If you are looking to improve the education system in your country, here are some problems you may encounter. One problem you may encounter is the outdated curriculum. It is time for Nepal to update its curriculum and create better schools.
This article discusses five common problems that you may encounter in the education system in Nepal. Read on to find out how to improve it! Let’s begin! Listed below are the five most significant problems that you may encounter in the education system in Nepal.
Education is a critical component of any society’s development. For several reasons, including lowering poverty, advancing social equality, and boosting economic growth, education has been seen as essential in Nepal. Being a developing nation, Nepal continues to face numerous social, economic, and political difficulties. Education is thought to be a key component of the solution to these problems.
By raising people’s living standards, education can help fight poverty. People can acquire the knowledge and skills they need through education to land better jobs, make more money, and become self-sufficient. Education is what makes an individual strong and independent. Despite the importance of education, the Nepalese education system has faced several challenges that have hampered its effectiveness.
A basic human right is an ability to access high-quality education, but Nepal’s educational system struggles with high dropout rates and a lack of schools, especially in rural areas. The Nepalese government has made an effort to address these issues by boosting education access and spending on infrastructure, but the issue still exists.
- Education System
- Education System in Nepal
- Problems of the Education System in Nepal
- Poor infrastructure and resources in schools
- Poor Quality of Education
- Inequality in Education System
- The issue with Examination System
- Lack of Vocational Education and Training
- Issues with Governance and Management
- What are the solutions to such problems?
- Un-updated Curriculum
- Lack of Practical Knowledge
- Students Migration Abroad
- Traditional Institutions
- Job Driven Teaching methods
This issue is made worse by the lack of qualified teachers and the scarcity of educational materials, leading to a learning environment that is unsuitable for many Nepalese children. Millions of children in Nepal are deprived of the chance to realize their full potential, which has profound effects on the development of the nation.
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the issues that are impeding the development of a strong and effective education system in Nepal. We hope that by identifying the challenges, we can raise awareness and inspire actions that will lead to the improvement of Nepal’s education system.
While the education system in Nepal is experiencing significant changes, there are still many challenges in the country. In 2017, the country was forced to transition from a unitary government to a federal one, which introduced new levels of government.
The central government has made most decisions addressing COVID-19, while local governments have lacked the resources to set their paths. Teachers have voiced frustrations that local governments waited for central government directives before taking action.
Public education is closely connected to other aspects of the state. The pace of economic development, the status of society, and the level of physical education all contribute to the quality of education. In Nepal, a significant amount of the national budget goes into education. The state spends significant amounts of money on strengthening classrooms and learning facilities and evaluating how well the system contributes to a country’s economic and social development.
Education System in Nepal
Public education is one of the most critical components of the state, and it is shaped by many factors, including political systems, the environment, and economic and social structures. In Nepal, an estimated 570,000 children aged five to twelve do not attend school, while only 50 percent of elementary-age children meet minimum academic achievement standards.
In addition, only 12 percent of children in the lowest income quintile meet developmentally appropriate levels of literacy and numeracy. In addition, fewer than half of all schools meet child-friendly standards, and only eleven percent of schools are earthquake-resistant.
Public schools in Nepal often receive lower-quality education than private schools. In rural and Terai areas, the quality of public education is even lower. This has created a huge challenge in strengthening public schools and managing private ones. The constitution places education as a central pillar of newly-formed provinces and assigns primary responsibility for educating children. In addition, the constitution also guarantees free education up to the secondary level. Local governments are also responsible for secondary education.
Problems of the Education System in Nepal
After the devastating earthquakes, Nepal’s education system was left in ruins. Fortunately, it is now being rebuilt. The goal is to make it better than it was before. But how can the education system improve? The first step is recognizing the causes of inequity. Inequitable educational opportunities lead to low educational standards, low morale, and increased crime. A recent documentary examines the education system in Nepal.
In Nepal, public education institutions face many challenges, including low enrollment, lack of resources, and gender-based exclusion. The resulting lockdown has created a responsibility for academic institutions to turn on virtual media. It also forced them to stick to pre-announced academic calendars.
The earthquake has triggered a transition phase from a traditional system to a modern one. Schools and educational institutions have been busy with policy formulation, building infrastructure, and finding new ways to teach online. But there was not enough planning to develop a digital educational system.
The main problem facing the education sector in Nepal is keeping young children in school. Even though Nepal has made huge strides in education over the past two decades, there are still many challenges. Uneven socio-economic conditions and limited technological infrastructure still contribute to the high level of illiteracy. Inequitable educational policies and practices are one of the reasons for illiteracy. But Nepal is striving to improve its education system by raising its enrolment rates.
Poor infrastructure and resources in schools
In Nepal’s education system, inadequate infrastructure and resources in schools pose a significant challenge. Students struggle to concentrate on their studies when there aren’t adequate classrooms, furniture, or sanitation facilities, and a lack of hygiene can lead to health problems.
