We are concentrating here on Nepal: An Introduction of Nepal, facts about Nepal, information about Nepal and borders of Nepal etc. Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia.
Nepal – Border, Facts, Introduction, Information All About Nepal
Nepal is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. With an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 30 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41st most populous country. Kathmandu is the capital of the nation and a treasure house of ancient art and culture. The population is 27 (2011).
Nepal is a multiethnic and multilingual country. The manifestation of autonomy to the major castes in their respective dominion can bring all people into the mainstream of development. So, these parties have brought forth the provision of the federal system of government. The second amendment to the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has also accepted this notion. The federal system involves dual government system: state government and central government.
The country is divided into different autonomous regions or states. Each state has its own government formed by the representatives of the people. The state government is provided with the autonomy to maintain law and order and improve the condition of the people, run internal administration and carry out development activities in its province or state. Legislation of rules, laws, policies and programs and the revenue collection and expenditure also come under the powers and functions of the state government.
The Garland of white snow-capped Himalaya in the North, calm blue Indian Ocean in the South, Burmese and Sulaiman arcs in the east and west respectively, flourishing the culture since the dawn of Civilisation through the elixir of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Indus water and encompassing six sovereign states (Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan , Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives) from the countries of South Asia. Geologically major part lies on the edge of Indian plate and a minor part of the northern region of the Euro-Asian plate.
See Also: 10+2 Facts about Nepal That Amaze You
The Mechi river makes the eastern border between Darjeeling district of West Bengal of India and Nepal while the Mahakali river (Sarda) is the western border between Garhwal of India and Nepal the southern border lies on the northern edge of Indo-Gangetic plain i.e about 20 to 40 km south from the edge of the hill range.
Geometrically the country has roughly a rectangular outline located between Latitude 26°22′ and 30°27;’ and longitude between 80°4′ and 88° 12′, with average east-west axis is 885 km and north-south 193 km. The total area of the country is 147181 sq km (83% of the hill and 17% of the flat terrain of Terai).
Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from sub-tropical to arctic. The mountainous north has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest called Sagarmatha in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level.
By some measures, Hinduism is practiced by a larger majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation. Buddhism though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal. Many Nepali do not distinguish between Hinduism and Buddhism and follow both religious traditions.
A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah Dynasty of kings from 1768 when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a decade-long Civil War by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12 point agreement of November 22, 2005. The ensuing elections for the constituent assembly on May 28, 2008, overwhelmingly favored the abdication of the Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic. The first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav was sworn in on July 23, 2008.
From the linguistic and cultural point of view, the Mongolians from the north and Indo-Aryan from the south since prehistoric times have come to form a racial and cultural unison and harmony. Nepal is, of course, the some of fierce Gurkhas- Magars, Gurungs, Newars, Rais, Rais and other small groups. They though speak their own language and commemorate their own feasts and fiestas, also unitedly to celebrate the national carnivals at their best. Similarly, from a religious point of view, Nepal is the sacred birthplace of Buddha “The prophet of peace and non-violence”.”.
So, Buddhism has flourished. And, the Hinduism does have an overwhelming faith in the people. The other religions prevailing are – Christianity, Muslims, and Nepal is an agro-based country. Approximately 90% people entirely dependent on agriculture. It is carried mainly in the Terai and plain valleys. The Terai produces rice, wheat, sugarcane, fruit oil-seeds etc. Similarly, animal husbandry is a prime occupation in the Himalayan realm, since the high peaks are snow-capped and the hills are forested. Goats, sheep, and yaks are reared on the pasturelands. However, some educated people are employed in other sectors viz-administration, business, teaching and so on. Now literacy rate has gone up to nearly 50%. Therefore, mushrooming numbers of schools and colleges are set up to cater to the need of this modern era.
Nepal has been made famous for its tourism, trekking, hiking, camping, mountain biking, national wildlife parks, jungle safaris, river rafting, sports fishing, and its many beautiful temples and places of worship.
The topography of Nepal:
The mountain region lies in the northernmost at the elevated level of more than 4000 meters and includes the highlands, treeless Alpine zones, semi-arid valleys, trans-Himalayan valleys and the highest peak. Eight out of top ten highest peaks of the world including Mt. Everest (8848 meter high) lie in this region. According to census 2001, only 7.3 percent people live in this region even if it occupies 16 percent area and people here mainly engage in growing yaks, some cold-tolerant crops such as potato, barley, maize and apple-like fruits. The hills region lies just below the mountain region mostly at the level between 1000 meter and 4000 meters.
It covers major ranges of hills like Mahabharata and Chure ranges, several intermountain valleys including Kathmandu Valley. It is the biggest region occupying 67 percent of Nepal’s total land area. The Plain contains the low tropical plains along with the southern part of the country. The plain region consists of the southern plain up of Indian border in the south, east, and west. This covers only 17 percent of its total area and hence densely populated region has more than 48 percent of the population living there. Today, most of the cities, towns and industrial areas are located in this region. This is also known as the food store of Nepal. As the ecology is varied, the climate in Nepal varies from tropical in the plain to Alpine in the mountains. The climate in different regions is different because of a diverse level of elevation.
Principal Rivers of Nepal :
Nepal has three major rivers and they are from east to west whereas the longest Koshi (513 kilometers), deepest Narayani (332 kilometers), and largest Karnali (507 kilometers). All these three rivers are major tributaries of the Ganga in northern India.
The climate of Nepal:
The climate is Tropical and sub-tropical in the plains, temperate in the hills and Alpine in the Mountains There are four seasons in Nepal. March-May, June – August, September – November, and December – February for spring, summer, autumn, and winter respectively. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons in Nepal. The weather and climate are controlled by the altitude and the seasonal alternation of the monsoon winds. The main rainy season in Nepal is from late June to September.
This is a period of warm to hot temperatures, much cloud, and frequent heavy rain. The temperature in Plain reaches as high as 40ºC during summer. At this time sunshine averages only two to three hours a day. About 80 percent rain falls in this period. Annual rainfall decreases from east to west due to northwestward movement of the moisture-laden summer monsoon. The amount of average annual rainfall in the eastern part, Kathmandu and western part is about 2500, 1400 and 1000 millimeters respectively, though there may be some seasonal variations. Pokhara, a touristic city located in western part, receives heavy rain falls. During the rest of the year, the weather is much more settled and pleasant. The days are mild or even warm, except on the higher mountains, and sunshine averages from six to nine hours a day.
Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The temperature in Kathmandu Valley ranges from 19-27ºC (67-81ºF) in summer and 2-20ºC in winter, hence pleasant. There are some dangers of floods and landslides during the heaviest rain falls, the climate of Nepal is rarely hazardous and on average is very pleasant. Some indication of variation and irregularities are being noticed in recent years due to global warming.
Natural Resources of Nepal:
Nepal does not have plenty of natural resources in terms of valuable minerals and petroleum. Though there are some indications of iron, copper, gold, zinc, limestone, slate, oil and gas, coal, sulfur, quartz, cobalt etc, yet they are not substantially excavated. Nepal is rich in scenic beauty, water resources, and forest. The north part consists of a beautiful range of mountains always covered with snow.
Land Use in Nepal:
Nepal’s mountainous terrain constraints land use options, and nearly one-third of the land area is unfit for agriculture or forestry. According to government figures for 2002, approximately 18 percent of the total land area was used for agriculture, of which 88.8 percent was categorized as arable land, 4.4 percent as land under permanent crops, and the remainder as pastures, woodlands, and other categories. The most agricultural land is in the Hill and Tarai regions. From 1962 to 2002, the total area of arable land increased (from 1.6 million to 2.5 million hectares) but declined as a proportion of land for agriculture (from 94.5 to 88.8 percent) because of the increase in land used for grazing and permanent crops, particularly fruit. Permanent crop cultivation also has reduced the proportion of land used for woodland and forest harvesting.
SOCIETY and PEOPLE of Nepal
Religion is important in Nepal. Before Nepal became a secular republic in May 2008, Nepal was unique as the one and only official Hindu state in the world with just over 81 percent of its population is Hindu, 9 percent Buddhist and 4.4 percent Muslim. Buddhist and Hindu shrines and festivals are respected and celebrated by members of both of these faiths. Nepali is the official language of Nepal but many government officials also speak English. The 2011 census reported 126 caste/ethnic groups living in Nepal. Nepal is a multilingual, multicultural and multiethnic country.
There are 126 caste/ethnic groups reported in the census 2011. Chhetri isthe largest caste/ethnic groups having 16.6% (4,398,053) of the total population followedby Brahman-Hill (12.2% ; 3,226,903), Magar (7.1% ; 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6% ; 1,737,470),Tamang (5.8% ; 1,539,830), Newar (5% ; 1,321,933), Kami (4.8% ; 1,258,554), Musalman (4.4% ; 1,164,255), Yadav (4% ; 1,054,458) and Rai (2.3% ; 620,004). There are total 123 languages spoken as mother tongue which was reported in census 2011. Nepali is most spoken as mother tongue by 44.6 percent (11,826,953) of the total population and followed by Maithili (11.7% equivalent to 3,092,530 people), similarly, Bhojpuri (5.98%; 1,584,958), Tharu (5.77%; 1,529,875), Tamang (5.11%; 1,353,311), Newar (3.2%; 846,557), Bajjika (2.99%; 793,418), Magar (2.98%; 788,530), Doteli (2.97%; 787,827), Urdu (2.61%; 691,546). There are ten types of religion categories reported in the census. Hindu is followed by 81.3 percent (21,551,492) of the population followed by Buddhism (9%; 2,396,099), Islam (4.4%; 1,162,370), ,Kirat (3.1%; 807,169), Christianity (1.4%; 375,699), Prakriti (0.5%; 121,982), Bon (13,006), Jainism (3,214), Bahai (1,283) and Sikhism (609).
Nepal’s population has continuously increased over time. It is estimated to be 26.9 million in 2008. It was ranked 40th position in the world in 2008. There is a regular census in Nepal in every ten years and the last census was conducted in 2011. According to that census, the population of Nepal as of the census day (June 22, 2011) stands at 26,494,504 showing population growth rate of 1.35 per annum.
Similarly, a total number of households in Nepal is 5,427,302 with 5,423,297 counts of individual households with 4,005 institutional households which were used as Hostels, Barracks, Monasteries etc. Not least but more, One in every four households that is 25.42% equivalent to 1.38 million households are reported that at least one member of their family is absent or is living abroad. And a total number of absent population is found to be 1,921,494 against 0 .76 million in 2001 due to the death, migration to the abroad or been status unknown due to the internal conflict between Maoist and the government. Among them, the highest proportion equivalent to 44.81 % of absent population were from the age group 15 to 24 years which is due to their movement to the abroad.
Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, and Pyuthan districts were reported as the highest proportion of the people in their population being absent as staying abroad. The increment of population within the last decade was recorded as 3,343,081 with the annual average growth rate of 1.35 % which is less then that of the census of 2001 and this change is unlike the last decade which was in increasing index but due to the successful movement of the government about the population education and most of the population were absent and hence there decrease the population growth rate.
Looking the geographically southernmost part of Nepal, Terai had 50.27 percent equivalent to 13,318,705 of the total population while Hill and Mountain had 43 percent which is equivalent to 11,394,007 and 6.73 percent equivalent to 1,781,792 of the total population respectively. And looking on the basis of the development region, among the five development regions, Central development region was recorded to have the highest population of 36.45 percent of total population and that of far western region belongs the lowest that is 9.63 percent of the total population.
Sex ratio which is the index that provides the number of males per 100 females to the national level has decreased to 91.6 in 2011 from 99.8 in 2001 and the reason is sure that more of the household economic responsibility belongs to the male member and male has to move out or abroad from the house to earn for livelihood. And hence in abstract number, there was 796,422 more female than males population in the country. Sex ratio was recorded highest (127) in Manang district and lowest record (76) in Gulmi district.
Similarly, life standard of the women has been improved from last time. Female-headed households in the country have increased by about 11 point percent from 14.87% in 2001 to 25.73% in 2011. Average household size at the national level has decreased from 5.44 in 2001 to 4.88 in the current census 2011. The household size is recorded highest (6.44) in Rautahat district and lowest (3.92) in Kaski. The fastest population growth rate over the decade was found in Kathmandu district of 61.23 percent which is also the capital city of Nepal, and least in Manang ( -31.80 percent ). Altogether 27 districts including Manang, Khotang, Mustang, Terhathum, Bhojpur recorded negative population growth rate during the last decade. This is due to the trend of people migrating toward the developed and administrative center.
In that census, it shows that the working age population (aged 15 to 59 years) has increased from 53 percent (12,310,968) in 2001 to about 57 Percent (15,091,848) in 2011 showing the population structure is shifting for enjoying demographic dividend in the country. Talking about the literacy rate, overall literacy rate (for population aged 5 years and above) has increased from 54.1 percent in 2001 to 65.9 percent in 2011. The male literacy rate is 75.1% compared to a female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3 %) and lowest in Humla (47.8%). These are the census aspect of the people of Nepal. But talking about the living standard of the Nepalese, they are increasing rapidly in the urban area band in average pace in remote area.
