Social Exclusion and Inclusiveness in Nepal
First of all, I want to say you that Inclusiveness is a concept of letting people in and making them feel welcome. It is a positive concept of growing or fostering together.
Barriers to inclusion are due to not only gender, caste, and ethnicity but also due to language, religion, disability, geography, and regional identity. Multiparty democracy in 1990 described Nepal as a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, and democratic state.
The Constitution of Nepal -2072 includes provisions that support gender equality and social inclusion. Seats are allocated to women, Dalits, ethnic groups, Madhesis, and the differently-abled among others.
Inclusiveness is a concept of letting people in and making them feel welcome. It means including or tending to include everything. It is not excluding any section of society or any party involved in something. It is a concept of taking a great deal or everything within its scope.
An example of inclusiveness is when we make our home a comfortable place for all of our friends, family, guests and people we meet. It is a positive concept of growing or fostering together. Social exclusion is deeply rooted in the political, economic, and social fabric of Nepal.
In the context of Nepal, the Hindu caste system traditionally categorized people into four groups: Brahmin (scholars and priests) at the top, Chhetri (warriors) just below, then the Vaishya (merchants and traders), and lastly, Sudra (peasants/laborers). Below everyone was the occupational groups considered impure—the “untouchables,” who now refer to themselves as Dalits, Despite the abolition of caste-based discrimination in 1963 by MulukiAin, the social hierarchies and divisions remained, vesting more power and privilege in the Brahman, Chhetri, and Newar caste groups.
The consolidation of economic and political power by these groups led to the further marginalization of the non-Hindus (i.e., Adivasi Janajatis and Muslims), and the Madhesis.
The constitution formulated after the establishment of multiparty democracy in 1990 described Nepal as a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, and democratic state and declared all citizens equal. Democracy provided space for diverse groups and civil society organizations, especially those based on ethnicity and caste, to assert their identities and rights.
Since the declaration of Nepal as a democratic republic after the people’s movements of 2062/63, the government has amended several discriminatory laws and provisions. It has shown its commitment to gender equality and social inclusion signing a number of international conventions.
Moreover, it has recognized that the barriers to inclusion are due to not only gender, caste, and ethnicity but also to language, religion, disability, geography, and regional identity.
The Constitution of Nepal -2072 includes provisions that support gender equality and social inclusion. It has a separate article for women’s fundamental rights and is more inclusive toward Janajatis, Dalits, and Madhesis.
It sets forth the right to equality and to rights against untouchability, racial discrimination, and exploitation (e.g., forced labor). It refers to the need for all groups to be proportionately represented in the state structure and the right to education in one’s mother tongue. It also authorizes the State to implement measures for the “protection, empowerment and advancement of women, Dalits, indigenous nationalities, and Madhesis”.
Banking in Nepal
First of all, I want to say you that Nepal Rastra Bank NRB is the central bank of Nepal. A bank is a financial institution which deals with deposits and advances and other related services. It receives money from those who want to save in the form of deposits and it lends money to those who need it.
Banks use the money that has been deposited by customers. This is one way in which banks make money (they also make money through various fees that they charge customers for some services).
A bank will take in money and hold it while paying only a very low-interest rate to depositors. It will then lend that money out to others. It may loan it to someone who wants a mortgage, for example, or to a business that wants to expand. It charges a much higher interest rate to lend the money than it pays to borrow it. In this way, it makes money.
There is 30 commercial banks in Nepal.
Cooperative in Nepal
First of all, I want to say you that A co-operative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.
They are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity, and solidarity. In the tradition of their founders, co-operative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility, and caring for others.
In a cooperative, a group of people acts together to meet their common needs and aspirations by sharing ownership and making decisions democratically. Co-operative is not about making big profits for shareholders, but creating value for customers.
“Cooperative is self-help as well as mutual help. It is a joint enterprise of those who can’t do something on their own and therefore, come together not with a view to getting profit but to overcome disability arising out of the want of adequate financial resources”. (Dr. H.N Kumzou)
Interim Constitution of Nepal – 2063 has considered the co-operative sector as one of the three pillars of national development. In Nepal, there are 13 types of cooperative operating at present.
The major types of co-operative societies operating in Nepal are Saving and Credit, Multipurpose, Dairy, Agriculture, Fruits and Vegetables, Bee Keeping, Tea, Coffee, Consumers, Science and Technology, and Energy.
According to the Department Cooperative, cooperatives operate and mobilize annually over 100 billion, which accounts for Rs 61.54 billion investment 58 billion saving and 9.36 billion share capital.
Although there are 30 commercial and 88 development banks, 79 finance and 21 microfinance companies, which cater for about 30 percent of the population, unfortunately, they are being over banked and 70 percent still do not have access to finance.