Such is the case of colleges and schools not only in rural areas but also in most city areas. Even if there are any such benefits or facilities for students, they are damaged and unmanaged. The process of renovation and reconstruction takes decades to complete. Furthermore, teaching materials such as textbooks, computers, and laboratory equipment are in short supply, making it difficult for students to obtain a comprehensive education.
Loads of budget every year is spent on basic books and copies however the simplest of books and copies are expensive making education unaffordable which leads to the education sector being an extensively commercialized sector born out of self-interest.
As a result, many students are unable to perform to their full potential, and their educational options are limited. In actuality, the problem is that students, teachers, parents, and all the related people are getting more and more adapted to this sort of education system and the facilities provided by educational institutes. Moreover, the resources that we often talk highly about are only available in a handful of colleges and schools in the country.
Poor Quality of Education
The entirety of education, meaning every aspect of the education system is faulty to make up for this part. In Nepal, a critical shortage of trained and qualified teachers is a pressing issue that requires immediate attention. Teachers play an important role in shaping students’ futures, and the quality of their education is dependent on the teachers’ competency and dedication.
The shortage of trained and qualified teachers in Nepal is due to several factors, including inadequate training and low pay, which have resulted in a teacher shortage, particularly in rural areas. The issue is particularly acute in remote areas, where teachers are hesitant to work due to a lack of basic amenities, poor living conditions, and low pay.
Furthermore, due to the failure of the system to provide “teachers,” this is a huge problem. Most of the teachers are not always properly trained, and some are not even qualified to teach. As a result, students are not receiving the education they require to succeed in life.
Many school systems’ teaching methods are based on rote learning and memorization, which do not promote critical thinking, problem-solving skills, or creativity. There is no place for students who can understand and grasp the concept while one who can rote it is highly valued.
The curriculum is also out of date and does not adequately prepare students for modern-day challenges. In a time where different new subjects and job-related education are infamous in other parts of the world, Nepal still struggles with limited options for professions. These issues limit students’ ability to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to succeed in higher education and the labor market.
The students with high-grade certificates from Nepal fail to fit into the education system in different countries. In conclusion, outdated teaching methods and curricula are significant challenges facing the education system in Nepal.
Inequality in Education System
Disparities in access to education across regions and communities, gender inequality in education, and inadequate provisions for the education of disabled children are major challenges confronting Nepal’s education system. Rural areas have a much lower availability of schools, infrastructure, and teaching materials than urban areas, resulting in lower enrollment and higher drop-out rates.
The high topographical difference can also be held responsible for the inability of education to reach all the regions of Nepal. However, we can also say that irrespective of the provision of the federal provinces, there are no such noteworthy changes in the education system throughout the nation.
The problem of inequality in terms of the provision of education has been uprooted in society for decades and is still prevalent to this day in Nepal. Despite significant progress, girls are still less likely than boys to attend school and complete their education.
This is due to a combination of factors such as poverty, social norms, and cultural practices. Inequality poses a huge threat to the advancement of the education system, the example of such can be the present condition of the Nepalese education system. The more people on average irrespective of gender are educated, the more fruitful will the future be, however, that is not the present scenario in Nepal.
Moreover, the facilities of education for disabled people are still far from reach. There is a lack of inclusive education facilities and trained teachers to provide the necessary support to children with disabilities. They are also disabled for they can’t receive a very basic right which is ‘education’.
The issue with Examination System
Examination system issues, an emphasis on rote learning and memorization, high-stress levels among students as a result of a competitive examination system, and inadequate evaluation of practical skills and creativity are some of the significant challenges confronting Nepal’s education system. Nepal’s education system is largely based on rote learning and memorization, which does not encourage critical thinking or problem-solving abilities.
Students are taught to memorize information without understanding the concepts or how they apply them to real-world situations. This approach limits students’ ability to think critically and creatively, as well as hinders their development of necessary skills in the real world. This has caused the students of Nepal a huge loss because they are unable to compete with other students or even students of their age from other countries.
Not only that, Nepal’s competitive examination system causes high levels of stress among students. The emphasis on ranking and grades fosters unhealthy competition, putting enormous pressure on students to succeed. This stress can hurt their mental health and well-being.
This is one of the very reasons why the drop-out rate of students in Nepal is very high. It is such a shame that this method of teaching and examination has made us dull than ever. As per recent data, Nepal ranks 199th in average IQ of 42.99. Also, the current examination system does not adequately assess practical skills and creativity.
Students are primarily assessed on their ability to memorize and recall information, with little emphasis placed on practical application or creative thinking. As a result, students may have good theoretical knowledge but lack practical skills that are necessary in the real world.
There is no development of a course based on practical skills that are necessary for the field and even if there are some courses with it, no one is there specifically to verify that the person has that level or specialization of practical skills that one is crediting for. So, the fact is, the concept of practical marking and skills is completely superficial.
