Awareness regarding suicide have to be provided to the students because suicide cannot be the solution. They have to be made aware that killing themselves may relieve them but leave their family and friends in a deep sorrow. Before understanding how to prevent suicide, reasons behind suicide have to be comprehended which can be as follows:
Reasons for the Suicide of Students – Why Teenagers Attempt to Suicide in Nepal
1. Lack of social ability:
Once upon a time, people used to gather around the fire and talk with each other. They used to lighten their heart by organizing the plays and children used to play with each other. Students used to involve in group studies. But now the time has come when the adult are involved in their own work. Children and teenagers, students indulge in social networking sites rather than to spend time with the real peers.
Instead of having and keeping the contact with the real friends, they drown themselves in imaginary friends whose identity are fake. They are involved in getting more likes and comments in their Facebook rather than to receive the real applaud from their cool students and friends and teachers. They like to play the video games than to play with the actual friends.
In short, the students today have now been finding comfort in the virtual world and getting away from the real world. When their world gets interrupted, they get lonely, irritated. They get angry too soon. They lack the patience to make an effort to make friends. As the saying goes, empty mind is the habit of the devil.
The thought of getting away from the world soon comes in their mind and they attempt for suicide. Instead of making efforts, they choose the easy way out and find the way to just end their life. Another reason for their suicide is their parents less attention and time. Today, both parents work to meet the financial needs. The society has so changed that parents rather provide children with the materialistic facility rather than spending time and listening to the problems of their kids.
They leave their children in the hands of some stranger rather than to take care by themselves. That is the main reason why children of both sexes are going through sexual abuse at the hands of the strangers and their own relatives. All these stress and tension just accumulate in their own heart which they want to share with their parents but they can’t.
Again,they tend to find the easy way out. So they commit suicide. Any diversion from the routine of their life is another reason for which the students commit suicide. Parents prefer to admit their children in the hotel than to keep them in their home with them. lakes of time from their parents when they want their love and attention is another reason why they commit suicide so easily.
2. Unfulfilled demand:
With the knowledge, education and social awareness, parents tend to keep their family small. So there are fewer children in the home may be one or two. As the number of children has decreased, their demands have increased. Demands for more toys and computerized video games.
As they grow, more demands for more pocket money, more demands for the gadget like iPhone, laptop or iPad, bike and scooter. Then comes the demand for foreign education because they don’t want to stay in the country but want to have a foreign degree because of the lack of education in the country, or because of the peer pressure.
When the demands have not been fulfilled, they again seek for the way by which they can manipulate their parents so they can get what they have asked for. When the manipulation doesn’t work, they commit suicide as if suicide is the solution to their problems.
3. Educational pressure:
Now the small class student suicide has started stirring Nepalese society. Whenever it was dreadful and the more pressures given to students, such incidents increase. In the name of better and modern education methods, schools and colleges burden students with projects, and assignments, more homework, more tests, and exam. Students don’t even get the time for their recreation like sports or exercise.
Schools and private colleges in order to earn money and reputation, admit more number of students. There’s only one teacher for a minimum of 40 to 50 students in a class. So students get more competition and more pressure in order to stand out in the crowd. Because of the pressure and lack of their ability to cope with the pressure, they often commit suicide. Another factor is the failure they have to face.
Often due to the pressure of the exams, the students may not get the result they expected. Sometimes, even after their 100% effort, they fail. The SLC graduate who don’t pass their exams suicide which is not the new news for us. Pressure from parents to perform well in exams can affect a child’s mental health too. Constant pressure from parents from their children to obtain 90% marks in the exams is common.
Especially they want their children to attain and perform well in the major subjects like maths and science. Almost all the parents want to see their child be an engineer or doctor. There are very fewer parents who want to understand the real interest of their children. They don’t want their children to take arts or education as their major subject. Which often lead to mental health problems for the children. When they can’t cope with the pressure, they suicide.
4. Higher expectations:
Many teenage suicides occur among educated and wealthy families nowadays. This points to a disturbing fact that the youngsters who are from comfortable family and well-educated parents often are more prone to commit suicide than the ones from the lower class. The rapid development, industrialization, and globalization of the society have changed our lives and have hanged out expectations too.
Parents are no longer satisfied with their children who go to school and obtain the average scores. They push their children to excel in almost all they do in school. The race and the competition begins immediately when the child goes to play school. This race continues for ten to twelve years till they are in school.
