Population density is influence by geographical factors like land topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. similarly, socio-economic factors such as industries, trade, transportation, communication, health, education, security, etc. also greatly affect the population density of a particular place. Due to these reasons, population density is high in the places having fertile land, industrial centres, district head quarters, highways, hospitals, policies posts,drinking water facilities, etc. for examples, Morang and Jhapa in the eastern development region, the Kathmandu valley, Parsa and Chitwan in the central region, Rupandehi and Kaki in the western development region, Banke, Surkhet and Dang in the mid-western development region, Mahendrangar and Dhangadhi in the far-western development region have high density of population. Density in those areas is quite higher than the hilly districts of Nepal.

Population density in Nepal is also increasing along with the rapid growth of population. Due to limited land areas of the country, it is natural that population density increases simultaneously with the growth in the population. Looking at the condition of population density in different censuses from 1981 to 2001 AD, it is found that population density has increased in all development regions. However, it has increased drastically in the Terai region in comparison to the hills and the mountains regions. Population density has also increased rapidly in the country as a whole. The density of population was 102 persons in 1981, 126 persons in 1991 and it reached 157 persons in 2001 AD. From this fact, we can clearly consider Nepal as one of the density populated countries in the world. Our country is also full of inequality in terms of population density by geographical and development regions.

Table of population density by geographical regions

Geographical region

Census year


(Source: CBS 2002)


If we analyze the data represented by the table 1.3, we can see different kinds of population density in different regions. Out of 5 development regions, the central development region has the highest population density i.e. 293.03 persons per whereas the mid-western development region has the lowest population density i.e. 71.1 persons sq. km. Normally, eastern, central and western development regions have more population density than that of the mid-western regions. This has made us clear that climate, rainfall, cultivate land, economic and social aspects make special effect in population density.