ECONOMY of Nepal
According to the constitution of Nepal, the government has their fundamental economic responsibility in order to create the independent and self-dependent economy through even distribution of economic gains, preventing the economic exploitation, as well the development of quality of private and public enterprise. Prior to 2010, the economy, like the country, was essentially closed to the world, and international economic relations were largely in the form of cross-border trade with India and China but in this year Nepal is supplying their goods from the third country as well but still have to respond to a neighboring country for transportation.
Since 1990, the government has adopted market-oriented policies with priority and with greater flexibility on the domestic economy and trade. The economy of Nepal is still characterized by center oriented planning. However, the government is the main source for domestic investment, and the brief on five-year plans usually direct such investment.
Now looking to the Budget of the Nepal the total expenditure outlay for Financial Year 2017 is NRs1048 billion (an estimated 39.5% of GDP), which is 28.1% higher than the budget estimate for FY2016 (Table 2). The FY2017 outlay comprises NRs617.2 billion for recurrent expenditures (58.8% of the total outlay), NRs311.9 billion for capital expenditures (29.7%), and NRs119.8 billion for financial provision (11.4%). The substantially larger size of the budget is due to the large increase in recurrent and capital spending. The outlay for recurrent expenditure (equivalent to 23.3% of GDP) is 42.2% higher than the revised estimated expenditure in FY2016. The planned capital spending has been increased by 96.1% over the FY2016 revised estimate (equivalent to 11.8% of GDP).
A total revenue target of NRs682.8 billion (25.7% of GDP) has been set for FY2017, including projected foreign grants of NRs106.9 billion (4.0% of GDP) and principal repayment of NRs10 billion. The budget deficit is to be financed by foreign loans amounting to NRs195.7 billion, domestic borrowing of NRs111.0 billion, and the FY2016 cash balance of NRs59.4 billion. Net foreign loans and net domestic borrowings are projected to be 6.4% and 3.5% of GDP, respectively. About Rs141 billion has been allocated for post-earthquake reconstruction and rehabilitation in FY2017.
Overview of Transportation:
Nepal’s transportation state is usually regarded as poor and obstacle for Nepal’s economic development. The mountainous and hilly area physically undergo the construction of the transportation network in order to expand the transportation infrastructure, but they remain unimproved and hence natural calamities destroy such trails and road. Most of the developed transportation infrastructure are concentrated mainly in the central and eastern parts of.
Mechanically old and unimproved transportation is common in both urban and rural areas, and mechanically advanced local transportation are only common in the Kathmandu Valley and somehow in Pokhara. The major modes of transportation of Nepal are air and road. Railroads are not in developed phase and that which exist are also in a phase of decline in quality and quantity. The Department of Transport Management oversees transportation issues, and its fiscal year (FY) 2017investment on transportation from the private and governmental sector is about 17.6 billion Nepali rupees.
Roads in Nepal:
Roads of Nepal is the principal transportation mode. From 1951 to 2005, total road length increased from 376 kilometers over 80,000 kilometers. This total road length also includes 3,028.7 kilometers that belong to national highways. Roads are mostly concentrated in the central and eastern development regions, and the government is under high pressure to expand the road network as well preserve and improve roads condition. Government allocations of the budget for roads have increased, but their construction and maintenance costs are usually high because of the mountainous topography, monsoon rains, and occasional landslides. According to Department of Transportation Ministry, the total of 1.99 million (1,995,404) vehicles was registered in the past fiscal year 2016-17
Railroads in Nepal:
Nepal’s railroad system is poor, outdated, as well is in declining use and quality. One and only Janakpur to Jaynagar rail service include two rail lines that link along the railheads of India. The rail distance of 32-kilometer section runs between Jaynagar of India to Janakpur of Nepal, and a 21-kilometer portion goes from Janakpur to Bijalpura. The planning of Birganj dry port with the railway service for freight was planned and The Birganj dry port was already completed in 2000 but only that could become operational only after 2005 due to the lack of an operating agreement between India and Nepal.
The Janakpur railroad has lost budget and money for years because of low fares, overstaffing, and political interference, as well the government is expressing their interest in privatizing the Nepal Railway Corporation. The government had signed an agreement in 2004 with the Container Corporation of India to develop container service between Birganjfor freight with various other Indian cities, including Kolkata. A narrow gauge 53 Km rail line was constructed by the East India Company for the purpose of carrying goods to India, especially for the transportation of wood from Nepalese forest in 1937(Bhattrai and Sitaula, 2011). Since then Nepal has not constructed any other railway line. However, in the first 5-year plan (1956-61) an extension of railway line up to Hetauda, nearest southern city of Kathmandu, was proposed but never materialized. In the sixth, 5-year plan (1980-85) development of railway was completely rejected, because, policy declared the mobility situation was not suitable for the railway.
In recent years, the nationwide electric railway has been given a priority. The government of Nepal has been preparing detailed project report (DPR) for the various section based on feasibility study report (GON, 2010). From the fiscal year 2014/15, a section of the construction project has been started. However, the feasibility study fails to consider the recent technological development in rail transport. One of the most serious concerns of the feasibility study is the recommended gradient. The suggested gradient is only 1%, whereas, with the Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) technology, railway track can be constructed up to 4% of the gradient. With the provision of such 1% gradient, connecting Kathmandu, the capital city of Terai will be made a 255 km additional detour route.
Another major drawback of this study is the track gauge. A broad gauge track had been suggested without doing any research. But many of the countries have been adopting a standard gauge. It seems that suggestion on the feasibility study and DPR is questionable. Without addressing those consequences, starting a construction of railway project raises serious concern about the right allocation of resources and sustainability of the transport project.
Civil Aviation and Airports in Nepal:
All the airports of the country are supposed to be operating under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), but only five of total 48 airports was ready for an airplane to take-off or land under Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR). In a country like Nepal, according to its landscape and associated meteorology, this rules can be implemented in terms of real operational time whereas most of Nepali airports have frequently seasonal problems associated with wind, clouds, rain, and mist which force the airport to delay for some hours or, even some days. Excluding, from these daily problems in the airport, some airports of Nepal remain close during the complete and after monsoon season. Hence, they are said to be seasonal, and the number of such type of airport is 20.
From the report of AIP, 29 of the total airports are considered as STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) ones, which means, airports are in which the short runway length, elevation hinderance, location or obstacles in the departure or landing path make the difficult situation for the construction of a conventional airport. In most of the case, Nepal airports are STOL because they are located in the valley that is between high hills or even the mountains, and hence their runway is too short, as well their runway slope somewhere is too high and hence they need complicated procedures in order to operate at.
Only 14 of the total number of airports in the country have a paved runway, in present status while another 22 of them have grass surface and the remaining two are made of clay material.
In accordance to report of AIP, only 9 of the total 48 airports have Air Traffic Control, and most of them are equipped with Aerodrome Flight Information Service (AFIS) of VHF Frequency. Eight of them are not equipped with any of these services and six of them are unmanned. With regard to their profits, none of the airports in the country are profitable, but some of them should be maintained since they act as a social means of transport and provide the resource to the community. The government also had classified 14 airports as social as well trying to provide some aids for private airlines and encourage them to provide their service in these routes, so that people living in those areas would not be completely isolated.
These social airports are the following ones: Bajhang, Bajura, Phaplu, Salley, Simikot, Jumla, Lamidanda, Manang, Rumjatar, Bhojpur, Chaurijhari, Dolpa, Thamkharka, and Tumlingtar. They are usually get served from the Regional Airport, but nowadays some of these routes are diverting or even disappearing along with the construction of new roads to that area. Rest of the airports in the country are most belong to tourism important ones, as well they mainly profitable like Pokhara, Syangboche, Phaplu, Taplejung, Lukla, Manang, Jomson, Meghauli, Dolpa, and Rara. Biratnagar Airport is the most profitable ones.In fact, this airport is the third Nepali biggest airport in terms of its passengers as Biratnagar is the largest business city in the country.
In previous sections, it has been already mentioned that Tribhuvan International Airport is the unique and meet standard requirement of the international airport and is only one airport in Nepal with international routes, but CAANis thinking of opening some others airports in major places to manage the international traffic. These plans are now directed to Bhairahawa and Pokhara and are under construction, but right now it will be for near regional destinations as per the lateral agreements with India which explain that flights to or from there will be treated like regional ones.
Pokhara is now processing on terminal building and it is also expected to link the city with Lucknow (India) in winter 2017-2018, and the Gautam Buddha Airport which is being used as a pilgrim airport for pilgrimage which is coming mainly from India to visit Lumbini, which is famous as Lord Buddha’s birthplace. Although Pokhara Airport is being redesigned, there is an undergoing project of a new airport in the city with the international meet of the infrastructure which can be the international airport in the near future, to substitute the first one. It will be also analyzed with the available source and information, however, it will need some years in order to start operation.
Apart from these plans of opening alternative international operation to those existing airports, Government of Nepal has decided to build another international airport some years ago in Kathmandu. This SIA (Second International Airport), for the moment it is only an assumed project, but in case if it was built, it would affect considerably increase the air traffic and disturbance to the airport’s network organization.
Ports in Nepal:
Nepal is a landlocked country with two large and economically strong nation. Nepal has poor and weak waterway transportation and as well there are no any waterway ports. However, the country has inbuilt two inland container depots right atSirsiya and Birganj, which help to service cargo to and from seaports of India. Both of those ports have experienced periods of nonuse because of problems such as customs disputes with India. There also have been proposals to use Janakpur as a dry port.
Pipelines in Nepal:
Nepal has no any pipelines yet. However, the Nepal Oil Corporation had signed a memorandum of understanding with the Indian Oil Corporation to build a 35-kilometer, pipeline from Raxaul (India) to Amalekhganj (Nepal) with an annual capacity of 1.1 million tons for transport of petroleum, diesel, and kerosene September 9, 2004. But due to the conflict and political disputes that project get vanished.
Executive Branch of Government of Nepal:
The executive branch of government also includes the President, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers or Cabinet including constitutional, statutory bodies, bureaucracy, comprising various personal services, in work to carry out executive functions. The President, as being the head of state, does not have to perform most of the executive functions but is one of the parts of the executive branch
The Cabinet can make its own rules and policy for the allocation and, allow it to run up and set the central secretariat which is described under Article 43 of the Constitution of Nepal. The Constitution also requires the Cabinet of Minister to proceed the executive functions in accordance with the laws which is enacted by parliament. The Constitution of Nepal provides the political system with the impartial, efficient and fair bureaucracy.
As head of state, the President of Nepal is given the responsibility of protecting the Constitution. Whereas, on the provisions of the Interim Constitution, the President is elected among the members of the Constitution Assembly and remain in office until the formation of the new Constitution. The President does meet with the Prime Minister at regular intervals but does not relate to executive functions. All bills passed by parliament by approval of the President and after those bills will be the law of Nepal.
The President may request to review the bill made by the government but has no authority to reject it. The President may also get information of administration and advice to the Prime Minister as needed. The Vice President will be the head of state in the absence of the President like during his foreign visit. The constituent assembly elects the both the President and the Vice President, and also has authority to remove the two office holders. The CA elected Nepal’s first
President Ram Baran Yadav and Vice President Parmananda Jha in July 2008. The Prime Minister is elected by the Legislature-Parliament and is the chief executive having most of the power of Government of Nepal.The first responsibility of the Prime Minister after chairing his post is to form the cabinet of minister for important topics, ministers of state, and assistant ministers. There is no any limit on the number of ministers, and since 2008, different prime ministers had formed their cabinets of varying sizes depending upon their political needs. Those ministers are individually answerable to the office of Prime Minister, and the Cabinet of parliament, Under the act of Constitution of Nepal, an individual either may be or not to be a member of parliament in order to become a minister.
Legislative Branch of Government of Nepal:
The legislature of Nepal was first conceived since the 1948 constitution, but it was not formed at that instant. In 1952The first serving legislature, the Advisory Assembly was and was followed as the Parliament in 1959. In 1962, the Rashtriya Panchayat was acting Legislative of Nepal, in 1952 the House of Representatives is regarded as the Legislative branch. The 2007Interim Constitution of Nepal created a their legislative body as the Legislature-Parliament.Legislature-Parliament, also serves the system as the Constituent Assembly.
The Constituent Assembly was formed by the national election in April 2008, and its first meeting held on May 20 of the same year. Its original two-year term is to be expired on May 28, 2010, but it was extended its term to four times.
There are total 601 members in the CA among which 240 elected through the first-past-the-post system, and 335 of them are elected through proportional representation, and 26 of them are nominated by the Cabinet of Minister on the basis of discussion and decision made from amongst prominent persons and the indigenous peoples. The same person heads both of the posts, as Chairperson of the CA and Speaker of the Legislature-Parliament.
Under the act of Constitution of Nepal, the person for Chair or Speaker and Vice Chair or Deputy Speaker are elected by the members of parliament, either by formal election or by all party political understanding. The Vice-Chairperson or Deputy Speaker have to chairs the sessions if there is the absence of the chair. The Speaker can be replaced or removed from office through the session conduct through the motion approved by the members and with the approval of a two-thirds majority of total members of the Constituent Assembly.
