Unification Campaign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah On The History Of Nepal

[Prithvi Narayan Shah on Nepal History] Get here some information, facts about Nepal history related to Prithvi Narayan Shah and His unification campaign in the history of Nepal. We have posted here short biography of King Prithivi Narayan Shah and unification of Nepal.

Introduction about Prithvi Narayan Shah

The responsibility for establishing Greater Nepal comes to a single person titled Prithvi Narayan Shah whose bravery and perspective were the primary justification behind the unified Nepal that we are living in today. He was the first child to King Narabhupal Shah and Queen Kausalyawati.

He had a dream of conquering all the little empires and creating a bigger country that he never gave up and was determined to satisfy. He had all the qualities required to be a good leader and king from the time he was just a small child.

Wrestling and swimming always captured his curiosity, and in his adolescence his bravery was no less than it was in his youthful era or even in his ancient era. It is stated in scripture that his household priest Gorakhnath also got a gift (he will overcome the ground on which he walks). He reached Gorkha’s crown at the era of 20 after his father’s suicide in 1799 BS.

ancient history of Nepal prithivi narayan shah

After reaching the crown, his first job was to coach his troops and begin the method of extending his kingdom’s land. He invaded most of the adjacent states and established partnership with the Kings of Kathmandu, Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur, the three primary towns.

Nuwakot was the ideal location from a commercial point of perspective, and Kathmandu Valley also relied on Nuwakot for commercial reasons. He invaded Nuwakot but was unable to overcome it in the first moment and effectively captured the empire in his second effort. He enjoyed so much Kathmandu’s lovely valley that he wanted to overcome it. He attacked in Kirtipur for the first time but was defeated twice and lost one of Kalu Pandey’s bravest chief of the army.


However, he didn’t offer up and in his fifth effort he effectively conquered the realm. After that, on Indrajatra’s time, his goal switched over to Kathmandu and effectively assaulted it in 1825, then Patan and then Bhaktapur went on the roster.

Although he had established friendship (Mit) relationships with Bhaktapur’s ruler, the bond did not prevent him from fighting, instead letting either withdraw or flea his Mitjiu from there.

He switched his focus to the Eastern and Western empires after conquering these empires. He effectively expanded his land to Darjeeling, now in India, and he dropped ill while preparing an assault on Sikkim.

His illness deteriorated and at the era of 56 he passed. Although he spent most of his time expanding his territory, in his Divya Upadesh (Divine Advice) he also set the guidelines for governance, nationalism and foreign policy. He set out nine values that shaped the basis of the political and domestic lives of Nepal.

In his search to expand his land, he was determined, and he did not take any kind of relationships severely but used them exclusively to fulfill the objective. Regardless of how harsh or rigorous Prithvi Narayan Shah was, it was this brutality and his bravery that enabled him to satisfy his desire to merge the little empires and establish a larger Nepal.

Birth of Prithvi Narayan Shah

About a year ago he instantly climbed to Gorkha’s crown after which he we d Kausalyavati Devi, Gundharva Sen’s sister, Palpa’s King. No kids were conceived from either reign of Nara Bhupal Shah that led him to meet two palace princesses, Buddhimati and Subhadramati.

King Prithvi Narayan Shah was born as the eldest son of King Narabhupal Shah and his second wife Queen Kaushotyawati in the Shah dynasty of Gorkha on 11 January 1723 (27 Poush 1779 B.S.). He grew up under the love, care and supervision of the eldest Queen Chandrapravawati.

Yet subsequently a baby was conceived on the deadline B.S. from Queen Kausalyavati Devi in 1779. The name of the kid is Prithivi Narayan Shah. The Queens ‘ oldest, Chandra Pravawati, took full charge of him.

She taught him the Ramayan, Mahabharat, diplomacy, and politics. He was clever and courageous from his early childhood. He got horse-riding, archery, sword-fighting training when he was a young boy.

Knowledge and education of Prithvi Narayan Shah

From a very young era, Prince Prithivi Narayan Shah demonstrated his greatness. His schooling started by the suitable celebration at the era of five. At that moment, Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal were provided the duty to teach him. They were the Upadhyayas who served as astrologers in the palace, where they were also called Jyotish or Jaisi.

Although the Gurus supplied his primary education, the Queen Chandra Pravawati took on the obligation to develop his personality. It is said that seeing the Prince of nearby countries indulged in excessive enjoyment by Tanahun, Lamjung, and Kaski, Chandra Pravawati held Prithivi Narayan Shah free from pleasurable and false activities.

That’s why in his late lives there is no trace of pleasurable activities and distraction. As a consequence, virtuous characteristics like bravery, diligence and favorable personality evolved in him from a youthful era.

He became interested in the politics of the state of his father from a youthful era and quickly started to assume these duties. Prithivi Narayan Shah had a premature vision of conquering Nuwakot, partly because in a previous battle his dad left it to the Kathmandu Mallas.

After his father’s suicide in 1743, at the era of 20, Prithivi Narayan Shah climbed to Gorkha’s crown. As a monarch, he appreciated his individuals and liked discussing their overall issues with his subjects.

