We are concentrating here on Nepal: An Introduction of Nepal, facts about Nepal, information about Nepal and borders of Nepal etc. Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia.
Nepal – Border, Facts, Introduction, Information All About Nepal
Nepal is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. With an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 30 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41st most populous country. Kathmandu is the capital of the nation and a treasure house of ancient art and culture. The population is 27 (2011).
Nepal is a multiethnic and multilingual country. The manifestation of autonomy to the major castes in their respective dominion can bring all people into the mainstream of development. So, these parties have brought forth the provision of the federal system of government. The second amendment to the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has also accepted this notion. The federal system involves dual government system: state government and central government.
The country is divided into different autonomous regions or states. Each state has its own government formed by the representatives of the people. The state government is provided with the autonomy to maintain law and order and improve the condition of the people, run internal administration and carry out development activities in its province or state. Legislation of rules, laws, policies and programs and the revenue collection and expenditure also come under the powers and functions of the state government.
The Garland of white snow-capped Himalaya in the North, calm blue Indian Ocean in the South, Burmese and Sulaiman arcs in the east and west respectively, flourishing the culture since the dawn of Civilisation through the elixir of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Indus water and encompassing six sovereign states (Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan , Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives) from the countries of South Asia. Geologically major part lies on the edge of Indian plate and a minor part of the northern region of the Euro-Asian plate.
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The Mechi river makes the eastern border between Darjeeling district of West Bengal of India and Nepal while the Mahakali river (Sarda) is the western border between Garhwal of India and Nepal the southern border lies on the northern edge of Indo-Gangetic plain i.e about 20 to 40 km south from the edge of the hill range.
Geometrically the country has roughly a rectangular outline located between Latitude 26°22′ and 30°27;’ and longitude between 80°4′ and 88° 12′, with average east-west axis is 885 km and north-south 193 km. The total area of the country is 147181 sq km (83% of the hill and 17% of the flat terrain of Terai).
Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from sub-tropical to arctic. The mountainous north has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest called Sagarmatha in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level.
By some measures, Hinduism is practiced by a larger majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation. Buddhism though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal. Many Nepali do not distinguish between Hinduism and Buddhism and follow both religious traditions.
A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah Dynasty of kings from 1768 when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a decade-long Civil War by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12 point agreement of November 22, 2005. The ensuing elections for the constituent assembly on May 28, 2008, overwhelmingly favored the abdication of the Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic. The first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav was sworn in on July 23, 2008.
From the linguistic and cultural point of view, the Mongolians from the north and Indo-Aryan from the south since prehistoric times have come to form a racial and cultural unison and harmony. Nepal is, of course, the some of fierce Gurkhas- Magars, Gurungs, Newars, Rais, Rais and other small groups. They though speak their own language and commemorate their own feasts and fiestas, also unitedly to celebrate the national carnivals at their best. Similarly, from a religious point of view, Nepal is the sacred birthplace of Buddha “The prophet of peace and non-violence”.”.
So, Buddhism has flourished. And, the Hinduism does have an overwhelming faith in the people. The other religions prevailing are – Christianity, Muslims, and Nepal is an agro-based country. Approximately 90% people entirely dependent on agriculture. It is carried mainly in the Terai and plain valleys. The Terai produces rice, wheat, sugarcane, fruit oil-seeds etc. Similarly, animal husbandry is a prime occupation in the Himalayan realm, since the high peaks are snow-capped and the hills are forested. Goats, sheep, and yaks are reared on the pasturelands. However, some educated people are employed in other sectors viz-administration, business, teaching and so on. Now literacy rate has gone up to nearly 50%. Therefore, mushrooming numbers of schools and colleges are set up to cater to the need of this modern era.
Nepal has been made famous for its tourism, trekking, hiking, camping, mountain biking, national wildlife parks, jungle safaris, river rafting, sports fishing, and its many beautiful temples and places of worship.