The Legislature-Parliament has its own rules for every process.These processes are based on the act of the Interim Constitution as per the Constituent Assembly Rules 2008, including Constituent Assembly, Conduct of Business of Legislature-Parliament Rules 2008. All members of parliament have to take an oath at the first session after their nomination by parliamentary rights and privileges.
Judicial Branch of Government of Nepal:
From the 1990 constitution including the constitution of Nepal 2015 describe the three-level court system consisting of 75 district courts in all 75 district (before two districts were further divided and total district count become 77), 16 appellate courts including 14 on every zonal area, and a Supreme Court. There is the provision of Quasi-Judicial function to Village and municipal bodies for minor offenses. All courts have their original jurisdiction, but most judicial matters are over district courts. The judicial system bind on all, including the person in the major posts of Nepal.
The Supreme Court has a chief justice appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council and 14 judges are nominated by the President with the recommendation of the Judicial Council, including that of appellate and district court judges. The House of Representatives can chair Supreme Court justices by impeachment. The judiciary regarded of as more autonomous, but it usually suffers from the large case of backlogs, insufficient personnel, political influences, poor coordination of jurisdiction between courts, and biases based on caste and economic status.
Thus, many Nepalese are not experiencing the official court system as a reliable option for legal matters. From the survey that was conducted in 2000 present the report that the majority of legal-type issues were not being handled by government officials instead by local actors and village chiefs.
Supreme Court also has appellate jurisdiction as well jurisdiction over all courts, excluding military courts.
To the Local Self Governance Act (LSGA) of 1999 on a basis for Nepal’s two-tier local government system. But the local bodies had been without elected representatives from May 2002, when the teams of those elected in 1998 were expired. And long after 15 years local level election held on Nepal with 3 level of election for the local government, as a stopgap measure.
In 2008 when the government formed All Party Mechanisms (APMs) in order to make local decisions, but this system was dismissed in January 2012 with accusing of charges of misuse of local funds.The LSGA is established seeking to promote public’s participation in governance through the practice democracy and spread of authority. It as well establishes institutional mechanisms which are needed for local self-governance for making the governmental bodies accountable to the people as they serve and represent. Recently local election was held with the three terms in this year 2017.
The LSGA has right to establish the structure of local government institutions. The council is supreme to the deliberative body. This council makes programs and budgets, staffing, audit reports, taxes, fees and service, periodic annual plans, formulates and approves policies. This committee is like the executive body that implements the decisions of officials of the committee. Between elections, the rural municipality Secretary, and the Chief Executive Officer of the municipality, along with the Local Development Officer (LDO) at the District Development Committee and all central government officials carry out the functions of both council and the committee.
Under the LSGA and its Regulations, local bodies can form committees for various needs and purposes. Principal purposes include the managing of plans, recruiting and accounts, subject local matter and integrated development matters. In addition, there are district-level committees with broad monitoring for supervision and coordination functions, which are generally chaired by elected officials.
Electoral System in Nepal:
As usual of universal suffrage for citizens, Nopal follows the 18 years of age and older eligible for casting votes. The minimum age in order to run for office is 21 for local offices, and minimum 25 for the House of Representatives, and minimum 35 for the National Assembly. Members of rural municipalities and municipalities are directly elected and constitute an electoral group that would elect district development committee members. The number of district representatives for national office is proportional to the district’s population, while the number of representatives for the district and local offices is based on area, population, and other factors.
Politics and Political Parties of Nepal:
From the restoration of democracy in 1990, political parties have been among the most influential actors in politics, but their popularity and effectiveness are generally seen declining.In Nepal history in February 2005, the king has suspended all parties, claiming they were not effectively addressing the civil conflict, yet the suspension’s constitutionality is debated. For many reasons, political parties have never been capable of challenging the king’s power and have rarely mobilized a large number of the population. The parties are frequently acted as representing distinct social identities, often those activists of dominant caste/ethnic groups. Competition within and among parties is most common and is often perceived as based on personal interests rather than on ideology or policy. Many actions of parties and their member are oriented to acquiring and maintaining power. As measured from votes received in the 2013 election, the most popular parties were the Nepali Congress, Nepali Communist Party(UML), and United Nepal Communist Party(Maoist).
Mass Media in Nepal:
Historically, radio has been the most popular means of mass communication. Government-owned Radio Nepal as the sole domestic radio provider since 1951, and by 1995 it started broadcasting in short-wave, medium-wave, and FM frequencies. Private operators can take lease the FM channel, and there are also plans to establish FM stations outside the capital. Television programming has commenced in 1985, and broadcasters include government-owned Nepal Television, with three channels, and private broadcasters Nepal One, Shangri-La, and Space-Time Network Kantipur television.
Most of the private television broadcasters have experienced financial losses and content restrictions. Foreign programs are accessed via satellite or distributed through cable. Statistics on viewership are not available, but it is more than 75% percent of the population. From to government figures, in 2015 Nepal had 5570 registered newspapers, of which 1092 were published daily. Kantipur had the highest daily circulation at around 7,80,902. Most registered newspapers have published either weekly (3,876) or monthly (1,580). Most of the news media are regarded as having little credibility as a result of affiliations with political parties.
Constitutionally, foreign policy is to be followed by “the principles of the United Nations Charter, nonalignment policy, the Panchsheelnational law that include five principles of peaceful coexistence, inter and the value of world peace.” In practice, foreign policy has not been aimed toward projecting influence internationally but toward persisting autonomy and addressing of domestic economic and security issues. Nepal’s most international relations are perhaps with the international economic groups, such as the International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a multilateral economic development association.
Nepal also has strong bilateral relations with the major donor of economic and military aid, such as France, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, the United States, and particularly the United Kingdom, with whom the military agreement was made on the date to the nineteenth century. The country also maintains strong and equal political relations with India and China, usually tendency of balancing one against the other. However, relations with India are fraught with trade and border misunderstanding and Indian have suspicions that Nepalese and Pakistani rebels use the and of Nepal as a haven to attack India. Relations with Bhutan have been cold since 1992 over the nationality and possible repatriation of refugees from Bhutan.
Nepal Membership in International Organizations:
Nepal is a member of numerous international organizations including; Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation; Colombo Plan; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, South Asian Association for Regional CooperationInternational Development Association;the Asian Development Bank; Group of 77, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International Chamber of Commerce;International Fund for Agricultural Development International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes; Mulitlateral Investment Guarantee Association; Nonaligned Movement; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons; South Asia Coope; International Civil Aviation Organization; International Criminal Police Organization; World Meteorological Organization;International Organization for Standardization; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies;World Customs Organization; International Finance Corporation;; International Labour Organization; International Maritime Organization; International Monetary Fund; International Olympic Committee; International Organization for Migration (observer); International Telecommunication Union; rative Environment Program;; United Nations (UN); UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UN Industrial Development Organization; Universal Postal Union; World Bank; World Health Organization; World Intellectual Property Organization;, World Tourism Organization, and World Trade Organization.
Major International Treaties of Nepal:
Nepal had made treaty with numerous international treaties including the Basel Convention for the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal;Convention on the Rights of the Child; International Atomic Energy Association Safeguards Agreement; Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (signed but not ratified as of September 2005); Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; Convention on Biological Diversity;Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas (signed but not ratified as of September 2005); Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna; Chemical Weapons Convention; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat; Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Geneva Protocol;; International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights; International Tropical Timber Agreement 1983; International Tropical Timber Agreement 1994; Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer; Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water; United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification; and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Foreign Military Relations:
Nepalese has served in both the British and Indian armies, but Nepal has no formal military links with other countries or other intergovernmental organizations other than the United Nations. Since 2001, India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other governments have provided various forms of assistance to maintain the peace in Nepal
Nepal has no threats from another country’s regular military forces.
Major Military Units:
Nepal has an army but no any, coast guard, navy, marines, or air force.But command and control of the military have undergone significant changes since 1990, and in 2008 there was the formation of the Nepalese Army (NA) shifted from a brigade-based figure to one based on divisions. There are six combat divisions, each responsible for a particular area (Far-Western, Mid-Western, Western, Central, Eastern, and Valley), and each of them includes combat brigades, combat support, and combat service support units. One combat brigade is designated as the Royal Guards Brigade, and there are separate aviation and special operations brigades. Each brigade contains two to three infantry battalions that include logistics, rifles, and support and several other independent infantry companies, such as air defense, artillery, engineers, ordnance, repair, light artillery, and signals. Foreign observers estimate that in 2014 the army had between 63,000 and 85,000 active-duty personnel, including nearly 320 personnel in the Nepal Army Air Wing (NAAW)
The minimum age to get involved military service is 18. Women are also eligible for military service, but most serve in noncombat positions.
The Armed Police Force (APF) was established in January 2001 as a subordinate part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, which had dominantly created some tensions between the ministry and the army. The APF has a force of approximately 70,000 personnel, and its primary function is to maintain internal security, Other duties include security of VIP and assisting the Nepal Police in the maintenance of law and order.
Foreign Military Forces:
The British Gurkhas Nepal, a British Army organization, has 567 personnel engaged in recruitment, pension payment, and other administrative services for Nepalese that serve or have served in the British Army as part of the Brigade of Gurkhas.
Military Forces Abroad:
The prestigious reputation of Nepalese soldiers is due to part to their foreign service. The Indian army has more than 40,000 Nepalese, and approximately 3,300 Nepalese serves in the British Army’s Brigade of Gurkhas. The number of Nepalese in the British Army has declined from the 8,000 that served in 2010 but remains one of Nepal’s most important sources of foreign exchange. Nepalese in the Brigade of Gurkhas have served anywhere that British soldiers do, except in Northern Ireland. Currently, all units of the Brigade of Gurkhas are centered in the United Kingdom except the Gurkha battalion on Brunei, the British Gurkhas Nepal, and through the deal with the British Army the Gurkha Contingent of Singapore Police Force.
Nepal is also the member of the United Nations (UN) Disengagement Observer Force, and Nepalese troops also have been actively working in multilateral forces under UN auspices. As of January 2005, Nepal was the world’s fourth-largest contributor of troops for peacekeeping missions, which include 3,016 troops serving in various international peacekeeping operations. Since 1958, almost 46,000 Nepalese troops have participated in 29 different missions. As of 2005, Nepalese troops were serving in, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Haiti, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , Israel and Syria, Kosovo, Liberia, the Middle East, and Sudan. Nepalese troops are serving in numerous other UN peacekeeping operations.
Police: The police force is the unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs. It was established under the Police Act 1956 to control as well to investigate crime and maintain law and order. When investigating a crime, the police may, according to a court order, detain suspects for investigation. Upon completion of the investigation, the police have to submit a report supporting evidence in the office of the district attorney’s office. The District Attorney, have to be satisfied with the report and the evidence, which then files a case in District Court. If he is not satisfied, the district attorney can direct the police in order to investigate further. Investigations are done through the Department of Crime Control and Investigation. Police officers in the department can be transferred at any time, and this can obviously affect investigations.
Human Rights in Nepal:
The constitution of Nepal provide basic human right of
1) Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
i) Arbitrary Deprivation of Life and other Unlawful or Politically Motivated Killings
iii) Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
iv) Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
v) Denial of Fair Public Trial
vi) Arbitrary or Unlawful Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence
2) Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
i) Freedom of Speech and Press
ii) Internet Freedom
iii) Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
iv) Freedom of Religion
v) Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons
3) Freedom to Participate in the Political Process
4) Against Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government
5) Right to be against Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
6) Right of against Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons
7) Worker Rights which include:
i) Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining
ii) Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
iii) Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment
iv) Discrimination with Respect to Employment and Occupation
v) Acceptable Conditions of Work
How was the Country of Nepal formed?
Nepal, a small Himalayan country, sandwiched between two giant South Asian countries, India and China are the 93rd largest country in the world. Today Nepal is known worldwide for its own unique culture, tradition, customs and art and artifacts. However, this small country was not designated as a country before the late 17th century. So, how this small Himalayan country formed over the period of 2 centuries? Here is the detailed history of the formation of the Country “Nepal”.
Before the 18th century, ‘Nepal’ was mostly called to the Kathmandu valley only. There were small other states, however, those states were not unified and all the states had its own kings and queens. In the Kathmandu Valley itself, there were three states; Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur.Thus up until union of the Nepal, Nepal’s past history is basically the history of only Kathmandu valley.
The credit for the unification of Nepal goes to King Prithvi Narayan Shah. He later came to power after his father King NaarBhupal Shah in 1743 AD.Prithvi Narayan Shah remained well aware of the political situation of the small kingdoms and he predicted there is the urgent need for getting all the small principalities into one nation for the ultimate survival of the country in the near future. He later urged himself to do the task according to his plan
King Prithvi Narayan Shan’s conquest march initiated with the victory of Nuwakot, which is a state that lies between Gorkha and Kathmandu. After Nuwakot, the conquest other small kingdoms in the hills that surround Kathmandu Valley. After that, the Valley’s communication with the outside world was cut off. Finally, king Shah entered the valley. After he defeated Kirtipur, the king of Kathmandu, Jaya Prakash Malla, asked for the help of the East India Company and accordingly, they sent soldiers to protect the king of Kathmandu in 1767. However, the British were defeated at Sindhuli by King Prithvi Narayan Shah’s army. This shattered the dream of King of Kathmandu, King Jaya Prakash Malla.
