancestors or Pitri.
According to Hindu mythology, the souls of three previous generations of ancestors live in a kingdom between heaven and earth known as Pitri Lok. This kingdom is overseen by the god of death, Yama, who brings the spirit of a dying man from Earth to Pitri Lok. Offerings to the priest during the ceremony are believed to reach the three generations trapped in Pitri Lok.
It is often believed that when a fourth-generation person dies, the first generation goes to heaven and unites with God. Therefore, only the three generations in Pitri Lok receive shraddha rites, in which Yama plays an important role.
But why did this Sohra Shraddha ritual begin? To find out, I speak to some priests who tell me a story about Karna who died in the epic Mahabharata war. After his death, his soul transcended to heaven, where he was offered gold and jewelry as food.
Karna was surprised and did not understand why they did not offer royal food, so she asked Indra, Lord of Heaven, why gold was served instead of food. Indra told Karna that he had donated gold all his life, but that he had never donated food on behalf of his ancestors.
Karna was unaware of this and told Indra that she wanted to make it up to him. Indra agreed with this and Karna would have to return to Earth for a period of 16 days in order to perform the Shraddha rituals and give them food and water.
In this context, the practice of Sora Shraddha has been passed down from generation to generation, and its meaning has been preserved. Usually, the older son does the bidding while the other sons participate. This is believed to ensure that the souls of your ancestor’s rest in heaven in peace.
Day before Soraha shraddha (Ekchaaki)
Ekchhaki is performed one day before Shraddha. Then, the children of the family only eat one meal per day, which is usually made of roti and vegetables without oil, spices or salt. The next day, the shraddha practitioner should take a cleansing bath before the ritual begins.
Thereafter, the shraddha is performed with the bare torso, since the position of the sacred thread that Janai carried with him must be changed several times during the ceremony.
Shraddha includes Pinda-Daan, a sacrifice to Pinda’s ancestors (cooked rice balls or barley flour mixed with ghee and black sesame). The prayers follow Lord Vishnu and Yama, the god of death. According to Hindu mythology, anyone who wants to perform this ritual must do so with the same Tithe from which one of their ancestors died.
During this time, the oldest male member of the family gives tarpan (water) to the previous three generations daily, depending on the day of death according to the traditional Hindu calendar called Patro.
One of the priests who performed the rituals for a family says: “It is obligatory for the shradha. It also mentions that the ancestors, when satisfied with the Shraddhas, who perform them will give them health, prosperity, knowledge and longevity and, ultimately, heaven and salvation.
The end of Mahalaya marks the beginning of Dashain, the largest and most enthusiastically celebrated Hindu festival in the world.
Who Should Perform Shradh Vidhi?
There is a great similarity between the vibrations of the pitars and their closest descendants. When a certain subtle body is in pain, its progeny also experiences these disturbing vibrations.
For this reason, the son has to perform rites such as the annual Shradh Vidhi and Shradh, which are performed at Pitrupaksha for the sake of Pitars.
The vibrations of the son and the vibrations of the pitar are similar and therefore it is easy for the Pitars to pick up the tarpan offered by the son during Shradh Vidhi. Hindu Dharma leaves no room for an excuse for someone who does not perform shradh due to the absence of a particular person!
Can daughter involve in Sohra Shraddha?
Son (including one whose thread ceremony has not been performed), daughter, grandson, great-grandson, wife, son of daughter (if he is one of the heirs to the property), royal brother, nephew, son of cousin, father, mother, daughter-in-law, children older and younger sisters, maternal uncle, Sapinda individual (each of seven generations and belonging to the same family line), Samanodak individual (each belonging to the seven generations and belonging to the same Gotra domain (same family), student, Upadhyay (brahmins), Friend, son-in-law of the deceased: in this order, if the first is not available, the next in the series can perform Shradh.
In the case of a common family, the head of the family (the eldest of the family or the one responsible for caring for everyone) must do all the shradhs.
Hindu Dharma has reached an agreement that shradh can be performed for each deceased to ensure that the individual has momentum. In the sacred text of Dharmasindhu it was mentioned: “If a deceased person has no one to perform shradh, it is the duty of the king to do that person’s shradh.”
How women perform this Shora Sharad?
Some brahmans today (who perform Shradh rites) deny women their consent to perform Shradh Vidhi. This is because in the early days the threading ceremony was performed on women.
Today, this practice has been discontinued in all classes, and therefore the practice of performing Shradh Vidhi by women has been discontinued. However, in emergency situations, it is better if no one is available to perform Shradh Vidhi for a woman to do than not at all.
When should shradh be performed?
In general, Tithing is considered adequate to carry out Shradh: Amavasya, 12 Sankrantis in one-year, solar eclipses, Yugadi and Manvadi Tithis (Tithis of the beginning of the era and Manvantar), Ardhodayadiparva (a measure of time), date of death, arrival of Shrotriya Brahmins etc.