Lack of Vocational Education and Training
Significant challenges confronting Nepal’s education system include an insufficient emphasis on practical skills and vocational training, limited opportunities for technical and vocational education and training, and a mismatch between the skills taught and the needs of the labor market.
In Nepal’s educational system, there is an insufficient emphasis on practical skills and vocational training. Most of the work done in Nepal due to the labour intrinsic society is based on vocational and technical fields. Also, there are very few organizations providing such education in comparison to basic education.
Moreover, academic excellence and theoretical knowledge are prioritized over practical skills in the current system, leaving students unprepared for the job market. This approach creates a skills gap in which graduates lack the practical skills required by employers, limiting their ability to find work and contribute to the economy.
Moreover, there are very limited opportunities for technical and vocational education and training in Nepal. The majority of technical and vocational training programs are concentrated in urban areas, making them difficult to access for rural students. Furthermore, these programs are underutilized, resulting in a lack of interest among students.
There is a misalignment between the skills taught and the demands of the labor market. Many graduates lack the skills required by employers, resulting in a high rate of unemployment. This mismatch emphasizes the need for a stronger link between education and the labor market, with education programs tailored to the needs of the labor market. The recent increase in entrepreneurship has left such education in pieces with very few students interested.
Issues with Governance and Management
Inefficient governance and management of educational institutions, corruption, political interference, and lack of transparency and accountability in resource allocation and decision-making processes are huge issues confronting Nepal’s education system. The management and governance of educational institutions are ineffective and inefficient.
The poor management and governance of many schools result in the insufficient delivery of resources and services. Additionally, some educational institutions are overstaffed with underqualified staff, wasting money and employing workers inefficiently. Secondly, Nepal’s educational system is rife with corruption and political meddling.
The effective implementation of policies and programs is hampered by corruption, which takes the form of money theft, nepotism, and bribery. Political meddling in the hiring of staff, decision-making procedures, and resource allocation results in the poor management of educational institutions and lowers the standard of education.
The distribution of resources and the decision-making processes in Nepal’s educational system are not transparent or accountable. It is challenging to hold educational institutions accountable for their performance and to guarantee that resources are distributed fairly and efficiently due to this lack of transparency.
It also results in stakeholders, such as students, parents, and the larger community, losing faith and confidence in the educational system. Most of the government schools and colleges are not being accountable and transparent in their actions as large budgets and huge donations are granted to such every year yet we see no such changes that were to have happened with such budgets.
All in all, the entire management of the government and its failure has resulted in damage to the education system and the future of many students.
What are the solutions to such problems?
There is no shortcut or one-way solution to end the problem overnight. Not only have the problems existed in the past but also it has amassed more in these years. Such solutions will take time yet will surely uproot the above-mentioned problems. Moving back to the subject, some of the ways the problems can be solved are as follows:
- Increase education funding: The government can increase education funding to improve infrastructure, teacher training, and educational resources.
- Improve teacher training: Regular and effective teacher training can improve teachers’ skills, teaching methodology, and overall teaching quality.
- Use of technology in the classroom: Using technology in the classroom can improve learning outcomes, make learning more interactive and engaging, and provide access to resources that are not readily available.
- Increase access to education: Through initiatives such as scholarships, grants, and distance education, the government can work to increase access to education for all communities, particularly rural and marginalized groups.
- Reduce class sizes: Smaller class sizes can result in more personalized attention and better learning outcomes.
- Improve the curriculum: The curriculum can be updated to better meet the needs of the twenty-first century, such as digital literacy, financial literacy, and critical thinking.
- Increase parent and community involvement: Getting parents and the community involved in school activities and decisions can help to create a supportive and engaged environment.
- Increasing accountability: Accountability measures such as standardized testing, teacher evaluations, and school inspections can all help to improve teaching quality and student outcomes.
- Encourage experiential learning: Including opportunities for experiential learning, such as field trips, internships, and project-based learning, can improve learning outcomes and practical experience.
- Teacher incentives: The government can provide incentives such as bonuses and recognition to teachers who perform exceptionally well, which can help to improve teacher motivation and retention.
The education system in Nepal has been plagued by a series of political upheavals over the past 30 years. These changes have affected many aspects of education in Nepal, including the curriculum. However, with the proper government support, this situation can improve significantly. One of the biggest problems with the curriculum is its lack of practical application. The problem stems from the lack of adequate teachers who can effectively impart education to students with disabilities.
A major problem with Nepal’s education system is that teachers and faculty lack adequate knowledge of subject matters. Many are teaching subjects outside of their specialization. Furthermore, the majority of present faculty members lack the necessary practical experience and education to teach the curriculum. Lack of political influence, a lack of resources, and a low ratio of faculty to students are all obstacles to improving education in Nepal. It’s no surprise that the country lack of international standards.