The victory of King Prithvi Narayan Shah over Kathmandu was very dramatic. On September 25th, 1768, while whole Kathmandu was rejoicing the Indrajatra Festival, Prithvi Narayan Shah along with his army trooped into the city. Prithvi Narayan Shah sat on the throne of the king and was hailed by the citizens of Kathmandu as the King. Jaya Prakash Malla succeeded to escape and took refuge in Patan. Later, King Prithvi Narayan Shah captured Pathan and Bhaktapur subsequently. Thus, the whole Kathmandu Valley was ruled by Prithvi Narayan Shan and Kathmandu became the new capital of modern Nepal.
Prithvi Narayan Shah became very successful in bringing the-varied Religio-ethnic clusters under one nation – Nepal. He was a true patriot and was in favor of accepting a closed-door strategy regarding British. He is also the reason Nepal was not under the British rule. Had Prithvi Narayan Shah not unified Nepal, it would have been very difficult to fight against East India Company. His socio-economic views have guided the socio-economic course for a very long time.
Nepal got the status of the country in the year 1768 AD.
Regional AND FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT of Nepal
Nepal is a landlocked country situated in South Asia. it has an area of l,47,181 sqm. It is bordered by China to the north and India in the east, west, and south. On the basis of landform, Nepal is divided into three geographical regions. They are :
- Mountain Region
- Hilly Region
- Terai Region
Terai Region of Nepal
There is a significant variation in terms of resources and development amongst the regions. The land of Terai is plain and fertile, so cultivation of various crops and other economic activities can be easily developed in this region. Most of the districts of the Terai region are connected to the cities and India by roadways. But, construction of infrastructures like transportation, irrigation, etc is difficult and expensive in Hilly and Mountain region due to difficult topography. On the other side, Terai region has easy access to India so that import and export of raw material and manufactured goods is easy. Therefore, industry and trade can be easily developed in the Terai. But, due to inadequate transportation and other facilities development of industry and commercial farming is not easy and smooth in Hilly and Mountain regions.
According to 2011 census, it accommodates over 50 (50.27)% population of the country and it is at an increasing rate. About 40% of its land is fertile and there is irrigation facility as well. A variety of food and cash crops like paddy, wheat, maize, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, tea, etc. are cultivated here. This region can be provided with infrastructure facilities like transportation, communication, education, health, electricity, etc. easily. Hence, the region is under population pressure due to internal migration. But these horizontal specialties hinder parallel and harmonious development. The grain of Terai region does not find market whereas people of Hilly and Himalayan regions die of starvation.
Hilly Region of Nepal:
The Hilly region is located in the middle part of the country, between the Himalayan and the Terai regions. It stretches from east to west and lies between the altitude of 610 to 4,877 meters above sea level. This region has several attractive hills, Mahabharat, Churai, fertile valleys, and river-basins. These valleys and basins are densely populated while other parts are sparsely populated. This region occupies 68% of the total land area of the country of which only one-tenth is suitable for cultivation. Over 40 (43.01)% population of the country lives in this region but at a decreasing rate. The main occupations of the people living in its higher altitude are animal farming, cottage industry and cultivation of high altitude cereals like maize, millet, buckwheat, fruits, and vegetables. People in the lower altitude cultivate a variety of cereal crops and cash crops. Besides river basins, valleys and undulating slopes, other parts are better by fruit culture Than agriculture.
See Also: Top Information about Nepal
The geographical diversity and unequal distribution of resources in the country have become major causes of unequal development. This situation has also caused the uneven population distribution and migration of people from Hill and Mountain to the Terai and to the cities from village areas. This sort of regional disparity in Nepal is a great problem.
With a view to maintaining balanced development in all parts of the country, the concept of regional development commenced in Nepal along with the rule of late King Birendra. This concept has been implemented by the creation of developing regions. So, Nepal was divided into four development regions in 2029 BS. Later, in the year 2037 BS, one more development region, Far-Western Development Region was added including Seti and Mahakali. If you have questions about When was Nepal divided into development regions, then this is the answer. Thus, Nepal has five development regions with their regional headquarters. These regional headquarters conduct the administrative and developmental works of their respective development regions.
Tourism includes all the activities or services such as lodging, feeding, guiding. translating, entertaining through hotels, lodges, travel agencies, guides, translators, etc. rendered for the tourists during their stay. The moment a group of tourists arrives in Nepal, they are escorted to their hotels in the vehicles by the local guides. During their stay in Nepal, some of them go out of the town to trek in the surrounding hills where they are helped and looked after by the guides and hotel owners. Some of them may be interested in understanding the religious and cultural characteristics of Nepal and they visit historical places, temples, monasteries or like to stay with a particular community. Some of the tourists may prefer more adventurous sports and go for mountain climbing. During their stay in Nepal, they may like to buy pieces of handicrafts, carpets or curio items as souvenirs. Providing accommodation to the tourists, taking them from one place to another, flooding and entertainment come under tourism.
Today, the tourism industry is one of the largest and most expanding industries in the world. In 1997, the World Travel and Tourism Organization estimated that the industry provides employment to some 262 million people, about 10 percent of the total working population of the world and accounts for 8 percent of the total Gross Domestic Product.
There are 4,000 types of Monoecious and 2800 types of dioecious flowers in Nepal. The highest national park is Sagarmatha National Park enlisted on the World Heritage List. Of the total flora found in the world, 233% are found in Nepal. 9.57% or 852 species of birds are found in Nepal. The Spiny Babbler (‘Bhyakura’ in Nepali) is a unique bird which is not found elsewhere. One horn rhinoceros, snow bear, snow leopard and rare blackbuck are found in many parts of the country.
Terai region of our country attracts a number of tourists. The highest number of tourists are lured by Chitwan National Park. Tourists raft and camp in and on the bank of Trisuli river for about two-three days and reach Chitwan. Chitwan gives a feeling of seashore due to the second biggest river Narayani which passes almost through the middle part of Chitwan National Park. Many traditional lodges are established there. Tourists can go for Jungle Safari. They can hire an elephant and view other wild animals. Gharial crocodiles of Chitwan are very famous all over Nepal and in the world. Tourists can also watch Tharu’s stick dance here.
Adjoined with it is a Parsa Wildlife Reserve. It is equally rich in flora and fauna. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve preserves many wetland creatures. It is very famous for the several species of birds and fish. Bardia National Park is another famous habitat for wildlife. The birthplace of Gautam Buddha, Lumbini, is a famous pilgrimage not only for Buddhists but also for Hindus. Janakpur attracts thousands of Indian and other tourists annually. Dhulabari, Biratnagar, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj are other famous places for tourists.
Capital of Nepal
Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. The only international airport – Tribhuvan International Airport – lies in this capital city. The tourists who land here spend a few days in Kathmandu and go for trekking outside. Some tourists stay in Nepal only for three to seven days. Some of them only stay in the Kathmandu Valley and go back. During their stay here they may visit Banepa, Dhulikhel, Nuwakot. The Kathmandu Valley is a historical city. It is a good destination for tourists. Most of the top level offices have been established in this city. So, it is the center for official works and conferences. The five star, four star, and other star hotels are located here. The religious places like Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Dakshinkali, Bajrabarahi, Bauddhanath, Changunarayan and Budhanilakhantha attract a large number of tourists.
There is Natural Museum at Swayambhu, National Museum at Chhauni and a Museum in Hanumandhoka. Tourists visit them, especially on the rainy days. The surrounding hills offer ample opportunity for cycling and motorcycling. The tourists can view the attractive sunrise from Nagarkot early in the morning. It takes almost half a day to visit and study the zoo at Jawalakhel. Lalitpur. Godawari botanical garden is another beautiful place to visit.
The Kathmandu Valley is an equally famous place for the domestic tourists as well. They come to see the capital city, to do business or to visit religious places as pilgrims.
Main Cities of Nepal
The other main cities include Pokhara, Biratnagar, Lalitpur (Patan), Bhaktapur, Birendranagar, Bharatpur, Siddhartanagar (Bhairahawa), Birgunj, Janakpur, Nepalgunj, Hetauda, Dharan, Itahari, Ghorahi, Lahan, Rajbiraj, and Mahendranagar.
Which Country’s Border Touch Nepal
Nepal is a small country but has linked with two biggest countries of the world. Nepal has many open borders which can be distinguished in the title of roadways, airways, and railways. Currently, the railways’ services are closed for some years. Railways services are freely given top Indian and Nepalese people in Janakpurdham. Indian railways route to Janakpur was only one railway that runs in some area of Nepal. Moreover, Nepal does not have their own railways. Nepal has an area of 1,47,181square kilometers.
But its neighbors is very much bigger than the Nepal. In the north, the Nepalese borders linked with the dragon that is China which is 62 times bigger than Nepal. And in the south, the border of Nepal links with India which is 22 times bigger than Nepal. The relationship of Nepal is better than China with India because we even get match our language and culture matched with Indian. India is the largest country in term of size as well as population. The Nepalese people are freely entered and exit from Nepal due to open border policy between two country.
The people of India and Nepal do their trade freely in India as well as the people of India also do their trade in Nepal. That is why many Indian and Nepalese are doing business and job two in each other’s country. The business relationship, culture relationship, helping funds, brotherhood, all the relationship is better than China with India. India and Nepal are treated as the two brothers of a single mother. That is why both express their happiness and sadness and help each other at the times of any hazard or catastrophe. Nepal is treated as the stones between two rocks while seeing its neighbors. The china and India are the leading countries in the world. Both are treated as the strongest country in terms of everything. Nepal and India have the long-term relationship because of the history link up.
The language of India is easily understood by the people of the Nepal. It also the helpful things which makes every Nepalese easy to understand and share their feelings and views with each other. The Nepalese tourism mostly depends upon the tour of India. Due to open border with India, most of the Indian tourist visit Nepal even they get a short time to relax and take rest. China is not even less than India in helping matter except all other things.
The language of China is totally different which makes difficulty and gap to makes our relationship better with China. Although, China also shows their love by helping great funds at any hazardous incidences. China also treats the Nepal as a friend. Even though, the relationship between Nepal and India is far better than China due to many dissimilarities that may be government system, language, culture, thoughts, selfishness etc. Nepal has also made their own placement and marks in the platform of world middy through these two big pillars beside.
1)Indian border touched with Nepal:
Indian bordered is touched most of the parts of Nepal. Nepal has made their relationship freely and frankly with India. As we know that Nepal has internally three regions that hilly Himalayan and Terai region. All three region are rich in their own sources and figures. These three regions have different features which make all threes unique and stronger individual to make the strongest composition as Nepal.
Clearly, if talk about the border of India, then Terai region has to get touched with India borders. Terai region is also called Madhesh where the people of Indian and Nepalese almost looks same. Most of Indian and Nepal does their trade by this corridor. All the main borders are open and connected with India to Terai region. whereas the Himalayan region has made their border link with China.
China has the border patch up in the Himalayan region. It is also the problem that the trade and transportation are not services well for departure and going any kinds of business. Due to difficulties in roads, and traveling, it becomes difficult to make a journey and do trade conveniently. The relationship between Nepal and India has become so stronger because of daily transmission of people to India and Nepal. It is all happened due to bets road services. Terai has plain lands. And it becomes easy to develops the roads and transportation facilities. That is the Indian border has become most active border to incoming and going of people their purpose.
In all the borders of India and Nepal, there is open of immigration offices 24 hours because there is going and coming of people every time immigration offices helps them to make the reliable journey. Due to the open border, there also have a great probability of doing or importing some dangerous or harmful things, maybe weapons, and other illegal materials. It is available for 24 hours security to filtered them and scanned the people to make the safe arrival in the Nepal. In all the entry and exits, polls of Nepal have made available the offices of immigration for stamping and permitting their permission to make their visits freely and legally in Nepal. Here are some places which are most used and popular entry and exit polls of Nepal to departure to other country or arrival in Nepal.
I)International Airport, Kathmandu:
This is the Tribhuvan international airport which is located in Kathmandu. It is the most used destination for arrival and departure. The people from the world firstly land here if they enter Nepal through airways. Nepal has only one airline and currently, others are in the construction phase. The international airport has got popularity because of only one airport located in the capital. The airport has welcomed all the people of the world because it has become the first gate arriving in Nepal. So, this is also the link ups which makes the relationship with other countries. It is also the preferable border link up to the people of those countries.
It exists in the eastern part of Nepal and almost 610km from the Kathmandu. The city has its own identity and owns glamorous. It is also popular for exit and entry of Indian as well as Nepalese. Kakarbhitta is taken as the border area where the people o both country fulfills their needs and gap by visiting each other country.
It is taken as the Nepal largest customs and border. Almost 80% of import is done through this border. Nepal and India government has recently made their team activated for grounding the pipeline for importing of petrol and gases. This border transfer the many people in each country. Nepal economic is also depended upon the earning of this customs. When there is highest earning it means the economy is good and vice versa.
Moreover, there are small and large altogether many borders which have touched the border of India in different places. Some of them are Mohana, Dhangadi, Jamunaha Nepalgunj, Gadda Chauki Mahendranagar etc.