The topography of Nepal:
The mountain region lies in the northernmost at the elevated level of more than 4000 meters and includes the highlands, treeless Alpine zones, semi-arid valleys, trans-Himalayan valleys and the highest peak. Eight out of top ten highest peaks of the world including Mt. Everest (8848 meter high) lie in this region. According to census 2001, only 7.3 percent people live in this region even if it occupies 16 percent area and people here mainly engage in growing yaks, some cold-tolerant crops such as potato, barley, maize and apple-like fruits. The hills region lies just below the mountain region mostly at the level between 1000 meter and 4000 meters.
It covers major ranges of hills like Mahabharata and Chure ranges, several intermountain valleys including Kathmandu Valley. It is the biggest region occupying 67 percent of Nepal’s total land area. The Plain contains the low tropical plains along with the southern part of the country. The plain region consists of the southern plain up of Indian border in the south, east, and west. This covers only 17 percent of its total area and hence densely populated region has more than 48 percent of the population living there. Today, most of the cities, towns and industrial areas are located in this region. This is also known as the food store of Nepal. As the ecology is varied, the climate in Nepal varies from tropical in the plain to Alpine in the mountains. The climate in different regions is different because of a diverse level of elevation.
Principal Rivers of Nepal :
Nepal has three major rivers and they are from east to west whereas the longest Koshi (513 kilometers), deepest Narayani (332 kilometers), and largest Karnali (507 kilometers). All these three rivers are major tributaries of the Ganga in northern India.
The climate of Nepal:
The climate is Tropical and sub-tropical in the plains, temperate in the hills and Alpine in the Mountains There are four seasons in Nepal. March-May, June – August, September – November, and December – February for spring, summer, autumn, and winter respectively. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons in Nepal. The weather and climate are controlled by the altitude and the seasonal alternation of the monsoon winds. The main rainy season in Nepal is from late June to September.
This is a period of warm to hot temperatures, much cloud, and frequent heavy rain. The temperature in Plain reaches as high as 40ºC during summer. At this time sunshine averages only two to three hours a day. About 80 percent rain falls in this period. Annual rainfall decreases from east to west due to northwestward movement of the moisture-laden summer monsoon. The amount of average annual rainfall in the eastern part, Kathmandu and western part is about 2500, 1400 and 1000 millimeters respectively, though there may be some seasonal variations. Pokhara, a touristic city located in western part, receives heavy rain falls. During the rest of the year, the weather is much more settled and pleasant. The days are mild or even warm, except on the higher mountains, and sunshine averages from six to nine hours a day.
Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The temperature in Kathmandu Valley ranges from 19-27ºC (67-81ºF) in summer and 2-20ºC in winter, hence pleasant. There are some dangers of floods and landslides during the heaviest rain falls, the climate of Nepal is rarely hazardous and on average is very pleasant. Some indication of variation and irregularities are being noticed in recent years due to global warming.
Natural Resources of Nepal:
Nepal does not have plenty of natural resources in terms of valuable minerals and petroleum. Though there are some indications of iron, copper, gold, zinc, limestone, slate, oil and gas, coal, sulfur, quartz, cobalt etc, yet they are not substantially excavated. Nepal is rich in scenic beauty, water resources, and forest. The north part consists of a beautiful range of mountains always covered with snow.
Land Use in Nepal:
Nepal’s mountainous terrain constraints land use options, and nearly one-third of the land area is unfit for agriculture or forestry. According to government figures for 2002, approximately 18 percent of the total land area was used for agriculture, of which 88.8 percent was categorized as arable land, 4.4 percent as land under permanent crops, and the remainder as pastures, woodlands, and other categories. The most agricultural land is in the Hill and Tarai regions. From 1962 to 2002, the total area of arable land increased (from 1.6 million to 2.5 million hectares) but declined as a proportion of land for agriculture (from 94.5 to 88.8 percent) because of the increase in land used for grazing and permanent crops, particularly fruit. Permanent crop cultivation also has reduced the proportion of land used for woodland and forest harvesting.