Not oy the parents but the teachers also are the ones who put too much pressure on the students to perform better. Often, in the Nepalese education system, students are taught to read and write like the parrot. They learn by rote. College life then takes its own toll. The college life and the subjects they chose are the preparation for life and for jobs.
So they feel much more pressure. T is is the most important transitional phase of the youngsters which when dictated by parents and society to what they should do, and what they should not. Or choose the course and the career that can earn them big money. If they made the choice with a resemblance to the dictation, they made a good choice and rewarded.
But if they choose another career like arts, painting then they are rejected and demotivated. One example is that of Gautam Buddha. He was the son of the king. But he didn’t want to be the king bit wanted to change the people’s lives. Which was not approved by his parents so he ran away from home. Many youngsters who have the courage to pursue what they want often do the same. They ran away but not all have the courage.
Even if they have the desire, the lack of the courage and want for the approval from parents and society fall under depression and eventually suicide. Society has set the certain rules and norms especially in the developing country like Nepal where they don’t allow the youngsters to break the rules and follow their heart in relation to their career, ambition, and goals.
The expectations are not always from the parents and society. But the students expect from themselves as well. Often raised and trained with the norms, the students set the goal for themselves. They expect themselves to excel in sports, sciences, arts and everything they do. They expect themselves to be popular among their friends as well. When they can’t achieve what they want. They seek for the easiest route and search for the ways to kill themselves and escape from all these pressure and expectations.
5. Relationship failures:
Most adults can often recall their breakup of a romantic relationship as the most traumatic event of their young lives. Research conducted has shown that the failure in the romantic relationship is often the case for mental, emotional and psychological stress amongst the youngsters leading to their suicide. Attraction to the opposite sex and starting the romantic relationship is common among teenagers.
And the duration of the relationship to be short is also common. But at the time when they are young, puberty developing, and the body going through the hormonal change and then falling for somebody can be a very exciting phase of their life. It’s common for the teenagers to stay alone in the room, drown themselves in the imaginative world, spend less time with parents and rebel for what they believe in and decide for themselves with their own wisdom are normal.
Falling for someone attractive is also common. Acceptance of his approach, acceptance of his love and proposal can make him reach a new height. While the rejection of his love can lead him to depression and stress. Similarly, to be in a relationship when they don’t even understand what a commitment is is another cause for the suicide. Often due to lack of knowledge and proper wisdom, the relationship breaks within six months.
Some may take it lightly while some may have some serious influence on their mind. The youngsters in an attempt to impress his companion and win her or him back, cut the wrist or ingest some poison. At the time, the attraction they feel becomes the no. 1 priority in their life. When that fails, they think their life is over.
At the time, parents need to comprehend and try to be the companion of their children than to be the parents. They need to counsel them and advice them as a friend. In the lack of proper counseling and guidance, the youngsters often commit suicide.
Addiction and suicide have a very complicated relationship with each other. Often the drug or alcohol addiction or any other type of addiction greatly increase the risk of suicide while the tendency for suicide causes the risk of addiction. Often, students and youngsters because of the immense pressure from parents, teachers, society or the stress from the relationship breakups or due to the peer pressure tend to try new stuff which relief them from pain and pressure.
This new stuff may be smoking marijuana, or alcohol or even other drugs and narcotics. What they don’t understand is that the abusive use of these substances can lead them to depend on them forever thereby damaging their relationship with their family, friends that can often lead to suicide. These substances can impact the judgment ability of the youngsters. When children don’t feel comfortable talking to parents, they’ll seek for some other ways to solve their problems.
As a result, they fall for some unsafe behavior and begin experimenting with drugs starting with the thought of using just for once. Soon they will be tied in the web of drug addiction. This addiction to drugs or alcohol cause serious damage to the central nervous system and can disrupt emotional, neurobiological and psychological mechanisms in adolescents. These substances can cause anxiety and panic attacks among teenagers.
Likewise I, they can also be the cause of causing many mental illnesses like mood swings and disorder, lack of decision-making ability. All these can lead to suicide by the youngsters when they are under the influence of any drugs or alcohol. It is believed that when someone is under the drugs and alcohol influence, they can do things that they have thought impossible to do while they are in a normal state.
The addicted youngsters can become impulsive. Once sober, they may feel ashamed and guilty. But once they try the substances again, they can again try for killing themselves. So the students especially if they are under the distress and pressure abuse drugs and alcohol can attempt for suicide than those who are not under the influence.