Many cooperative suffer from unsound investment in risky areas, where there are no returns. Most cooperatives lack professional management and plagued by the lack of adequate knowledge, principles, and practices of cooperatives.
At present, there are more than 35,00000 shareholders of cooperative. There are 24000 primary cooperatives, 15 central cooperative organizations, and a national cooperative bank in the country. At the national level, more than 200000 people are engaged, out of which 80% are working on voluntary basis.
Today we have Agriculture Cooperative Central Committee, Bee Cooperative Central Committee, Vegetable and Fruits Cooperative Central Committee, Sugar Cooperative Committee, Coffee Cooperative Central Committee, Dairy Cooperative Central Committee, Seed Cooperative Central Committee, Medicinal Plants Central Committee at the national level. Including all, a total of 10 agriculture-related cooperative central committees is present.
Social organization in Nepal
First of all, I want to say you that Life is not always smooth in society. While living together, many problems arise. Some problems can be solved individually. But some big problems cannot be solved by individuals. Such problems include the dowry system, untouchability, child marriage, gambling, street children, homeless, drugs, and other health problems.
There are various organizations like clubs, unions, associations, aama samuha, Scouts, Red Cross, etc that play a major role in resolving social problems. These organizations conduct various awareness programs and other activities to resolve particular social problems. Let us read some news headlines with their details to know how some social organizations work for the welfare of the public.
Let’s read about some important social organizations in Nepal.
|Paropakar Sanstha||• It was founded by Late Daya Bir Singh Kansakar in 2004 BS.• It provides education, shelter, and health services to orphans.
• It also provides ambulance facilities and conducts programs like blood donation.
|Nepal Scouts||• It was founded in 1953 BS in Lainchaur, Kathmandu.• It provides services during religious and social festivals.
• It provides services to the injured and wounded.
• It also supports funds for natural calamities like earthquakes, landslides, and floods.
|SOS Children’s Village||• It stands for Save Our Soul. It was founded by Dr. Hermann Gmeiner in 1949 AD.• The first SOS village was established in Nepal in Sanothimi, Bhaktapur in 2028 BS. Now there are SOS villages in many districts of Nepal.
• It provides food, shelter, clothes, education and health services to orphan children.
Social problems and social evils have pushed our country backward. Organizations that contribute to removing social evils and problems are called social organizations. Such social problems and evils can be removed through the joint effort of local organizations and the local participation.
People need various things. Their requirements are fulfilled by using the available resources. The available resources and people’s ability to utilize them determine the speed of development of the country.
To speed up development we need skilled human resource means a group of people or an individual who are/is capable. skilled or expert in doing a particular work independently. Natural resources remain in the same form unless human resource uses it.
Human resource is needed to make other resources dynamic. It is the human resource that produces raw materials and other goods from them. In order to make progress in education, there must be infrastructures like school buildings, furniture, playground, educational equipment, and skilled human resources like trained teachers, administrative staff, and a peaceful and healthy environment.
Similarly, there must be qualified doctors, nurses, health workers, compounders, administrative staff maintenance staff, etc. to provide health services to the people. The hospitals, health etc, are and health posts must be equipped with necessary apparatus, medicines and other facilities, In addition, we need to be trained people.
Pilots, engineers, drivers, motor-mechanics, etc. are needed in the transport sector. Similarly, the communication sector needs telephone operators postmen, ticket sellers, receptionists, journalists, etc. Likewise, water and electricity sectors need civil and electronic engineers, electricians, etc.
In every field of development work there must be adequate physical facilities on the one hand, and on the other adequate number of skilled people to utilize the available resources. Thus, the government should have the provision to produce the human power which can fulfill the present (today) as well as the future (tomorrow) needs of the nation.
Short term Skilled Human Resource:
The human resource prepared for a particular short-term purpose is termed as short-term skilled human resource Generally, the use of such human resource goes over with the completion of the work or attainment of the objective.
For example, the use and term of temporary police prepared through a short training and education finishes after the completion of election Other examples of short-term skilled human resources are census enumerators, volunteers, rescue operators, etc.
Long term skilled human resource:
A country requires long-term senile of human resources for various sectors. The human resource developed for the long-term purpose is known as a long-term human resource. A country offers retirement from the service after the completion of a long service to that human resource.
Though they may remain skillful, they cannot use their skill in the same service or place usually. For example. army, civil servants, police, and so on get retired from their job after a certain period of time.
Permanency & Provision of Skilled Human Resource
Suitable human resource for a particular sector at a right: amount is called sustainable human resource. The skilled human resource is needed not only to fulfill a specific objective but to give continuity to all such works of national importance.