2) China border touched with Nepal:
China lies in the north and Himalayan and hilly region are stated also in the north. So most of the Chinese border has connected to hilly region places. China and India borders are not so open because of bad transportation and other facilities. People of the hilly and Himalayan region does not go to the market of China for trade and buying something. But the people of the hilly and Himalayan region even travel to Terai for buying the good and services. It happens due to the non-similarities in the goods and habits of the Chinese and Nepalese. Many of our living style, dishes, and food does not get matched with them. So that we do not want to accept there given things and even we do not visit their market for trade. Yes, but it is happening in large trade platform that is Kathmandu.
One of the two countries that is bordered to Nepal is China. It is one of the biggest and largest country in the whole world. The border that seperayes these two countries (India and China) is 1236 kms in length. It is more like a natural boundary as the the himalayan range extends from northwest to southeast separating the south of Tibet Autonomous Region of China and the territory of Nepal and what’s more catchy about this border is thhat it passes through the highest peak in the whole world, Mount Everest.
The trade relationship between Nepal and China has always been smooth which they have carried out for decades and is still going on with all the positive vibes and new ideas. Nepalese have been trading with tibet for a very long time now. They have traded with the Tibetans through many border crossings. Among the many goods traded from tibetan areas, salt was the most important trade. There is a great history behind this border if we look back. Before 1960, there was a short border dispute between People’s Republic of China and Kingdom of Nepal which they resolved in 1961 by officially signing border agreement.
Similarly in 2012, Nepal and China agreed to open new portss of entry by signing a treaty, to a total of 6 official ports where three of them are designated as international ports while the other remaining three are designated as bilateral ports. As of now, only three of the 6 borders are active and the remaining ports are in planned process. Among them zhangmu – kodari highway is one of the most popular highway that is widely used and preferred than the others. The zhangmu- kodari border crossing on the Friendship highway has been active since 1968. This highway was damaged and partly affected by the massive earthquake of 2015 and remained closed after that. Some repais were done by 2016 but the highway was not restored to pre-quake levels, since then the route is not so favourable for trading.
Many trade routes for border crossing between these two countries were severely affected due to the massive earthquake in 2015. The popular border crossing town between these two countries, Zhangmu was suffered due to the earthquake so the Chinese government moved the border crossing to Kyriong which is about 70 km west from Zhangmu. The Kyriong border crossing will serve as a main border crossing between Tibet and Nepal which is also open to the foreign travellers.
On 28 August, 2017, the Tibet Bureau announced that the Tibet Nepal border is announced for foreign travellers as well which also includes the popular route from Lhasa to Kathmandu but the foreign travellers must be on an organized tour to travel. Nepal and Tibet have celebrated a long relationship of trading. There were minor changes on the routes of border crossing between these two countries due to the earthquake that occured in 2015 and now the main port for border crossing between these two countries will be the Kyriong border crossing.
Most of the readymade dress materials are imported from China. The borders of Nepal which are touched with China are Sindhupalchok, Taplejung etc. But all these borders are not used in an active manner rather in a passive manner. People of Pahad even fulfill their requirement by sloping down to Terai region. Many borders with China also touched with Nepal. The real data which show the adjacent with the borders of India only, China only and India and Nepal both. Some of the borders of Nepal are touched with India only while some of the borders are touched with China only. And more than, some of the borders have made their touches with both China and India.
Here is the list of the borders who have made their links with borders simultaneously.
a). The list of district which borders is adjacent to India only is 24 that are Panchthar, Illam, Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, , Bardia, Baitadi , Dhanusha, Mahottari, Sarlahi, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kailali, kanchanpur, Dadeldhura, Kapilbastu, Dang, Banke Districts.
b). The list of the district which is adjacent with the borders of China only is 14 districts that are Sankhuwasabha, Solukhumbu, Dolakha, Kavrepalanchowk, Sindhupalchowk, Rashuwa, Dhading, Gorkha, Manang, Mustang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla, and Bajhang.
c). The list of the district which borders get touched with both India and Nepal both are 2 hats are Taplejung and Darchula.
3) Touching of Nepal’s border with Bangladesh and Bhutan:
Nepal border has also touched with Bangladesh and Bhutan. They are also our neighbor country. That is why they are very close to us. the relationship of Nepal and these two countries are also very good. The trade is easily done between these two countries. In these two countries, Nepal has done help each other and share the love and happiness with each other. Bhutan is very close and near to Nepal than other countries. Bhutan is very near and we can first and fast land to Bhutan by airlines. It is only 400 km from Kathmandu. Nepal and Bhutan have also the very good foreign relations in the ultimate platform.
Bhutan and Nepalese religions are also almost same and treated as friends and brothers. Many Bhutanese also works and survive in Nepal by their wish. The distance between Nepal and Bhutan is 32 km which can be traveled by roadways or airways. The facilities of railways are not available. The people of Bhutan follows the religion of Buddha and the world knows the religion of Buddha has been started from Nepal. Nepal is also known as the country of Buddha. Bhutan and Nepal have a very familiar relationship and both countries are like brothers serving and helping each other at the time of needs and hazard.
Similarly, the Bangladesh is also the top list country from where the Nepal import the medicine. Bangladesh also shows their friendship at the time of any hazard comes in the country. The border of Nepal and Bangladesh has not been touched directly with Nepal as Bangladesh and Nepal have the border distance gap of only 27 km. Nepal is very much close to Bangladesh even from Bhutan while we evaluate it by living in any particular center. Also, has made very deep and almost unbreakable relationship with India than with China, and Bhutan and Bangladesh serially. And is an independent country and popular for its bravery and strong identification of the Gorkha soldiers and has never been become the slave of any other country.
Bangladesh and Bhutan have also treated as our neighborhood because of its border lie very close to our border. Even the bordered is very close to Bhutan and Bangladesh. There is not coming and going of people for their personal purpose in each other country. The people are strictly disallowed to visit in other countries. If they want to visit or enter to Nepal, then they have to take permission by presenting the passport. When they come or enters Nepal with any one’s permission through legal rules, then they are treated as the terrorist and are punished accordingly. But the people of India are anytime allowed without any permit visa and barriers. Both countries have the good and unbreakable relationship that other country does not have.
Facts About Traditions Of Nepal
Nepal is one of the smallest and beautiful countries in the world. Economically, it is a poor country but the tradition and culture of Nepal are rich and unique. The tradition of Nepal is very unique and special in its own way. It is incredibly influenced by its music, architecture, religion, literature and somehow by Indian, Mongolian, and Tibetan culture and traditions as well. The traditions of Nepal naturally is incomparable to any other nation. Some of the most famous traditions of Nepal are listed below:
Nepal is called as the multi-racial, multi-religious, and multi-lingual country. It is also known as the garden of four castes and thirty-six sub-castes. People living in mountains are of different traditions than those in hills and the Terai. Similarly, All of the castes people in Nepal like Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Sherpa, Rai, Limbu, tharu..etc have their own kind of rituals and practices.
In case of Brahmin and Chettri, these castes people are mostly found in hilly areas. They follow Hindu tradition according to which they celebrate nwaran ceremony i.e. (naming the born child) after the eleven days of childbirth. Bratabandha is done for a son and they are given a sacred thread (Janai) after the religious rites. The dead body of these castes is burnt according to the Hindu.
Talking about the practices of Newari people who are mostly found in Kathmandu valley. Their nwaran is done from fourth to the eleventh day of birth. “Belibiwaha” is a very famous ritual among the Newari There is another custom of gufa for girls. The dead body is burnt according to their tradition. They celebrate the festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Gai Jatra, Ghode Jatra, mage sakranti ..and so on.
Another group of people who lives in high hills and mountains are “Sherpas”. They belong to Buddhisms who celebrates nwaran ceremony on the third, seventh, and eleventh day of the baby’s birth. Losar and Buddha Jayanti are the festivals celebrated by them. On the other hand, there is another different group of people who live in terai areas and they are called “Tharus”.They are simple-minded and their particular culture and tradition are famous all around the world. The Nwaran is performed from sixth to the ninth day of the birth. Maghi, phage, jitia.. are the major festivals they celebrate.
In the eastern mountain of Nepal, we can find the Limbu people who worship nature like rivers and Himalaya. One of the very famous rituals of this community people is “Chori bibaha”. Limbu people celeb takes the festivals like “udhauli” on the full moon day of Mangsir and “ubhauli” on the full moon day of Baisakh. The Limbu community is very famous for their folk dance called Dhan naach. Similarly, another caste people i.e. Rai people live in the eastern hills of Nepal who gives a name to the new babies from third to the sixth day of birth. After the dead body is buried in a fixed place, they have the ritual of firing guns during the funeral. Their major festivals are Chandi naach, Nwayiand Badangnet.
Nepal, a multi-lingual country has the people of various religious strength among the people. However, Hindu people are great in number and Buddhism is one more popular religion of Nepal. The creator of Buddhism, Gautam Buddha was born in Lumbini who is famous as the ‘Light of Asia’. Beside this, there are lots of disciple of Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism and kirant All of these disciples have their own kind of festivals and other practices.
“Dashain” is one of the great festivals in Nepal which is especially celebrated by the Hindu religion people of Nepal. Not only the Hindu in Nepal but the Hindu people all around the world celebrate Dashain. This festival is celebrated for fifteen days from the day of
The special thing about this festival is the younger members of the family put tika and jamara from their elders and receives blessings and good wishes as well. Similarly, “Tihar” is another huge festival of Nepalese people. This festival is also called “Deepawali”. It is celebrated for five days from “Kartik Krishna Duwadashi” to “Kartik pratipada”. Its unique feature is the first two days of this festival is devoted to crow and dogs. On the third day, cows are worshipped in the morning and goddess Laxmi at the time of the evening. people keep their houses clean decorates and lights them with candles, oil lamps or colorful electric bulbs.
The people in the Himalayas like sherpas, Gurung, Tamang celebrates “Losar” as their main festival. The strange thing is all of these castes people celebrate their own kind of loshare. Gurung people celebrate “Tamu Losar”, the tamangs celebrates “Sonam Losar” and the sherpas celebrate “gyalpo Losar”. This is the festival of fun, dance, and sing.
A unique celebration that comes under the Nepali tradition is the celebration of “Janai Purnima”. This festival is celebrated on the full moon day of Shrawan. According to this festival, the male members of Brahmin and Chettri take bath early in the morning and changes Janai ( a sacred thread) for the year. On the same day in Terai, sisters tie rakhi on the wrists of their brothers with a belief that it would save their brothers from any kind of mishaps. However, people in newar community prepares delicious soup, “kuwati” on this day which is the mixture of the different kind of seeds.
The next uncommon ritual that comes under the tradition of Nepal is “Teej”. This festival is celebrated on Bhadra Shukla Tritiya (third day of full moon of Bhadra). This is the day when women keep fasting the entire whole day for better status and long lives of their husband and the unmarried girl’s wishes for a good
Likewise, there are many more rituals and rites that comes from Nepali tradition. Though there are many groups of people with different caste and culture, many of them live together sharing love, help, and cooperation with each other in the same society.
50 facts about Nepalese people
Geographically Nepal is situated between China and India. These two neighboring countrieshave the highest population in the world with both having more than one billion people, but the population of Nepal is very small compared to its neighbor countries. Though the size of population of the Nepalis much less than that of its neighbor countries, the distribution of population has been a matter of major concern for the country. Nepalese people are so polite to each other and welcome their guests with big heart. There are many casts in Nepal but Nepalese are living together in harmony and co-operation. So, you might be eager to know more about Nepalese People. In this article, we are here with the 50 interesting facts about Nepalese People. Check it out:
- Census in Nepal:
The operation of census was initiated in Nepal since 1911. There were more or less head counts based on household level information in the Initial censuses till 1952. According to the first census in Nepal (1911), the population of Nepal was of 5.6 million. Since then, more or less at the interval of ten years, the census count has been conducted. All of the technicalaid needed in conducting the census was obtained from United Nations in the census 1952/54. And in fact,the first scientific census ever conducted in Nepal was the census of the year 1952/1953.Because of different reasons, the census was carried out in two points in time. For example, in 1952, eastern part of the country was enumerated whilein 1954, the western half was enumerated.In terms of international standard and comparisons, the census of 1961 is usually accepted as the first systematic and scientific census as the enumeration was carried out in two points in time.
- Fact about the latest census of Nepalese people: –
According to the latest census of 2011, the population of Nepal was 26494504 as of June 2011. During the last decade i.e. 2001-2011, the averageannual population growth rate was 1.35 percent. Thecensus also showed that the sex ratio i.e. males per 100 females was 94.6. In other words, in the total population of Nepal, 48.5% are male and 51.8% are female and the accurate female population was 796422 in thecountry. The total population obtained in different censuses of Nepal, Fluctuations in the annual growth rate of population is mainly related to the quality of data obtained in thecensus particularly the coverage and insufficient counting and possibly over-count in different censuses. It shows that the rate of population growth in Nepal is still quite high (1.35 percent). This high growth rateof population has affected almost every aspect of life i.e. both social as well as economic. It has causedlarge pressure on inadequate land resource as more and more marginal land is being cultivated. Thegrowth of population has also led to scarcities of food, shelter at places of country. Forests are being depleted because of the need to farminglands for food production. These activities of people have resulted in frequent landslides, floods as well assoil erosion.Up to this date, the process of taking census is going on. As, the population of Nepal is increasing and many awareness programs are being initiated and implemented in all over the country, mostly in rural areas. Awareness about contraceptive devices and demerits of population growth are being organized all over Nepal.
