Rana Rule in Nepal History
After the Kot Parva in 1903 BS, Jung Bahadur Rana became the Commander-in-Chief. It was soon followed by another Parva called Bhandarkhal Parva. Jung Bahadur Rana captured all the state power and became the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief. He sent the junior Queen, Rajyalaxmi in exile and ousted Rajendra Bikram Shah and placed Surendra on the throne. He got the title of ‘Maharaja’ from the king. He made the king only a nominal head. The king delegated all his powers and authorities to him. He was authorized to carry out ‘pajani’, declare a war or make peace and sign treaties with any countries. Thus, he fully consolidated his position and became the de-facto ruler of Nepal.
Jung Bahadur established a roll of succession to his brothers. All the high-ranking government posts were reserved for the Ranas. All the state properties and important resources were captured by the Ranas. There was exploitation in every sector. People were deprived of the fundamental rights. There were intrigues and conspiracies to gain power among the Ranas also. The whole system was at the discretion of the Prime Minister. It was a one-man show. The country was quite isolated from the outside world.
Jung Bahadur Rana established the system of hereditary Rana Prime Ministership in Nepal. Jungbahadur secured the title of ‘Shree 3 Maharaja’. He passed the order of succession to his brothers. Under this rule, only the Ranas could become the Prime Ministers as per the succession lineage established. The King delegated all his powers and authorities to Jungbahadur. The Rana Prime Ministers ruled over Nepal for 104 years as the dictators enjoying unlimited powers and authorities.
After the untimely death of King Pratap Singh Shah, Nepal saw political instability. There were minor kings and worst ever conspiracies and intrigues in the courts of the Royal Palace. Jungbahadur exploited this fluid situation in his favor and founded Ranarchy.
About the Jung Bahadur Rana
Jung Bahadur’s father, Balnarasingh Kunwar was a body guard of King Rana Bahadur Shah. After the assassination of Rana Bahadur Shah, Bhimsen Thapa became the most powerful person in Nepal. Bhimsen Thapa was a very close relative of Balnarsingh Kunwar. This is how Jungbahadur had approached to the Royal Palace of Nepal.
After the downfall of Bhimsen Thapa, Jungbahadur had hard times. Both the father and son were dismissed. He was prepared to do anything to come back. He got the chance to be included in the hunting expedition of King Raj endra. He impressed the king by performing different feats of courage, bravery, and fearlessness. He was a clever power monger and could do anything. And, it so had happened that he assassinated his own maternal uncle, Mathbarsingh Thapa to win the favor of the queen and gain power. Thus, he secured his position into the power politics.
Such a despotic Rana rule lasted for 104 years. Here is some contribution for the nation these rulers in Rana regime provide to the public.
9 Rana Ruler in Nepal History
1. Jung Bahadur Rana (1846-1877 AD)
Jung Bahadur ruled for 31 years. During his rule, the first written Civil Code, MutukiAin (1910 BS) was introduced. It brought reform on the old penal system based on physical torture. It also granted parental property rights to lifelong unmarried women. Sati Pratha was discouraged. Durbar School was established and English education was introduced. He also established a letter press.
2. Ranoddip Singh (1877-1884 AD)
Ranoddip Singh succeeded Jung Bahadur. He ruled for 8 years. During his rule, Nepali Calendar was published for the first time in 1884 AD. He established Sanskrit Pathshala and a hostel.
3. Bir Shumsher (1884-1901 AD}
Bir Shumsher ruled for 16 years. He established Bir Hospital, Bir Library, and the Clock Tower. He built a suspension bridge at Kulekhani. He encouraged Sanskrit education. He built the present building of Durbar High School. He made provision of supplying drinking water to Kathmandu and Bhaktapur. He established Voidhyo Khana Ayurveda Medicine Centre).