For example, teachers, doctors, engineers, lawyers, farmers, technicians, and so on the car. perform their skill whenever and wherever they like throughout their life. Nepal is an agricultural country. More than 67% of the people are dependent for their livelihood upon agriculture.
At the same time, those who are engaged in trade, manufacturing and other occupations have to rely on agricultural products. Steps have been taken to tram human resource and engage them in income-generating activities at their local level. Fanner- are being trained in the modern methods of farming.
Several small and medium scale industries have been set up in the villages to utilize the agricultural products available locally young boys and girls who do not have opportunities to go to school or carry on their further education are given training so that they can earn something working at their own locality.
Small scale projects like poultry farming, beekeeping, fisheries, cultivation of cardamom, fruits, vegetables, etc. not only utilize the wastage of human resource but also provide opportunities for them to contribute something from their level to the family and the country. They need short-term training to run a particular project.
In tourist areas, people can run resorts. They also can earn from guiding service to the tourists and from transportation, boating, rafting, and other services. We need short term training to train the necessary human resource for these services.
Educational institutions, training institutes, and particular subject related institutions like medical colleges, engineering colleges, colleges for forestry, nursing, music, art. etc., are established in different parts of the country. Students gain knowledge of the subject of their choice and enter into the field of work.
At the same time, there are certain vocational subjects which help dropouts and also those who cannot further their education, to settle down to work in their related field and start earning on their own. Job-oriented education gets priority in our country as most of the students’ main aim of getting an education is to be able to earn.
The Government of Nepal has launched several periodical plans and projects. The aims and objectives of all such plans are to bring economic development They intend at improving people’s health conditions and education.
To provide good education the government has to revise the curriculum according to the needs of the time, Science and computer education and English education need to be given priority.
Without the use of computers and various other modern technologies, it is impossible to progress in any field in the modern world. Moreover, for international trade and commerce, we need to use English.
Thus, our curriculum, course of study, and textbooks are to be designed to meet: these needs. Education should be practical, not textual. At the same time, people should get employment opportunities to use their knowledge and skill.
Vocational training institutes have been established at several places under the CTEVT (Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training). Many of such institute > have been producing electricians, carpenters, radio/television mechanics, telephone operators, office clerks, etc.
Thus, institutes, colleges, and universities should have a program of such job-oriented education that would attract the young people who cannot go for further education. The needs of the people have been increasing along with the increase in population.
So. we have to establish a permanent system of education and training so that there will not be any dearth of the skilled human resource at all.
Nepal Politics: Political Parties in Nepal
First of all, I want to say you that the Multi-party system is an essential requirement of modern democracy.
In all democratic systems, there are political parties to contest elections. People elect their representatives themselves. The party with the majority forms the government.
The provision of the opposition party is also made to indicate and criticize the incompetence and wrongdoing of the government from the parliament. Political parties were banned during the Panchayat regime.
Yet some political parties carried out their activities from underground. It was because of the combined efforts of many political parties that the Multi-party parliamentary system was restored in Nepal after the mass revolution in 1990.
Similarly, seven political parties in coalition with the Maoists launched a 19-day-long People’s Movement II. It succeeded on 11th Baishakh when the House of Representatives dissolved on 8th Jestha 2059 was reinstated.
The declaration made on that day clarified that the sovereignty and the right to govern remains in people. Then the revolutionaries formed a coalition government. The country is now heading towards peace, progress, and prosperity.
Real democracy cannot exist without political parties. The political parties shape the views and ideologies that rest in people. The strong foundation of any political system is the role of the political party. Similarly, political participation is the base to measure the popularity, effectiveness and democratic nature of a political system.
A political party is an organization or association of like-minded people, They have common thought about a particular theory, principle, or philosophy.
The origin and development of political parties are associated with political participation and expansion of the franchise. But many people, especially from Asia and Africa, relate the origin of political rallies with national revolution and struggle for independence.
Another view regarding the origin of political parties believes that industrialization causes urbanization and the organizations which open there eventually develop into political parties. Their main objectives are to win the election, from the government and lead the country according to the principles and practices of their party.
There are leaders, cadres, their supporters, and workers at different levels. Sometimes the party extends its influence at the international level as well. The unity and strength of a particular political party can be measured during the election or rallies or demonstrations.
The multiparty competitive Loktantrik system is in practice in Nepal. Part 18 of the Constitution of Nepal 2007 has the provision of political parties. The following conditions should be fulfilled to establish a political party along with its manifesto:
• The rules and constitution of the party must be Loktantrik i.e. based on the principles of democracy and its norms,
• A list of the signatures of at least 10,000 voters to support the party must be included. However, this provision is not applicable at present in the Legislature-Parliament.
