Instruments in Nepali songs

Human beings are social animals. So they cannot live alone. They live in society to share their sorrow, happiness and to satisfy their meeds. Therefore, society is a group of people living and working together to achieve a common goal. There are several rules in the society which are not written anywhere but people simply follow them in mutual understanding. They are called social rules.


Madal is a traditional musical instrument of Nepal. It is the most important instrument in our folk songs. Its right side is smaller and left side is bigger. It is played by beating the two ends with the right hand and left hand. It produces different types of sounds when beaten.


The tabla is a pair of drums. The smaller drum is played with the right hand and the bigger one by the left hand. It is used in the modern and classical music. It is played from both the hands collaborately. Different types of sounds are played from it.


A harmonium is a musical instrument which is used in classical vocal music, ghazals, bhagans, etc. Its sound is produced by air being blown which is supplied by fingers pressed by the player. It generates different harmonious sounds while played.


Sarangi is the most famous traditional musical instrument of the Gandharva. Sarangi is better if made up of the timber of Khirra. The botton part of Sarangi is made hollow. Above the hollow, it consists of four wires with beautiful carvings at the top. It is played by rubbing a bow on the wires.

Basuri and Murali :


Bamboo is cut obliquely and a small piece of Bhakimile timber is penetrated there, and a hole is made nearby. Then, some couples of holes are also made of different sizes from the outside. Murali is played holding between lips whereas Bansuri is played by blowing.


This is the smallest musical instrument in the Panchaibaja and Naubatibaja category. It has a radius of about the span of the thumb and the pinky finger. It is wrapped by leather and played by hitting on it with two Gajos.


This is the most popular musical instrument of the Panchaibaja category. It is made up of the combination of metal and wood. It produces luring sound while blown by putting it between the lips. The people of Dhading district call it Tipsahane.


This is another musical instrument from among the panchaibaja category. It consists of two pieces of bronze which is played by hitting one on another in different tunes.


This musical instrument also falls under the group  of Panchaibaja. Made up of copper, it resembles the shape of half moon. This kind of musical instrument bears gradual expansion to the lower part. It is played by blowing it by mouth.


This musical instrument is made up of the wood of door with the leather cover of deer on both sides. It is played holding by one hand and hitting by the other hand. Khaijadi is especially played while singing Roila and Baalan.


This musical instrument is believed to have been brought into use by Kirateshwor Mahadev. So. it is a popular traditional musical instrument of the Kiratas. It is played through the mouth which produces a sound similar to Binayo.


It is another famous musical instrument among the Kiratas. It is made out of a piece of Nigalo bamboo and thread connected at both the ends. It is played mostly at leisure.

Dhol and Dholak

These musical instruments have more or less similar structure, and size. They look like Madal and are made by wrapping leather on a piece of wood that is hollow inside. It is played by hitting with Gajo on one side and by the palm on the other side.



This musical instrument is used by Dhami and Jhakri during funeral rites and rituals. It is made by wrapping leather tightly at both ends of wood. It is played by using the Gajo of Bet.


This musical instrument is taken out of the outer part of the ocean snail. It is played by blowing in funeral processions and while worshipping gods.


This is an essential musical instrument of the Tamangs. It is made up of a wood wrapped by leather of Ghoral.


Masak is similar to Sarangi and is popular in Bajhang, made up of the wood of paiyaun, it is about half a meter long. It consists of four major strings and some other minor strings.


This is a popular musical instrument of the Limbus made by the combination of three pieces of bamboo of different sizes It produces sounds similar to those of birds of various species.


This is a musical instrument of the Kiratas. It is a good piece of Bhalubans between the two knots. It consists of two strings and another small piece of bamboo. Named after the founder of the Kirat dynasty,Yalambar, this musical instrument looks like a Dhungro.


Pung is another musical instrument of the Rais, especially those of Solukhumbu. It is made by making a hole at the end of the horn of an ox. It is basically used during rituals.


Originally, this musical instrument was used by the Shringanad community. These days, yogis play this musical instrument while going for phedi in the Kartik and Chaitra months. It is believed that the music accompanied by Phedimantra drives away the evils and ghosts and welcomes gods and goddesses.


This is a popular musical instrument of the Sapera (the ones who make snakes dance) of the Terai region. It is made by the cover of coconut joining three pieces of bamboo.


This is a famous musical instrument of the Dhimal community in the Terai region. Dhimal people play it while worshipping the family god and during social functions. The instrument is made up of about half a metre long wood connected with the cover of coconut shell. It is played by plucking the strings by fingers.


This is a popular musical instrument of the Himalayan region. It is made by the wood of rhododendron and four strings. It is about one metre long and its upper part is carved with the picture of Sardual.


This is a peculiar musical instrument of the Sherpa community in the Himalayan region. About a metre long, this musical instrument contains six to eight wires. It is played by fingers during Sebru and selo dances.


This is a popular musical instrument of the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. It contains two pieces of bronze which are played by catching in both the hands and clanging in different ways.


Kakuwayan is a popular musical instrument of the Jyapu community of the Kathmandu Valley. Manufacturing and structure of this musical instrument is similar to Murali. It is played in various cultural functions of the Jyapus.

Apart from the above mentioned musical instruments, several other musical instruments are also played in differents parts and various communities of Nepal. Dafali, Irlung pipiri, Thudar, Bano. Ektare. Dongmej, Shikhar, Turahi, Singa. Mandra, Chyabrung, Dha:, Hudko, Chyodar, Chanp. Golki. Paluwa,Tamaura, Jharra, etc. are noteworthy musical instruments.

What i Love

First of all, Baalan is one of the most famous amoung Nepali. Baalan is a popular form of entertainment among Chhetry AND brahman. communities. According to their tradition, Brahman and Chhetry are not supposed to sing and dance. They are supposed to perform devotional songs, play Bhailo and Dhesi during Tihar, and say Baalan on an important occasion like Brataband, Puja, on the closing day of puran, etc.

So, While playing Baalan, they form pairs and move from one end to another in the courtyard repeating the ‘slokas’ uttered by their guru or the leader. The subject matter of their slokas is the story of Ramayan, Mahabharat, Krishna-Charitra or king Harischandra. This is performed by male members only. The musical instrument which is played in Baalan is ‘Khainjadi’ and ‘Kartal’ i.e. clapping of hands.

How is our analysis? This is our thought. We have collected what we saw in the


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