This exercise assisted him create a relationship with his individuals and assisted him comprehend Gorkha’s residents ‘ demands. King Shah closed his boundaries and preserved a serene climate except for the British who at the moment refused to trade with Nepal.


In a Hindu household, Prithvi Narayan Shah was raised. After becoming the correct leader of Kathmandu, he started to follow with all rigors his strategy of excluding and expelling the Europeans.

Nepal ejected the Capuchin missionaries who had previously resided in Nepal and had effectively converted individuals and also acquired territory from the Malla Kings. He called Nepal the real’ Hindustan.’ He recommended the Nepalese people never to abandon the elders ‘ traditional religion.

Economic policy

Prithvi Narayan Shah emphasized the importance of local manufacturing. He was of the concept in his Divya Upadesh that if overseas traders join Nepal they would clean up the nation. In the same sense, he proposed a rejection of carrying overseas dresses and also encourages local people’s instruction in weaving dresses.


He thought that this would not allow local riches to extend out of the nation. He urged Nepali herbs to be sold to overseas soil and brought home to the nation the riches thus achieved. He wished the cash to stay in the nation as well.

Foreign policy

Prithvi Narayan Shah regarded the state of Nepal to be a’ yam between two rocks ‘ relating to north China and south to the’ Emperor of the Seas.’ He proposed Nepal should have a strong relationship with China indefinitely. However, with regard to the British strategy on the South, he suggested maintaining friendliness but advised of their shrewdness as well.

He said,’ The East India Company is currently forcefully occupying Hindustan. If the Hindustanis wake up then they will arrive here (East India Company) in pursuit of secure castles. Therefore, Prithvi Narayan Shah connoted his troops at suitable places to be ready and to construct obstacles and castles.

Defense Policy

The construction of castles was emphasized by Prithvi Narayan Shah. He regarded Nepal’s territory as a real fort built by God Himself. He suggested building one strong fort on each, Shivapuri, Phulchowki, Chandragiri, Mahadevpokhari, Palung, Daapcha, and Kaahule, and placing in each of them ready state cannon.

Prithvi Narayan Shah also proposed the construction of iron doors at the bhanjyangs and the positioning of guns in each of those gates, each in prepared state, which he thought would maintain the nation secure from spies, refugees, assassins, etc.

Unification Campaign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah on History of Nepal

He became the king of Gorkha in 1799 at the age of 20. Prithivinarayan Shah became the king of Gorkha at the age of 20 in 1799 BS. He was a brave, courageous, ambitious and far-sighted King. He was given proper training and education by his elder mother, Chandraprabhawati.

He had known from his early childhood that a nation would be weak if its king and his subjects indulged in pleasure and luxury. His teachers Bhanu Aryal and Maheshwar Patna had made him trained in the art of horse riding, archery and sword fighting. He was interested in politics and diplomacy and had interests in and conquering other countries since his days as a prince.

Visitors trying fingers like statue of Prithivi Narayan shah Chandragiri Hills Station Kathmandu Nepal Cable car places Travel Visit Outing Destination Image

Visitors are trying fingers like a statue of Prithivi Narayan shah

When Prithvi Narayan Shah became the King, the political environment in the region was not very favorable. The smaller principalities were fighting against one another and the British Empire was expanding. In such a situation, he wanted to expand Gorkha and at the same time foil the evil design of the British by uniting the small kingdoms into a viable nation.

With this in mind, as soon as he ascended the throne, he sat his foot to the task of expanding the Gorkha Rajya, which led to the unification of Nepal. Had he not done this, the divided principalities would have fallen to the British rule.

Prithvi Narayan Shah is known as the founder of modern Nepal. He marked the beginning of the modern period in the history of Nepal. Before him, there were many small principalities in what we have today, modern Nepal.

He laid the foundation of the unification of modern Nepal by conquering the Malla rulers of the Kathmandu Valley: Kantipur, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur. He defeated major principalities and unified them under his rule .He moved the capital of his Gorkha Kingdom to Kathmandu in 1769.

He was able to conquer most of the states in modern day east Nepal and some of the principalities or kingdoms of Baise Rajya, and some of the 24 kingdoms (the Chaubasi Rajya), which were two sets of allies west of the King’s homeland of Gorkha, in what is now called western Nepal.

In the later years, his able son, Bahadur Shah, daughter-in-law, Rajendra Laxmi and Gribanyuddha Bikram Shah completed his unification campaign. The unification campaign was completed in three phases.

Nepal History: Unification Campaign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah

Phase 1: Prithivi Narayan Shah conquered, Nuwakot, Makawanpur, the Kathmandu Valley and most of the states of Eastern Nepal.

Phase2: Rajendra Laxmi Shah and Bahadur Shah conquered and annexed most of the smaller Chaubisi and Baisi states of Gandaki and Karnali regions.

Phase3: During the reign of Girbanyuddha Bikram Shah, Bhimsen Thapa annexed the state of Palpa into Nepal.