- Its leaders and other members of the committee should be elected every five years.
- Every political party must put forward inclusive system with the provision for the inclusion of women, Dalit including the members from neglected and suppressed regions in the executive committee of the party at all levels.
- There should be an effective system of making the members of the party disciplined in the constitution of the party.
For the purpose of elections, a political party has to fulfill certain conditions. There are procedures laid down by the Election Commission. In order to get recognition from the Election Commission, a political party has to fulfill certain conditions and register its name at the office of the Election Commissioner.
While applying for recognition, the party needs to state clearly its name and address and should attach its rules and regulations and its fiesta.
The political parties must fulfill the following requirements:
(a) The name of the political party and its central office address,
(b) The names and addresses of the members of its Executive Committee or any such other committee,
(c) The income source of the proposed political party and the details of such sources.
A statement of the political parties with one member in the Interim Legislature-Parliament 2007, is given in the following table:
- Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
- Nepali Congress
- Communist Party of Nepal (UML)
- Madhesi People’s Right Forum
- Terai Madhesh Democratic Party
- Rastriya Prajatantra Party
- Nepal Sadbhabana Party (Anandi Devi)
- Nepal Workers and Peasants’ Party
- Janmorcha Nepal (Sherchan)
- Janmorcha Nepal (K.C.)
- Sanyukta Bam Morcha
- Janmorcha Nepal (Ale)
- Rashtriya Janasakti Party
- Nepal Sadbhabana Party (Mandal)
We know that the ideal way to study land and people is to visit them. The world is too large and the time and resources at our disposal are too short to make it possible. So, in the study of geography, globe, maps, and diagrams provide visual content for geographical descriptions.
We have already posted some facts, information about the globe, maps, survey maps, conventional symbols, scale, distance, contours, direction, and bearing in previous articles.
First of all, I want to say you that A globe is the best way to show the surface of the earth since it is spherical in shape. A globe can show the size and shape of a place very accurately.
However, it would not be possible to show all the details on it and we can see only half of the earth at a time. Moreover, globes are not handy to carry around. So, a flat picture of the earth is needed for everyone’s convenience. It is called a map which shows information about the earth or a part of the earth.
A map is a geography at a glance. It is basically a flattened part of the globe. In other words, a map is the representation of a partial or complete world or any other object with its physical, cultural, and political identity using the appropriate color, index, conventional symbol, scale, north line, etc. on a flat sheet of paper.
Especially, maps are suitable for representing a small region of the earth and on which many details can be shown.
First of all, I want to say you that Prithivinarayan Shah is known as the founder of modern Nepal. He marked the beginning of the modern period in the history of Nepal. Before him, there were many small principalities in what we have today, modern Nepal.
Prithvi Narayan Shah himself was the King of a then small kingdom, Gorkha. When he became the king of Gorkha, Gorkha was comparatively a weaker kingdom.
The other states such as Chaubisi, Baisi, Sen, and Malla states were much more powerful and resourceful than Gorkha. At that time, the British rulers were trying to expand their control over India.
They also had a keen interest in Trans-Himalayan trade to Tibet through Nepal. In such a difficult situation, Gorkha under the leadership of King Prithvi Narayan Shah began the campaign for unification.
Prithivinarayan Shah laid the foundation of the unification of modern Nepal by conquering the Malla rulers of the Kathmandu Valley: Kantipur, Patan, and Bhaktapur.
In the later years, his -1 le son, Bahadur Shah, daughter-in-law, Rajendra Laxmi, and Gribanyuddha Bikram Shah completed his unification campaign. The unification campaign was completed in three phases.
Phase 1: Prithivinarayan Shah conquered Nuwakot, Makawanpur, the Kathmandu Valley, and most of the states of eastern Nepal.
Phase2: Rajendra Laxmi Shah and Bahadur Shah conquered and annexed most of the smaller Chaubisi and Baisi states of Gandaki and Karnali regions.
Phase3: During the reign of Gribanyuddha Bikram Shah, Bhimsen Thapa annexed the state of Palpa into Nepal.
The Ranas ruled Nepal for 104 years. The rule was despotic and unjust. At last, people revolted against it in 2007 BS. King Tribhuwan played a vital role in the revolution against the Ranarchy. For more about the history of Nepal
There are many news websites in Nepal which are providing news, Khabar in Nepali, and the English language. Some of them are onlinekhabar.com, ratopati.com, setopati.com, ekantipur.com, annapunapost.com, gorkhapatraonline.com, etc
Emailed by Kul Shrestha, Bagbazar