Lack of Practical Knowledge
While two-thirds of the children in Nepal go to school, a large number of them do not complete secondary education. Of the 100 children in grade one, only thirty percent stay in school, and almost 70% drop out altogether. Moreover, most of the children who do not complete SLC fail in mathematics, English, and science, and nearly 25% cannot count double digits. This fact reveals that the education system in Nepal is not effective at training young people for the modern world.
Many mainstream schools have not made provisions for physically disabled students, and lack accessible learning materials. In addition, wheelchair-accessible classrooms do not exist. Some schools have no ramps or lifts and require students to climb stairs inside the building to reach the upper floors.
Another school, which is scheduled to open in a few months, does not meet national accessibility standards and will be equipped with only an entrance ramp. Moreover, despite its many shortcomings, there is a lack of practical knowledge in the education system in Nepal.
Students Migration Abroad
The trend of Students Migration Abroad in Nepal has increased significantly over the past 60 years, mainly due to investments in education. In addition to adopting foreign inputs, Nepal has invested huge amounts in improving the quality of education. However, the trend of migration abroad is still in its early stages, with 20,000 students leaving the country annually to pursue higher education abroad. This study highlights the perspectives of aspirant students as they prepare for their migration and discusses the factors that push them to migrate abroad.
The country exports substantial human capital, labor, and skilled manpower. It is estimated that over 52% of students in Nepal intend to migrate abroad for higher education. In addition, this trend affects Nepal’s economy directly through remittances. In addition, many graduates learn new technologies while studying abroad, thereby contributing to the economic development of their home country. Furthermore, some of the emigrants even use their skills and knowledge to improve the living standards in their home country.
As a country in transition, Nepal is in a critical phase of change, with schools destroyed and new ones being built. While the educational system is being rebuilt, it needs to be better than before. This article looks at the challenges faced by Nepal’s traditional institutions. This article examines the legacy of the Choho system, a traditional institution of the Tamang community in the district adjacent to the Kathmandu valley.
During Nepal’s transition from an absolute monarchy to a representative political system, education was primarily the preserve of the upper classes and the elite. The country’s literacy rate stood at 5 percent, with only a few hundred schools and 10,000 students in total. Women were discouraged from attending school in the country, where religion and caste were highly influential. As a result, the education system was severely underfunded.
The system of governance in Nepal is still in transition. The 2015 constitution delineates Nepal into seven states, where political powers are delegated to local governments and states. However, the implementation of the new federal system is a slow and conflict-ridden process, with many local governments yet to function fully. Moreover, much of Nepal’s education system is still managed under the old system. The Ministry of Education controlled five Regional Educational Directorates, and District Education Offices. In these districts, Resource Centers implemented policies.
Job Driven Teaching methods
The study focused on 13 schools in Kathmandu, Nepal. These schools were selected based on geographic location, with some having classes for only one or two grades while others offer up to twelve different classes. A total of 232 students, 136 male, and 148 female were randomly chosen for the study. Results indicated that only one in eight students in class achieved the required level of proficiency in English, mathematics, and science.
The study revealed similarities and differences between the US and Nepalese samples on the two dimensions of engagement and task approach. Despite the differences in culture, the study found similarities in the learning behaviors of children across the two countries.
The study also noted differences and recommended future research that would develop culture-based norms and assessment methods that address these differences. While the research does not address the effectiveness of job-driven teaching methods, the findings provide a valuable window into the learning behaviors of Nepali children.
Further, the study establishes the initial psychometric properties of an evidence-based student learning behavior measure (LBS). In the future, the information can be used to strengthen the approach to learning of students and foster academic achievement.
The evaluation of teachers is another critical aspect of education. In Nepal, teachers are rarely evaluated. Their performance is judged by their peers. They are appointed for decades and rarely evaluated. Meanwhile, private college teachers are evaluated when they are first appointed but never by students.
Compared to the Nepalese education system, the US education system regularly evaluates teachers every semester and promotes them to develop. It is important to develop unique models for the system in Nepal to address its unique demands.
To summarize, Nepal’s education system faces numerous challenges that prevent it from providing the quality of education that the country requires. Lack of funding, insufficient teacher training, poor infrastructure, and an inadequate curriculum all contribute to Nepal’s poor state of education. Furthermore, the social structure, values, culture and many of the small things of the society lead to the problems being more problematic.
The problems that could have been solved years ago are now deeply rooted in the very existence of this generation. To address these issues and develop a comprehensive strategy that addresses the root causes of the problems confronting the education system, the government, education policymakers, and stakeholders must collaborate.
Not only the people at the top level, but also students, society, parents, guardians, and every individual have to support the actions implemented by the government for such will lead to a brighter future for the entirety of Nepalese and not just an individual.
Writer: Samyam Shrestha