Hindu dharma leaves no room for an excuse to assert that the Shradh was not carried out in a certain period of time due to impracticality! Generally, shradh should be performed every year on the tenth of the individual’s death (and not on the calendar date in English).
If the Tithi is not known and only the month is known, shradh can be performed in this month’s Amavasya. If the Tithi and the month are not known, shradh can be performed in Amavasya del mes Magha or Margashirsha. Shradh for the pitars should be done every day. It can be easily done through Tarpana.
Some Tithi Which are Important:
The deity of Brahma is the first Tithe and is called Kalpadi Tithi. Chaitra Shukla Pratipada, Panchami, Vaishakha Shukla Trutiya, Kartik Shukla Saptami, Margashirsha Shukla Navami, Magha Shukla Trayodashi and Phalgun Krushna Trutiya are the Kalpadi Tithis (the herb that defines the calpa scale – time measurement). The books state that if the jerks are carried out in these clans, then the bitters are satisfied.
Akshayya Trutiya marks the beginning of Krutayug (Satyayug, the first in the cycle of four eras). Rituals like Shradh, Tarpana, etc. for Petarat and donations on this day become eternal; Therefore, either Shradh (served without Pinda rendering) or at least Tarbana for Betarat should run on this day.
In Garudpurana it is mentioned that once donations are made on behalf of the deceased on this day, Yamadoot (messengers of the god Yama) does not cause problems for the bittars.
Two weeks of darkness in the Hindu lunar month of Hyderabad is called “Pitrupaksha”. This week is very dear to Betar. If you run a homo saprophic analyzer this week, they will remain satisfied throughout the year.
If your rag is performed when the moon star Harnari is in position during Pitrupaksha, then it gives the same benefit by performing the rag at the holy place in Jaya.
According to the Scriptures, Bharni Shradh should be done after the annual Shradh. SaPindikarana Shradh is performed before the annual Shradh. If Bharni Shradh is executed after that, he helps the deceased get out of the pretayoni (types of the dead).
This is the name given to Amavasya in Pitrupaksha (in the month of Bahadrabad). On this day, shrad is performed for all households in the family.
Even if Shradh is not implemented every day during the year or in other tenths of Pitrupaksha, Shradh should be mandatory on this day because it is the last day of Pitrupaksha.
Where should a Vidhi be done?
The terrain with a southern slope is suitable for pulling. A place stained with cowhide, so it is also a place without insects, animals or sinister things, ideal for a pull.
Shradh should be performed in a forest, a sacred place or, as far as possible, on the ground floor of the artist’s house. When Shradh is performed in the artist’s house, the merit earned is earned eight times by performing it in a holy place.
It is not forbidden to pull in places that no one owns, such as forests, mountains, river banks or large lakes, pilgrimage sites, temples, etc.
Ideal places to make the shraddha and its importance
An eternal location is obtained after death if Shradh is implemented on the banks of sacred rivers such as Ganga, Saraswati, Yamuna, Payoshni, etc .; On the beachfront at places of pilgrimage such as Prabhastirth, Pushkartirth, Prayag, Kashi, Gaya, Matrugaya, Kurukshetra, Gangadwar and others; In forests like Naimishkshetra, Dharmaranya, Dhenukaranya, etc. Near the Brahmasarovar and Mahasarovar lakes; In Akshayyavat, Mahakshetra (place-names); And in the shade of the gardens of Tulsi (holy basil plant) and trees of hope.
The importance of the Hajjaya Center in the context of Sharadah by presenting Pinda in Pretashila (Shila means stone) in Gaya, the state of the body is destroyed and the soul goes to Pitrulok.
Places where the performance of sraddha is prohibited.
The mat should not be carried out in a stable, elephant shed and horse stable, on a stone bench, and in a waterbed. If performed in such places, houses destroy rituals of homelessness.
During a malaria attack, one produces an additional beta, which attracts mosquitoes. People realized that malaria would destroy half the population, so they had to find a solution to the fast. To reduce fever, they found that a diet rich in dairy products reduced the overproduction of bile.
In this way, yeast and other dishes made with milk became popular during the journey. Generally, people cannot tolerate kindness every day. In fact, the dead do not benefit from this ritual at all. But people are so greedy that they are not willing to give a single penny for charity.
That is why the Shradh festival is set up for them to spend their money indirectly and feed people to honor their late father. In this way, people were convinced. If a stubborn person like me doesn’t follow the tradition, the people around him will complain and pressure him to do so.
Throughout the sixteen days of homeless people, starting on the full moon, families took turns feeding everyone and this is how eating well for fifteen days became common practice.
This tradition was made appropriate because the responsibility for preparing meals fell equally on everyone, and therefore people were not opposed.
At that time, people would have said that if a sick person lived within sixteen days of Shradh, they would be fortunate enough to receive in Navratri (Festival of the Adoration of the Gods within the Nine Days of the Shining Half of the months of Chaitra and Ashvin)!
I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.