- Fact of Nepalese people based on geographical region: –
Nepal has three distinct ecological regions. These are mountains, which are well-defined as area that is located between the altitude of 4877 and 8848 meters covers 35 percent of land area, while hills are well-defined asarea that is located between the altitude from 610 to 4876 meters and includes 42 percent of land area.According to census 2011, Altogether these regions consists of about 77 percent of the total area and comprises a population of about 49.7 percent of the totalpopulation. The Terairegion of Nepalis located below the elevation of 610 meters. The region covers of 23 percent ofthe total land area of Nepal and comprises more than half (50.3%) of the population. The increasing of trend of migration and fertility rate, also clearly shows that the proportion of population living in Terai region is growing, while the proportion of people living inthe hill and mountain regionsare declining over the years. There are many reasons for the disproportionate distribution of population amongecological regions of Nepal. Following are the some of thereasons;
- a) Unequal distribution of resources
- b) Availability of productive land in Terai,
- c) Difficult topography of Hill and Mountain
- d) Disparity in socio-economic development and
- e) The lack of basic facilities and infrastructure in these regions.
- f) Lack of access to information.
- Fact of the regional population rate of increase of Nepalese people: –
Compared to the hills and mountains, the rate of increase of population is higher in the Terairegion. During the decade of 1971-81, in terai region the population has increased by 4.1 per cent. However, during years 1971, the population growth rate has decreased in all the three geographical regions. Apart from this, during the period of 1991-2001, the population growth rate has increased in the mountains and hills butthere was slightly reduced in the Terai. During 2001-2011, the growth rate of population has been gradually decreased in all ecological regions of Nepal. But even then, the rate of population growth in the Terai region is much higher than that of mountains or hills.
About the study of population of Nepal by development regions, it is collected thatin central development region, the proportionof population is highest in the Central Development region whereas in remote far western development region, there is lowest proportion of population.During 1981-91, the growth rate of populationhasreduced in all development regions as compared to the previous decades.The reduction in the population growth rate was highest in eastern development region.
- Fact about population of Nepalese people based on development region: –
In the year 1971-1981, the population growth rate of eastern development region was 2.86 per cent, which was decreased up to 1.83 percent in decades 1981-91. However, the population growth rate of Central Development Region reduced to 2.33 percent from 2.42 percent per year. During the decade 1991 to 2001 highest growth rate wasrecorded for Far-Western Development Region (2.66 percent), and the reason of highest population growth rate is illiteracy and lack of awareness while the second highest rate of growth wasrecorded for Central Development Region (2.61 percent). Similarly, during the decade 2001-2011, thegrowth rate of population has decreased in all development regions and the highest growth rate is in centraldevelopment region (1.84 percent) and the lowest growth rate is in western development region (0.75 percent).
- Fact about Growth Rate and Distribution of Population by Districts;
Kathmandu district has the largest population of the district which is indicated by the different census of Nepal.The population of the Kathmandu district was 1744240 according to the census held in 2011. As well, according to census 2011,Manang district has the population of 6539. In Kathmandu district, the maximum density was observed with 4416 persons per square kilometer.There is a sort spatial concentration of population after the last census. The Census Report shows that the ten districts with the most population and the ten districts with the least population.Various information’sshow that Kathmandu and eastern and central Terai districts have been the 10 most populated districts in Nepal. These 10 districts constitute about one third of the total population.
- Fact of people based on Sex ratio of Nepalese people: –
The sex composition of a population is shown by sex ratio. The sex composition is calculated by using the formula which is defined as a proportion of total number ofmales to total number offemales multiplied by 100. Thus, it specifies the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio of 103-105 is obtained at birth in normal population. This specifies that for every 100 female babies bornnearly 105 male babies are born. As the age increases, sex ratiogets in favor of females as mortality for males are higher than females.
For every 100 female births, the sex ratio at birth is around 105 male births and prevailing higher risk of deathamong females than males in the country, low sex ratio can only be clarified by the opportunity of a large volume of temporary male emigration.
- Fact about Age distribution of Nepalese people: –
Whether peopleare young or old, or getting older or younger depends on the proportion of people of different age groups. In general, a population under the age 15 covers about 35 percent is considered to be young and the population aged 65 or above 65 covers 10% is considered old. There are various factors affecting age structure which are the fertility, mortality and migration. However, under normal condition, the effect of mortality and migrationis smaller and at each group the proportion of population is mainly affected by fertility. The population of Nepal is compriseschiefly of young people and it has remained young since 1960’s.Under the age of 15 years, the present population under isabout 35 percent. Likewise, the population of age group 15-59 was about57%. In the census, this age structure indicates thatnearly persons in 3 in number of working ages i.e. 15-59 years have to take care of the two persons with age less than 15 years or population of ages of 60 years or more. This age structure of Nepalese population is mainly due to mortality and declining fertility. Thecurrent age structure suggests that a large part of resources have to be spent on basic infrastructures such aseducation, nutrition and health of young people just to maintain a status quo. It also suggests thatthemomentum of populationof Nepal is still very high, due to the young nature of population of Nepal signifyingthatthe population of Nepal will continue to raise for fairly some time even if the fertility were to reach replacement level today. The percentage of age group 10-14 was highest according to census 2011.Age group 0-4, should have the largest population under normal situation.
It also suggests that due to the young nature of Nepal’s population, the speed of Nepal’s population is still very high, it shows that Nepal’s population will continue for some time, even if reproductive capacity reaches replacement level.
- Fact about Crude Birth Rate of Nepalese People: –
Fertility measures together with CBR are calculated either through direct methods or through indirect methods. Indirect method of estimating fertility is used in the absence of significant registration and survey data.The age structure of population are utilized by these methods and otheravailable demographic parameters for the estimation of fertility and mortality indicators which are based on stable population. Direct method of fertility estimates aregenerally used as once the survey data are accessible. The Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011 has indicated that the CBR is around 24.3 per thousand in Nepal. Although, this means a reduction of around 4 points during the last 5 years, this CBR is still considered to be pretty high.
- Fact about Age specific fertility rate of Nepalese People: –
Age Specific Fertility Rates (ASFRs) are defined as the ratio of children born to a specific age group of women to the number of women in the risk of bearing children. The age pattern of fertility specifies that in the early part of child bearing period of nepalese women have the highest fertility. For example, with age range 20-24, one thousand women, 234women gave births in ayear 2003-2005 while the corresponding number for women in the age range 35-39 is only48. We find that fertility has reduced for all ages during the last five-year period ifwe compare the age definitefecundity rates of the period 1998-2000 and 2003-2005.
- Fact about Total fertility rate of Nepalese People: –
The total fertility rate (TFR) is another measure generally used to describe the level of fertility. TFR is well-defined as the number of children; woman would bear during her childbearing period underprevailing age specific fertility rate.Till mid-eighties, the level of TFR was around 5.1. During the period of 2001 to 2006, asignificant reduction in fertility canbe seen when a decline of one child was observed. The estimate of TFR for Nepal to be 2.6 as per provided by the Nepal Demographicand Health Survey 2011.
- Fact about Legal age of marriage in Nepal: –
In Nepal, with parental agreement, legal minimum age at marriage for both girl and boy has been set at 18years. If the boys and girls want to marry by themselves, then the least legal age for marriage for bothgirls and boys is 20 years. In many ethnic groups, this was scarcely followed in the start and the managing at marriage was quite low then. In some societies, girls are still married at younger ages and this shows thatthelegal provision above mentioned is yet to be practiced to a full extent.
- Fact about Family planning in Nepal: –
In fact, Nepal was one of the first countries of South Asia, where all the methods and more information is available about family planning through a non-governmental program. Initially, the program about family planning was integrated with maternal child health services. Subsequently after the nineties, Family planning has become anvivacious part of the health services of country as all the health services were brought together. family planning activities were commenced by the family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) , a nongovernmental organization which was established in 1959 to create awareness among the people about the need and necessity of family planning.The demand for contraceptive methods has been increased which was nearly 72 percent and in 2011, the demand has again increased to 77 percent.
- Fact about Breastfeeding in Nepal: –
Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 specified that It is universal for breast-feeding and about 98percent women breastfed their children after birth, signifying that this ratio has been more or lessnot changeable over the years. Differentials in breast-feeding specify that younger, urban, and educated (literate)women are less likely to breast feed their children than their counterparts.According to NDHS, 2011, in Nepal, the averageperiod of any breastfeeding is 33.6 months, which is alike to the data observed from the 2006 NDHS. The mean duration of breastfeeding for all children is 28.8months. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding for all children is 4.2 months, and the meanduration is 5 months. These figures are higher than those reported in 2006, when the median duration ofexclusive breastfeeding was 2.5 months and the mean duration was 4 months.
- Fact about Abortion in Nepal: –
Nepal made abortion legal in September 2002. In March 2004, The government beganto provide comprehensive abortion care (CAC) services. The abortion law let women to terminate their pregnancy under thefollowing conditions:
- On the own decision of pregnancies of 12 weeks gestation or less for any woman
- 18 weeks of pregnancies or pregnancy due to the result of rape or incest and
- If the life of mother is at risk, if her physical or mental health is at risk or if the fetus is deformed then Pregnancies of any duration with the recommendation of an authorized medical practitioner can be terminated.
Only 38 percent of women with age 15-49 believe that abortion is legal in Nepal according to NDHS 2011.Those women who specified that it is legal to have abortion in Nepal were further asked about under what situations it is legal.Among women who believe that abortion is legal in Nepal, one-third of the population stated that it is legal for pregnanciesup to 12 weeks, and one-fifth of them stated that it is legal for pregnancies of 18 weeks duration if there were a result of rape or incest. Nearly two-fifths of women did not know about under what conditions abortion is legal in Nepal. In Nepal, Service providers have been trained to conduct safe abortions with the legalization of abortion.
- Fact about Family size:-
A small family size is preferred by both men and women of Nepal with only marginal differences between them (2.1 children for women and 2.3 children for men). Nearly two-thirds of women and men want to have twochildren, while 13 percent of women and 8 percent of men want to have only one child. Also, 18% percentwomen and 21 percent of men prefer to have a three -child family. The proportion of men and women who prefer four or more than 4 children is small. Only 5 percent women and 6 percent men want to have four children by which we can say that the proportion is really small. Over the last five years, among currently married women there has been a decrement in the mean ideal number of children which is 2.4 children in 2006 to 2.2 in 2011. This finding could also explain the decrease in total fertility rate in Nepal.
- Fact about Crude Death rate of Nepalese People:-
The proportionof number of deaths annually to the person years of death during that period multiplied by a constant (usually 1000) is actually defined as Crude death rate (CDR). It should be noted that person-years of exposure is generally approximated by mid-year population for simplicity and ease of approximation.The mortality rate of the Nepal is 8.3 according to CBS 2011.
- Fact about Life expectancy of Nepalese people:-
We need age specific mortality rates in order to calculate life expectancy which are tough to obtain, as it requires a survey of large sample size. Life expectancy is generally estimated on the basis of the censusdata withusing indirect techniques as the registration data of birth and death is very low..For Nepalese People, mortality evaluations used in the population projection (MOPE 1999) life expectation of life at birth has reached 64.1 years. Due to the improvement of health facilities that has reduced death rates, especially among infant and children during the last decade, there is significant change in life expectancy.
- Fact about immigration of Nepalese people:-
The population residing outside the country are 1921494 persons out of total population which is 152 percent more than that emigrated population in 2001. This number of emigrated population in the year 2011 accounts 7.25 percent of total population. It should be noted that, at least one member of their household is absent or is living out ofcountry is described by the data, one in every four households (25.42%) and 44.81 percent of absent population is from the age group 15 to 24 years in the year 2011.
- fact about Internal Migration of Nepalese people :-
In 1961, the number of Migrants was low but it has been increased to 3,788,049 in 2011. During 1961-2011, the data shows that nearly a nine-fold increase in thenumber of inter-district migrants in Nepal. The census of 1971counted a total of 506,925inter-regional migrants, which, with an increase of 5.2 fold reached 2,654,047 in 2011. During thisperiod, the number ofinter-zonal migrants increased by 4.7% from 445,128 in 1971 to 2,088,170 in 2011 and it shows that until 1991, the inter-district lifetime migration line raises slowly and then it gets stepper thereafter by implying a more rapid increase in the number of lifetime migrants after 1991.
- Fact about Household information about Ownership of housing units :-
In total, the percentage of the households live in theirown house is 85.26 whilethe percentage of family living in rented house is 12.81, the percentage of household residing in institutional is 0.63 percent and the percentage of household residing in other arrangements is 1.30. In urban areas, population residing in rented house is 40.22 percent.58.65 percentage of households living in rentedhouse is highest in Kathmandu district. In urban areas, the percentage of households live in houseswith the foundation that have RCC pillars is 29.2.Highest numbers of households (41.38 percent) live in houses whichhas outer wall made of mud bonded bricks or stone followed by outer wall made ofcement bonded bricks or stone (28.74 percent), bamboo wall (20.23 percent) andwood/planks (5.31 percent). The average household size has decreased from 5.44 in 2001 to 4.88 in2011 at the national level. In Rautahat district, the household size is recorded as highest (6.44) and in Kaski district, the household size is recorded as lowest (3.92).