Expansion of empire

There was a maximum of 54 countries in Nepal before the unification movement of Prithivi Narayan Shah. There were three Sen countries in the South-East Terai: Makawanpur, Bijayapur, and Chaudandi. There were 24 countries in the West, ranging from Gorkha to Gandaki Province.

There were 22 countries with kingdoms of Kalyan, Samaal, Shahi and Chand in the region of Karnali. Bhaktapur, Kantipur and Lalipur, together with Gorkha and Mustang, formed the following five countries.

When in 1743 A.D. Prithivi Narayan Shah had climbed to Gorkha’s crown, it was still a tiny state. Then he began to contemplate the techniques of turning Gorkha into a enormous and powerful state. He came to Varanasi to obtain first-hand understanding of neighbouring countries and southern India.

During those days, Varanasi was one of India’s big trading centres where individuals from various locations came together. He encountered various kinds of individuals and acquired useful understandings about the Indian Sub-Continent’s political and social situation. His father-in-law Abhiman Singh, a Rajput chief, got some firearms and a lot of ammunition for him in Varanasi.

Unification Campaign Started of Prithvi Narayan in the History of Nepal

Prithvi Narayan’s father Narabhupal Shah was also a brave and wise king. He wanted to expand the territory of Gorkha. He invaded Nuwakot but was badly defeated. Prithivi Narayan Shah was an ambitious person. He wanted to expand Gorkha and foil the evil designs of the British by uniting small kingdoms into a viable nation.

Hence, as soon as he became the king, he attacked Nuwakot in order to continue the task started by his father. But he too was defeated as he had not made proper preparations. At that time, Nuwakot was under Kantipur. The Gorkhali troops weren’t much familiar with the geography of Nuwakot. They also lacked sufficient arms and ammunition.

History of Nepal : First Unsuccessful Invasion and Conquest of Nuwakot

Nuwakot, which was the main trade route to Tibet, and granary of food, was under Kantipur. Prithivinarayan Shah tried to capture Nuwakot first time in 1800 BS.

His first effort at Nuwakot’s annexation succeeded in 1743 CE and his rule started with an instant army victory. It was crucial for unity to conquer Nuwakot as it lies between Kathmandu and the Gorkha District, rendering it a vital trade route to Tibet.

Prithivi Narayan Shah first made measures on his back from Varanasi to Gorkha to overcome Nuwakot in the diplomatic arena. He made a good partnership with Lamjung, Tanahun, and Palpa’s leaders. That accomplished, from three angles, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent a military against Nuwakot.

Knowing that Gorkha will invade them in the close future, Nuwakot’s chief had gone to get assistance from Kantipur’s ruler Jaya Prakash Malla. Thus, the Nuwakot military depicting his dad was ordered by his brother Jayant Rana. Significantly crushed the Nuwakot military in 1744 CE, his nation fell into the fingers of the Gorkhas of Prithivi Narayan Shah.

prithvi narayan shah history modern Nepal unification

At that time, Jayanta Rana was the Umarao (Governor) there. He was the Commander of the Gorkhali Army when Prithvi Narayan’s father, Narabhupal Shah attacked Nuwakot. When the attack failed, he was made responsible for it. So he defected and joined Jayaprakash Malla, King of Kantipur. Then Jayaprakash Malla had made him the Chief or Umrao of Nuwakot.

In this first invasion, Kaji Biraj Thapa Magar was the commander of Gorkhali troops. After encamping near Khinchet, when he was waiting for an opportune moment to cross the overflowing Trisuli River, Prithivinarayan Shah sent yet another troops under the command of Maheswar Panta and Bali Pandey to attack Nuwakot.

The Gorkhali troops were defeated. This opened the eyes of Prthivinarayan Shah. He realized that they lacked proper preparation, planning, unity of command, geographical knowledge, intelligence and arms and ammunition.

Prithivi Narayan Shah was not discouraged from his defeat of Nuwakot. He rather realized that there was a need to improve the overall capability of his military. He started preparation for the second invasion of Nuwakot. He traveled to Banaras and collected arms and ammunition with the help of his father-in-law, Abhiman Singh.

He also got some Muslim experts to make guns and to give military training to his soldiers. It was also important for him to make sure that Gorkha itself wasn’t attacked by other neighboring Chaubise states: Lamjung, Tanahu, Kaski and Parbat etc. while it was invading Nuwakot. In fact, Lamjung was an age-old enemy of Gorkha.

So, he sent Kalu Pandey to Lamjung and other emissaries to other states to establish friendly relations. He brought King Ranjit Malta of Bhaktapur also in his favor. Almost a year later, on 2 October 1744, after completing all necessary military and diplomatic preparations, Gorkha under the leadership of Prithvi Narayan Shah himself invaded Nuwakot from three directions: Kalu Pandey through Gerkhu, Kirti Mahoddam Shah from Dharampani and Prithivi Narayan Shah from the front, Ashokbari in 1801 BS. Nuwakot finally fell into Prithvi Narayan’s hands.

    1. Ruth Mukhiya
    2. Ajay Panthi

    Leave Comments