7. Lack of opportunities:
The school period is the pre-period of preparing the children for their future. The college period is the major time period focus in preparation for life goals and future. When the youngsters reach the college, they have high expectations and hope from the society. See, not only the society expects from the students but the students also expect from society.
Such as the society which yields so much pressure on the students to study more, choose to pick the prestigious profession like doctor or engineer or accountant. The students fulfill the expectations of the society with their own expectations to get the reward for their effort to fulfill the expectations of the society. I.e. the students also want the reward in form of good jobs, scholarships for further study in reputed University.
When their hope and expectations are not fulfilled, the students tend to be depressed that eventually need to suicide. After college or during the study in the college, students want to be independent especially financially. At the end of the college, they want to pursue the career which they chose. But in vain, not all the students be able.to get the jobs they want. The time is competitive, the society is competitive.
There’s a lack of good jobs and opportunities in the country. For good dream jobs, one should need either higher advanced degrees or recommendation from some resources. If both are lacking, it’s a dream to get the job. The enthusiasm, hope and the energy that has filled the youngsters will eventually die after some tiring gap of time. This causes the anxiety, mood disorder and depression. The lack of financial stability and independence cause the youngsters to seek the way for their escape.
Numerous researches are being conducted on suicide to find out the answer to the question WHY? Not always the anxiety and stress can be the cause for the suicide. Yes, the depression and stress release a certain chemical which triggers the brain to conduct the suicide but there can be other causes as well.
The recent researches have shown that the abnormal distribution of GABA the chemical found in the brain is one of the triggering element for originating the suicidal thoughts. The production of these chemicals is greatly influenced by the environment. The global warming and change in ecology have influenced more in the development of abnormal hormones and chemical in the body.
The effects can be seen physically like the premature whitening of hair, short heights, premature wrinkling of the skin etc. People especially youngsters who have more or less GABA chemical production in their brains tend to attempt suicide more in comparison to the ones who have the normal formation of this chemical.
Likewise, the study has shown that the babies which are born with low weight or which are born prematurely are more prone to suicide violently when they reach the young age or the teenage age. The other cause can be the stressful womb environment for the fetus. If the pregnant mother is under stress, the fetus brain produces low serotonin.
The brains which have low serotonin level tends to develop the suicidal thoughts more. Similarly, if the children were sick and have undergone chronic inflammatory reaction of the body. In such case, the brain produces quinolinic acid more which can be the cause for arising the suicidal thoughts. In short, the biological imbalance has also been the cause for higher suicide rate Among the youngsters.
9. Financial crisis:
The suicidal tendency is higher among the students coming from the lower economic and financial background than those who are from the well to do families. The well to do children have everything provided to them. They live in a comfortable home environment while those coming from.the low and poor economic background have to struggle from the very young age for even the basic necessities of their life.
Some students have to work and earn for their home and education. Which can lead them to the hands of some dangerous strangers or they even go to some uncanny profession? Some.children may get abused by these adults in their work. All these can put a lot of pressure and tensions in the premature mind of the children. On top of that, often the children from poor economic background have parents who are less educated.
So they don’t understand the concept of a suicidal tendency amongst the children. They don’t know about lending the support and counseling to their children. Often, poor families have more children. Because if the more siblings, a child may feel left out and seek for the attention of the parents. This unfulfilled desire can be the cause for suicide among the youngsters and students.
In schools. and colleges, there’s a constant pressure of keeping up with the friends and peer groups. If one friend has the iPhone, he also wants the same. If one buys the hero Honda, he may want the same bike. Or else, he may feel left out of the group. Due to lack of finance, he may feel left out of the group. This is another cause why the students commit suicide.
10. Exposure to violence:
Violence to the children and youngsters can be in any form by anyone. It may be at their own home by their own parents or caregiver. It may be by their peers, teachers and school staffs in their school and college. Or, it may be at their workplace if they have a job. It can be in the form of online abuse or online bullying as well. All these can give rise to the suicidal thoughts among the children, students, and youngsters.
One of the common cause among the student’s suicide is bullying. Bullying is often conducted by the senior students or the ones who are superior physically or financially tormenting the weak. ones to obey whatever they tell them to do or say. The form of bullying includes physical, emotional, or online bullying. There can be sexting or posting the nude and obscene photos on the social sites.
All these types can be the major causes of the student’s suicide. The other problem can be the sexual violence by the peers in the school or college. Especially the girl students face the sexual abuse more than the male students often by their peers. Recent episode in sidha kura janata sanga have shown how a teenage girl has been sexually abused by a 54-year-old lecturer for several years.