In total, the households live in their homes have the percentage of 85.26, while rented household have the 12.81 percent, institutional household holds 0.63 percent and 1.30 percent in other arrangements. In urban areas, rent is at home of 40.22 percent.
- Fact about Source of drinking water of Nepalese people:-
The main source of drinking water is Tap/piped water which constitutes about 47.78percent of the total families. For approximately 35 percent of the total households, Tubewell/hand pump is the main source of drinking water while spout, uncovered well/kuwaand covered well/kuwa is the main source of drinking water for 5.74 percent, 4.71 percentand 2.45 percent of the total households respectively.
- Fact about Usual fuel for cooking of Nepalese people:
Firewood is used as the usual source of fuel by about two-third of the total households (about 64 percent) for cooking followed by LPG with 21.03 percent, cowdung with 10.38 percent. 2.43 and 1.3 percent of household used Bio-gas and Kerosene respectively. Electricity is used by very few households (0.08 percent) asusual fuel for cooking. In urban areas, LPG is used by more than two third (67.68 percent) of the totalhouseholds as their usual fuel for cooking.
- Fact about Source of lighting of Nepalese people:
More than two third (67.26 percent) of the total household’s mainsource of lighting is electricity. Kerosene is used by 18.28 percent of the total householdsfor lighting while solar and bio-gas is the source of light for 7.44 and 0.28 percent of thetotal households respectively. In western development region and in the mid-western region, the use of electricity as the source of light is found highest(78.03 percent) and lowest (42.32 percent) respectively.
- Fact about Toilet in the house of Nepalese people:
Households with more than one third i.e. 38.17 percent of the total households have no toilet in their houses. In rural areas, there are almost many households without toilet (95.4%). In districts like Saptari, Rolpa, Siraha and Rautahat more than 75 percent of households indo not have a toilet in their houses.
- Fact about Female ownership of fixed assets of Nepalese people:
Inurban areas, 26.77 percent of the households show female-ownership of fixed assets in urban areaswhile 18.02 percentage of household show female ownership of fixed assets in rural areas.
- Fact about Absent member in households of Nepalese people:
Total number of absent population is found to be 1,921,494 against 0 .7 million in 2001. From the age group 15 to 24 years, there is highest proportion (44.81 percent) of absent population. Pyuthan, Gulmi andArghakhanchiare the districts which has the highestratio of their population being absent (staying abroad).
- fact about Average Household Size of Nepalese people:
Average household size at the national level has decreased from5.44 in 2001 to 4.88 in the current census 2011. The household size is recorded highest(6.44) in Rautahat district and lowest (3.92) in Kaski.
- Fact about Household Head of Nepalese people:
In the year 2001, in the countryfamilies having female as head haveamplified by about 11point percent from 14.87% to 25.73%.
- Fact about Caste/Ethnicity of Nepalese people:
According to census 2011, There are 126 caste/ethnic groups reported in Nepal. Among the total population, Chhetri isthe largest caste/ethnic groups with the population 16.6% (4,398,053) followedby Brahman-Hill (12.2% ; 3,226,903), Magar (7.1% ; 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6% ; 1,737,470),Tamang (5.8% ; 1,539,830), Newar (5% ; 1,321,933), Kami (4.8% ; 1,258,554), Musalman(4.4% ; 1,164,255), Yadav (4% ; 1,054,458) and Rai (2.3% ; 620,004).
- Fact about Mother Tongue of Nepalese people:
As reported in census 211, there are 123 languages spoken as mother tongue. By 44.6 percent (11,826,953) of total population speak Nepali as mother tongue. 11.7 percent (11,826,953) of total population speak Maithali as mother tongue and population followedBhojpuri (5.98%; 1,584,958), Tharu(5.77%; 1,529,875), Tamang (5.11%; 1,353,311), Newar (3.2%; 846,557), Bajjika (2.99%;793,418), Magar (2.98%; 788,530), Doteli (2.97%; 787,827), Urdu (2.61%; 691,546).
- Religion of Nepalese people
As reported in census, there are ten types of religion categories. Hindu isfollowed by 81.3 percent (21,551,492) of the population followed by Buddhism (9%;2,396,099), Islam (4.4%; 1,162,370), ,Kirat (3.1%; 807,169), Christianity (1.4%; 375,699),Prakriti (0.5%; 121,982), Bon (13,006), Jainism (3,214), Bahai (1,283) and Sikhism (609).
- Disability in Nepalese people:
In Nepal, 513,321 population of total population (2%) found with some kind ofdisability. Of total population, 36.3 percent of population constituent of physical disability which is followed by Blindness/Low Vision (18.5%), Deaf/Hard to hearing (15.4%), Speech problem(11.5%), Multiple Disability (7.5%), Mental Disability (6%), Intellectual Disability (2.9%) andDeaf-Blind (1.8%).
- Literacy Rate of Nepalese people:
According to census 2001 and 2011, overall literacy rate (for population aged 5 years and above) has increasedfrom 54.1 percent to 65.9 percent. Compared to female literacy rate of 57.4%, Male literacy rate is higher which is 75.1 percent. In Kathmandu district, the highest literacy rate is reported which is 86.3 % and in Humla, the lowest literacy rate is reported as is 47.8%.
- Poverty profile of Nepalese people: –
More than ¼ of Nepali (7.05 million) are living below the poverty line.Approximately, the same proportions indigenous peoples are living below the poverty line in hilly region, but within this group of population, there is significant disparity: The Newari people have a relatively low poverty rate, while the population of Kumal, Sunuwar, majhi and Chepang have about 40 percent of the population who are living below the poverty line. 31.7 percent of Magars are living below the poverty line, though the poverty rate for this group declined sharply by nearly 30 percentage points during the 15-year period from 1995/96 to 2010/11 (from 61.3 percent in 1995/96 to 34.4 percent in 2003/04 and 31.7 percent in 2010/11). The progress in poverty reduction is encouraging among Tamangs whose head count poverty rate declined sharply by 32 percentage points from 61.2 percent in 2003/04 to 28.34 in 2010/11. Among other indigenous peoples, Limbu, Rai and Gurung have the poverty rate of 25.3, 22.0 and 21.7 percent respectively. Among the Newar group, rate of poverty is 10.25 percent, which is somewhat less than that of Brahmins of Hilly region.Interestingly, most of the ethnic and caste groups rank differently according to these different measures. For example, the people of various castes have the third highest poverty incidence, while in poverty severity, they rank sixth in number. Comparing them to indigenous people of hilly region shows that the Terai castes have a higher risk of being in poverty, but the level of poverty of them (poverty severity) tends to be less deep or severe than that of indigenous people of hilly region.
- Consumption Pattern of Nepalese people :-
The average yearly nominal consumption expenditure of a household is estimated to be Rs. 170,735 in Nepal, as well the average minimal per capita consumption expenditure to be Rs. 34,809. The richest 10 percent of the population are consuming more than nine-fold what the poorest 10 percent of the population are consuming. Among different castes and ethnic groups of people, there is also high variance in consumption expenditures.
- Income Patternof Nepalese people: –
Brahmins of hilly region have the highest per capita consumption among the broad caste and ethnic groups. Among the broad groups, mean consumption for Dalits is the lowest. There is wide variation among indigenous peoples. Hill and Terai Dalits, Terai castes andindigenous peoples are highly skewed towards the poorest quintile, whereas most hill Brahmins and Chhetris fall in the middle, upper middle and upper classes. These consumption patterns clearly show the disproportionate distribution of poverty among the various ethnic groups in Nepal.There is the wide variation in the distribution of income between ethnic and caste groups in Nepal. According to the income distribution chart, most of the Dalit population is focused in the lower quintiles which meanthat Dalits jointly hold only a small percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country where most of Brahmins and Chhetris, on the other hand, fall into the upper quintiles. Among the indigenous population, the distribution of income is more or less similar to distribution of income in the total population. However, certain indigenous groups experience a strikingly uneven income distribution that is masked when we examine indigenous groups in the aggregate. Particularly, the castes such as Limbus, Magars, and the Kumal, Sunuwar, Majhi, and Chepangfall disproportionately in the lower income quintiles.
- Source of income of Nepalese People:-
In the population of Newar caste, the major source of income is non-farming, whereas the population of Rai and Limbu groups heavily rely on farming. Surprisingly, for the indigenous people of terai region including Tharu, the major source of income is the non-farming sector. Remittances from relatives working abroad is the most significant source of income for Gurungs. In hilly region, Brahmins involvement is towards the non-farming sectors and Chhetri’s communityare more involve in farming. On non-farming activities, around half of all Dalit households are depended.
- Employment involvement of Nepalese People: –
The rate oflabor force participation of indigenous peoples is relatively high – more than 80 percent except for Gurung and Newar Population. This is due in part to the participation of indigenous children in the work force starting at an early age. Women’s participation in wage work and the greater ability among wealthier groups for sick or elderly people to discontinue participating in the workforce may also be contributing factors. In rural region, the Labor Force Participation Rate is typically higher in where agricultural work accompanies the much of the economic activity, than in urban areas. The unemployment rate is truly and typically higher in urban areas and lower in rural areas.
- Child labor in Nepal: –
. The Newar and Gurung children constitute a higher percentage i.e. 50 to 60 percent who are able to attend school without working compared with other indigenous children. Among the population of Rai, Magar, Limbu, Kumal, Sunuwar, Majhi and Chepang groups, only children of about 35 to 46 percent attend school without having to work.Almost working indigenous children taking two-thirdsare employed for less than 20 hours per week, whereas about one-fourth of children work 20 to 39 hours per week and 8 percent of them work more than 39 hours per week. A Rai and Limbu children of comparatively higher proportion work 40 or more hours per week.
- Agriculture involvement of Nepalese People: –
In Nepal, about three-quarters of households are families, and about one-fourth of the farm families are headed by women. Out of indigenous groups, almost all new homes are practicing agriculture whereas more than 85% of Magar families are involved in agriculture. Approximately 38% of agricultural land is cultivated by tribal families. In the mountainous areas, there are 31% functional and caste groups in Brahmin and ChhatisTerai region, which is 18% of all agricultural land. The Dalit families operate only 9% of the agricultural land. The average size of the land organized by the families of the farm in all castes and ethnic groups is 0.4 hectares between Dalite and 0.9 hectares between Terai and Terai indigenous homes. In Nepal, rice fields and vegetables are popular crops among farmers. Mecca and vegetables are generally grown in relation to indigenous people and other cultures among Dalits. This can be due to the poor quality of their land, which makes it difficult to develop more favorite crops like rice fields and wheat. On the other hand, rice and wheat are mainly grown in the Terai caste house, which are going to grow well in the fertile lowlands. The spread of agricultural mechanization in Nepal is less. Not surprisingly, the mechanization of agriculture is relatively strong in the Terai region and Tharoo farmers are more likely to use tractors, tillers and threshers than other groups. Water pumps among the lowland farmers are also more common. Almost 64 percent of the farmers increase livestock on their land and raise the goats or sheep in the same proportion as the families of the farm. Adivasi homes are very popular with homes, stems and poultices, whereas in Brahmin families, buffaloes are more popular.
- Health State of Nepalese: –
In these groups suffering from chronic diseases in Pahari Brahmin, Navar and Gurung groups, the highest rate of 15.5%, 14.1% and 13.5% of chronic disease respectively. On the contrary, Tharu, Lemu, Rai and Tamang groups are generally the lowest rate of low-rich and less educated, chronic disease, which ranges from 8.3% to 9.7%. Diseased and tribal groups have a nearly identical rate of chronic disease in many populations. Compared to women in other groups, there is a high proportion of Brahmin women suffering from chronic diseases. Generally, the proportion of people suffering from chronic diseases between the richest quintile (16.3%) is almost twice the poorest quintile (7.9%). More than 54% of the total cancer reporting population The report of this disease is more concentrated among the indigenous people of the mountain, who represent 34% of the total population with cancer. 20.5% of Dalits are the second most affected population. Other groups responsible for less than 10% of the total group cancer population. The total population suffering from specific diseases such as heart disease, respiratory problems, asthma, epilepsy, cancer, diabetes, kidney / liver problems, arthritis, hypertension and gastrointestinal diseases are in the order of 30 to 39%. High blood pressure, kidney and liver disease, and respiratory problems are major diseases after affecting indigenous people after cancer. 39% people with high blood pressure or low blood pressure, 37.3% of kidney and liver disease and 37.1% of respiratory problems are tribal people. The burden of this kind of disease is particularly high among tribal people, which has hampered their economic development and has also affected their health.