They may lure the students at first to do what they want by giving them the question paper in advance or scoring them with higher marks in their respective subjects. The reason can be any but one thing is for sure that both the male and female students are abused sexually and violently in schools and colleges. Traumatization of the youngsters is even more if they have to face the violence in their own home at the hands of their own parents and caregiver.
Especially if one of the parents is alcoholic, or if the child has to see the constant fight between his or her parents or even if father often beat severely his child in the name of punishment are often the ones who have the thought of suicide. Kids who experience threats to their safety and security, who have a lack of support and nurturing at home even suffer from the destruction of a coping mechanism that they have. All these contribute to the suicide of the youngsters.
11. Mental health:
Mental health and illness is the topic that is regarded as the social stigma and is not talked freely and frankly by the people. But the mental illness is perfectly normal like the other physical sickness for which people seek help and ingest medicine. This concept and thinking are yet to be adopted by society.
Mental illness is neglected severely in society. But what they don’t notice is that the mental sickness if left untreated can be the major cause for the suicide of the youngsters. Due to the increasing lifestyle, family conflicts, fraud and loneliness, and modern lifestyle and race life, youngsters are fast approaching in the grip of schizophrenia.
Lack of awareness is also playing a bigger role in increasing the number. Strange voices in the ears, finding solitude, becoming angrier and suspect of unnecessary are some of the symptoms that signify schizophrenia. The disease occurring in 15 to 25 years is very different from common mental disorders.
The special thing is that in this disease the patient does not know that he is suffering from schizophrenia. In some cases, a sense of suicide in patients is also born. Many times it has also been seen that youth become so vulnerable in this disease, that they leave the food and water. They are afraid that anyone can give them the poison in it. The main cause of illness is an imbalance of the dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain, which is a kind of chemical.
Tension, confusion, hectic life, stray and unbearable incidents in life also increase the disease. In this disease, youth lose their ability to work. Suicide is associated with Depression and Impulsive Behavior. Long-term depression can be a suicide factor. Apart from these, there are many other reasons why any youngster can think of committing suicide. Like mental disorder, borderline personality disorder, chronic or physical disorders and the environment may also be a cause. Occasionally the risk of suicide increases with diseases like psychological disorders such as borderline personality disorder.
Even if the level of serotonin in the brain is low, then one may have the ability to commit suicide. Last year’s statistics of the Nepal police have suggested that 5924 people have committed suicide due to mental illness. The rate of suicide has increased by 13 percent in the past four years. This issue causes suicide to 12 to 14 in a day.
Because of the busy life and using the smartphones during the night have been the cause for mental illness. Apart from schizophrenia, Severe depression is also a cause for suicide among youngsters. Depression causes the youth to believe that there’s no hope for him. It often leads him to think that it is better if he dies, everyone would be better off without him. Likewise other psychotic illness like bipolar disorder, psychosis etc cause the youth to have the inner voice that commands him to destroy himself. Therefore, awareness for mental illness and that they can be treatable has to well spread in the society.
12. Lack of guidance and counseling:
Usually, private schools have appointed doctors or nurses for their students. They only concentrate on the physical health of the students whereas focus should be provided on their emotional health as well. Students struggle a lot in their studies, in sports or in any other fields. Schools and colleges are the places where they spend a lot of time.
So they should provide adequate knowledge and education regarding sexual desire, sexual needs, and abuses. These type of counseling should also be provided by the parents in the home. Lack of proper knowledge, guidance, counseling, and support can lead to suicide among youngsters.
Academic difficulties/poor grades/probation, Lack of motivation/difficulty concentration, Feeling anxious or stressed, Depression/thoughts of suicide, Sexual assault, Dating/domestic violence, Stalking, Past abuse or trauma, Relationship problems/break-ups, Questions about sexuality, Alcohol or drug use, Eating, weight/body image concerns, Coping with grief/loss, Managing anger, Lack of confidence/low self-esteem, Sleep disturbance, Feeling lonely/isolated, Perfectionism, Family problems, and Career/life choices are some of the areas where the students need counseling.
However, Counselling and guidance if given improperly can do more harm than good. The counseling can be harmful if given the wrong type to the wrong problem. It can make the students more depressed than before counseling. Therefore, recognition and analysis of the problem of the students have to be done properly before giving any kind of therapy or counseling.
Author: Ankur Pradhan