- Nepalese Access to education of Nepalese people: –
By reaching elementary school facilities, 94.7% of households have primary school access within 30 minutes of the house. Apart from Navar (9 0.4%), Hill Chetris (91.8%) and Dalit Hill (9 3.5%), the proportion of population in the first half of the year is more than 30 minutes. For the 17% of Kamaal, Sunuwar, Ex and Chepang families, the nearest primary school, 14% of Rai houses and 9% of Tamang families. Approximately 87 percent of the lowland caste has access to high school within 30 minutes of its home, followed by 86 percent neur house. Similarly, around 82% of the lowland Dalai has access to high school in 30 minutes. 80% of the remaining groups and 30% of the population have access to a house. Hill tracts are second only among hill and ethnic groups, and 65% of the houses have access to property. Hill Indigenous Peoples, New York, USA, USA
- Access to Nepali Public Hospitals and Primary Health Centers: –
Nearly 59 percent of families in Navarwa and 40 percent of the lower caste and Brahmin families have access to public hospitals or primary health care within 30 minutes. Access to households, primary health care and public hospitals is very different: 30% of these services can be accessed within 30 minutes of their home and 26% have to travel more than three hours. However, people of the Chhattis race have better access to health services than the Dalits and indigenous people in the hilly areas. Approximately 24% tribal mountain families have access to public hospitals or primary health care within 30 minutes, which is slightly more than this area, which includes 21% in 30 minutes. In the Terai area, indigenous people have 30% better access with public hospitals or PHCs in less than 30 minutes. In all castes and ethnic groups, the population of Magar and Lembu is the most harmful, 16% and 17% families are able to reach hospitals or primary care centers within 30 minutes of their homes.
- Nepalese access to banking service: –
Nearly 41% of all Nepalese families have access to the bank within 30 minutes of the house. The banks have the best access to the Navarro, about 69 percent of the households are able to reach a commercial bank within 30 minutes of their home. In other areas, after the Navar, the hill Brahmins have the best access to banks, 53% of families travel less than 30 minutes to reach the nearest commercial bank. Only 22 percent of Dalits have access to the bank within 30 minutes, which is the lowest rate of all groups in the Terai area. Nearly 30 percent of indigenous homes and 42 percent of the indigenous homes in the hill area have access to a bank within 30 minutes of their home in the hill area.
- Access to Nepal’s Market Centers: –
Approximately 71% of new homes have access to the market center within 30 minutes of their homes, followed by 54% of your caste and Terai 52% of indigenous households. Hill Chhetri’s house is less, 43 percent are able to reach the market center within 30 minutes of their home. In this regard, the Dalits of the hilly region are the most vulnerable with less than 29 percent of the families who are able to reach the market center within 30 minutes of their home. In the Terai region, Dalits have a much better reach compared to Dalits in the hilly areas, which represent 44.5%. Factors such as terrestrial factors and better transport facilities can contribute to the difference between hills and thiraidalits. 33% tribal (non-navar) families in the mountain area have access to market centers within 30 minutes, which is slightly better in the hilly areas than the Dalit group. However, the proportion of large castes such as Tamang, Rai, Gurung and Lumbu families, which account for between 22 to 30 percent and about one-fifth of the total population, should take more than three hours to reach the central market. near. Only the Dalits and Chaturthi hills have a significant proportion of their population with such a long journey time to reach the nearest market.
- Nepalese access to transport: –
About half of the total population is home to 51%, it takes less than 30 minutes to reach the nearest paved road. Only 75 percent of homes and 61 percent of Newar Brahmin families live in paved roads, which take less than 30 minutes, while only 45 percent of the villages in the hilly areas can use only 45 percent. This is probably the result of the government government’s bargain in the large areas of the Midwest and West Hills, this area has limited network of roads with roads. At least 38% of the tribal families live in the plush areas within 30 minutes from the nearest paved road, and in this group, the homes Limbu, Rai and other facilities will not be accounted for only 27%, it is less than 31% only. is. Percent. There is such a reach in 31 percent households. Castes such as Sherpa, Bhujel, Bhote and Thakli families have access to the Asphalt Road within 30 minutes of their home where they represent only 38%. Dalits have access to at least paved roads in the hilly areas, only 30 percent of the households have access to the Asphalt road within 30 minutes of their home. Families say 46% are reaching for more than three hours of closest roads, but 34% of households, Limbu and Tamang 49% and 39% for families (dalits 39%) are reaching the same level Using the Road. the problems.
- Access to Nepal’s Internet Facility: –
Navarro has the highest access rate for Internet services, 72% of Newars are able to access internet facilities within 30 minutes of their home, after which Tharu houses 58%. In mountainous clusters, the Brahminic population of the mountainous area has the best access to internet facilities, in which 56% is the opportunity to reach internet facilities within 30 minutes of your home. In the 35% area tribal people report similar access, which is below the national average of 43%. One of the indigenous people of the mountainous region is inequalities and some groups have little access to the internet. Only Magraj and Lembu families represent 23%, in the Rai households, approximately 33% and 35% of the Tamang families have internet access in 30 minutes. Many caste Tarai and Chhetri hill areas also have better access to internet services that provide equal access information for indigenous people and Dalits, 44% and 41% of families. In this sense, 22% of Dalits in the hilly region are the most harmed with the Kami families who can reach internet facilities within 30 minutes.
- Summary of Nepali service facilities: –
Between reaching the facilities and rates of caste and ethnic poverty, there is a significant correlation in Nepal. The Brahmins of the mountainous area have used more and more facilities for various facilities including paved roads, dirt roads and markets, all other groups and their poverty rates are reduced in all caste and ethnic groups. Among the groups with limited access to facilities, this poverty rate is high. It is important to remember the time required to access access features, but it is important to remember that it does not guarantee the quality of the services received.
- Tribe of Nepali people: –
There are Nepali Arya tribes in the south, where people towards the Himalayas are the people of China-Tibetan tribe. Arya tribe reside in the terai region and hilly region. Mangolian tribe lives in Hilly and mountain region. Arya tribe comprises of Brahmin, Chettri, Guota, Yadav and others where China-Tibetan tribe comprises of castes like Rai, Magar, Limbu, Gurung, Newar, Thakali etc.
Facts About Nepali Numbers and Statistics
Facts about Nepal in Numbers: – Numbers or statistics does say a lot about what we want to know. When it comes to Nepal, there are a few numbers that we can refer to in order to know about the country in general. For example, the number of people living there, the size, the ranking and every other number would be a great help when we need to know about Nepal.
Given below are few of the statistics of numbers that tell us a lot about Nepal:
- Nepal has now been divided into 7 states, 77 districts, and 744 local units
- Nepal now has 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 villages
- Population of Nepal is currently 26.4 million
- Nepal is the 93rd largest country when we go by the total geographical area
- Even though Bangladesh is only 27 kilometers or 17 miles away from Nepal of its southeastern tip, it does not touch Bangladesh
- According to the survey in 2016, Nepal ranks 144th on the Human Development Index (HDI)
- 11,000 years: Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years
- 18 May 2006: The day when the House of Representatives in Nepal unanimously voted to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state
- Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal in its shape. 800 kilometers (497 mi) long and 200 kilometers (124 mi) wide
- Total area of Nepal is 147,181 km (56,827 sq mi)
- Nepal lies between the latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and 89°E
- Nepal has 5 climatic zones that correspond to the altitudes.
- The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 meters (3,937 ft)
- The temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 meters (3,937 to 7,874 ft)
- The cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 meters (7,874 to 11,811 ft)
- The subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 meters (11,811 to 14,436 ft)
- The Arctic zone above 4,400 meters (14,436 ft).
- Highest Peaks in Nepal:
- Mount Everest (Highest)8,848 m 29,029 ft
- Kangchenjunga (3rd highest) 8,586 m 28,169 ft
- Lhotse (4th highest)8,516 m 27,940 ft
- Makalu (5th highest)8,462 m 27,762 ft
- Cho Oyu (6th highest)8,201 m 26,906 ft
- Dhaulagiri (7th highest)8,167 m 26,795 ft
- Manaslu (8th highest)8,156 m 26,759 ft
- Annapurna (10th highest) 8,091 m 26,545
- Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military that amounts to grossly 1.5% of its GDP
- Nepal’s gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012 was estimated at over $17.921
- In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%
- Services comprised 48.5%
- Industry 15.4% of Nepal’s GDP Gross Domestic Product
- Agriculture employs 76% of the total workforce in Nepal
- services 18%
- manufacturing and craft-based industry 6%
- The percentage of population below the poverty line was 53.1% in 2003/2004 which dropped to 24.8% in 2010/2011.
- Remittance makes a big chunk of Nepal’s economy. Nepal receives $50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who serve in the Indian and British armies
- As of 2010, the total remittance value is around $3.5 billion
- In 2009, the remittance money contributed to 22.9% of the nation’s GDP Gross Domestic Product
- The government’s budget is about $1.153 billion
- Nepal has an expenditure of $1.789 billion
- The bulk of the energy in Nepal comes from
- Fuelwood (68%)
- Agricultural waste (15%)
- Animal dung (8%)
- Imported fossil fuels (8%)
- Nepal has 47 airports in total
- Only 11 of them are with paved runways
- Nepal has seven telephone operators and the total voice telephony subscribers, which also includes fixed and mobile are 16,350,946
- This figure gives Nepal the telecommunication penetration rate of 61.42%
- The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%
- mobile for 64.63%
- And other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate
- The numbers of subscribers to data/internet services is: 4,667,536
- This represents 17.53% penetration rate
- Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users.
- This represents a growth rate of 74.77% compared to the last year
- Percentage of households possessing radio in Nepal according to 2011 census was 50.82% television 36.45%, cable TV 19.33%, and computer 7.23%
- There are roughly 30 independent TV channels registered in Nepal
- Nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 that are operational right now
- The overall literacy rate for the population aged 5 years and above increased from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.9% in 2011
- The male literacy rate was 75.1% compared to the female literacy rate of 57.4%
- The highest literacy rate is reported to be in Kathmandu district which is currently at 86.3%
- the lowest Literacy rate is that in Rautahat 41.7%
- net primary enrollment rate in school was 74% in 2005 and in 2009, that enrollment rate increased to 90%
- According to 2011 census, more than one-third (38.17%) of the total households do not have a toilet in their home
- Tap water is the main source of drinking water for 47.78% of households
- tubewell/hand pump is the main source of drinking water for about 35% of households
- Spout, uncovered well/kuwa, and covered well/kuwa are the main source of 5.74%, 4.71%, and 2.45% respectively.
- Nepal ranked 139th in life expectancy in 2010 with the average Nepali living to 65.8 years based on 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) data
- A 2010 survey estimated about 46,000 hard drug users in the country
- With 70% of the users to be within the age group of 15 to 29
- The same survey also reported that 19% of the users had been introduced to hard drugs when they were less than 15 years old
- And 14.4% of drug users were attending school or college
- Only 12 of the 17 municipalities studied had any type of rehabilitation center
- Sex trafficking is particularly rampant in Nepal and India, with as many as 5,000 to 10,000 women and girls trafficked to India alone each year
- According to the 2011 census, Nepal’s population grew from 9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million
- From 2001 to 2011, the average family size declined from 5.44 to 4.9
- The census also noted some 1.9 million absentee people, over a million more than in 2001; most are male laborers employed overseas,
- The sex ratio dropped from 94.41 as compared to 99.80 for 2001
- The annual population growth rate in Nepal is 1.35%
- Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5 million the largest city in the country and the cultural and economic heart
- Population26,494,504 (2011)
- Growth Rate1.35%
- Population below 14 Years old34.19%
- Population of age 15 to 59 is 54.15%
- Population above 608.13%
- Median age (Average)20.07
- Median age (Male)19.91
- Median age (Females)20.24
- Ratio (Male: Female)100:94
- 16Life expectancy 66.16 Years
- Life expectancy (Male)64.94
- Life expectancy (Female)67.44
- Literacy Rate (Average)65.9%
- Literacy Rate (Male)75.1%
- Literacy Rate (Female)57.4%
The major languages of Nepal (percent spoke as native language) according to the 2011 census are
- Nepali (44.6%)
- Maithili (11.7%)
- Bhojpuri (Awadhi Language) (6.0%)
- Tharu (5.8%)
- Tamang (5.1%)
- Nepal Bhasa (3.2%)
- Bajjika (3%)
- Magar (3.0%),
- Doteli (3.0%)
- Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar
- Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages.
The 14 largest cities by population as per the 2011 census
- Kathmandu (Pop.: 975,453)
- Pokhara (Pop.: 255,465)
- Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802)
- Biratnagar (Pop.: 201,125)
- Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836)
- Birganj (Pop.: 135,904)
- Butwal (Pop.: 118,462)
- Dharan (Pop.: 116,181)
- Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599)
- Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970)
- Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776)
- Hetauda (Pop.:84,671)
- MadhyapurThimi (Pop.: 83,036)
- Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748)
- Nepalgunj (Pop.:73,779)
- With 36 days a year, Nepal is the country that enjoys the most number of public holidays in the world
These are few of the statistics or numbers that tell a lot about the condition of Nepal. Only by studying or referring to these numbers, one can know about the culture, tradition, status, and condition of the country. It is a beautiful country but if we are to look at the statistics that relate to development, Nepal still has lots to do in order to improve its condition. Right now, Nepal is still a developing country with low income and a lot of problems as well as not so good economic condition. So, there need to be great improvements in the condition of Nepal in order to raise its standards in the standing of the world. Numbers are not everything but they do tell a lot about our country.
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