We are concentrating here on Nepal: An Introduction of Nepal, facts about Nepal, information about Nepal and borders of Nepal etc. Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia.
Nepal – Border, Facts, Introduction, Information All About Nepal
Nepal is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. With an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 30 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41st most populous country. Kathmandu is the capital of the nation and a treasure house of ancient art and culture. The population is 27 (2011).
Nepal is a multiethnic and multilingual country. The manifestation of autonomy to the major castes in their respective dominion can bring all people into the mainstream of development. So, these parties have brought forth the provision of the federal system of government. The second amendment to the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has also accepted this notion. The federal system involves dual government system: state government and central government.
The country is divided into different autonomous regions or states. Each state has its own government formed by the representatives of the people. The state government is provided with the autonomy to maintain law and order and improve the condition of the people, run internal administration and carry out development activities in its province or state. Legislation of rules, laws, policies and programs and the revenue collection and expenditure also come under the powers and functions of the state government.
The Garland of white snow-capped Himalaya in the North, calm blue Indian Ocean in the South, Burmese and Sulaiman arcs in the east and west respectively, flourishing the culture since the dawn of Civilisation through the elixir of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Indus water and encompassing six sovereign states (Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan , Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives) from the countries of South Asia. Geologically major part lies on the edge of Indian plate and a minor part of the northern region of the Euro-Asian plate.
See Also: 10+2 Facts about Nepal That Amaze You
The Mechi river makes the eastern border between Darjeeling district of West Bengal of India and Nepal while the Mahakali river (Sarda) is the western border between Garhwal of India and Nepal the southern border lies on the northern edge of Indo-Gangetic plain i.e about 20 to 40 km south from the edge of the hill range.
Geometrically the country has roughly a rectangular outline located between Latitude 26°22′ and 30°27;’ and longitude between 80°4′ and 88° 12′, with average east-west axis is 885 km and north-south 193 km. The total area of the country is 147181 sq km (83% of the hill and 17% of the flat terrain of Terai).
Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from sub-tropical to arctic. The mountainous north has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest called Sagarmatha in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level.
The country is a potpourri of ethnic groups and sub-groups who speak over 93 languages and dialects. Nepal offers an astonishing diversity of sightseeing attractions and adventure opportunities found nowhere else on earth. Nepal is the most beautiful and stunning Himalayan country in the world. Though small in size, it is known in the world as a nation of color and contrasts-a has hidden Shangri-La of nature, culture, and adventure. In the countryside the way of life is still traditional, nature is at its best, high mountains and lush valleys are ideal places for trekking and mountaineering, flora and fauna invites a nature lover for a rendezvous with them.Nepal and Himalayas-the two names go side by side.
Nepal, in political maps, is one of the smallest countries in the world but has the amazingly diverse geography, landscapes, culture, and traditions. Nepal, situated in the lapse of might Himalayas, is regarded as Dev Bhumi the land of gods and world’s two major religions Hinduism and Buddhism co-exist in perfect religious tolerance. Nepal is rich with traditions of art and culture.
By some measures, Hinduism is practiced by a larger majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation. Buddhism though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal. Many Nepali do not distinguish between Hinduism and Buddhism and follow both religious traditions.
A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah Dynasty of kings from 1768 when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a decade-long Civil War by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12 point agreement of November 22, 2005. The ensuing elections for the constituent assembly on May 28, 2008, overwhelmingly favored the abdication of the Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic. The first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav was sworn in on July 23, 2008.
From the linguistic and cultural point of view, the Mongolians from the north and Indo-Aryan from the south since prehistoric times have come to form a racial and cultural unison and harmony. Nepal is, of course, the some of fierce Gurkhas- Magars, Gurungs, Newars, Rais, Rais and other small groups. They though speak their own language and commemorate their own feasts and fiestas, also unitedly to celebrate the national carnivals at their best. Similarly, from a religious point of view, Nepal is the sacred birthplace of Buddha “The prophet of peace and non-violence”.”.
So, Buddhism has flourished. And, the Hinduism does have an overwhelming faith in the people. The other religions prevailing are – Christianity, Muslims, and Nepal is an agro-based country. Approximately 90% people entirely dependent on agriculture. It is carried mainly in the Terai and plain valleys. The Terai produces rice, wheat, sugarcane, fruit oil-seeds etc. Similarly, animal husbandry is a prime occupation in the Himalayan realm, since the high peaks are snow-capped and the hills are forested. Goats, sheep, and yaks are reared on the pasturelands. However, some educated people are employed in other sectors viz-administration, business, teaching and so on. Now literacy rate has gone up to nearly 50%. Therefore, mushrooming numbers of schools and colleges are set up to cater to the need of this modern era.
Nepal has been made famous for its tourism, trekking, hiking, camping, mountain biking, national wildlife parks, jungle safaris, river rafting, sports fishing, and its many beautiful temples and places of worship.
The topography of Nepal:
The mountain region lies in the northernmost at the elevated level of more than 4000 meters and includes the highlands, treeless Alpine zones, semi-arid valleys, trans-Himalayan valleys and the highest peak. Eight out of top ten highest peaks of the world including Mt. Everest (8848 meter high) lie in this region. According to census 2001, only 7.3 percent people live in this region even if it occupies 16 percent area and people here mainly engage in growing yaks, some cold-tolerant crops such as potato, barley, maize and apple-like fruits. The hills region lies just below the mountain region mostly at the level between 1000 meter and 4000 meters.
It covers major ranges of hills like Mahabharata and Chure ranges, several intermountain valleys including Kathmandu Valley. It is the biggest region occupying 67 percent of Nepal’s total land area. The Plain contains the low tropical plains along with the southern part of the country. The plain region consists of the southern plain up of Indian border in the south, east, and west. This covers only 17 percent of its total area and hence densely populated region has more than 48 percent of the population living there. Today, most of the cities, towns and industrial areas are located in this region. This is also known as the food store of Nepal. As the ecology is varied, the climate in Nepal varies from tropical in the plain to Alpine in the mountains. The climate in different regions is different because of a diverse level of elevation.
Principal Rivers of Nepal :
Nepal has three major rivers and they are from east to west whereas the longest Koshi (513 kilometers), deepest Narayani (332 kilometers), and largest Karnali (507 kilometers). All these three rivers are major tributaries of the Ganga in northern India.
The climate of Nepal:
The climate is Tropical and sub-tropical in the plains, temperate in the hills and Alpine in the Mountains There are four seasons in Nepal. March-May, June – August, September – November, and December – February for spring, summer, autumn, and winter respectively. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons in Nepal. The weather and climate are controlled by the altitude and the seasonal alternation of the monsoon winds. The main rainy season in Nepal is from late June to September.
This is a period of warm to hot temperatures, much cloud, and frequent heavy rain. The temperature in Plain reaches as high as 40ºC during summer. At this time sunshine averages only two to three hours a day. About 80 percent rain falls in this period. Annual rainfall decreases from east to west due to northwestward movement of the moisture-laden summer monsoon. The amount of average annual rainfall in the eastern part, Kathmandu and western part is about 2500, 1400 and 1000 millimeters respectively, though there may be some seasonal variations. Pokhara, a touristic city located in western part, receives heavy rain falls. During the rest of the year, the weather is much more settled and pleasant. The days are mild or even warm, except on the higher mountains, and sunshine averages from six to nine hours a day.
Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The temperature in Kathmandu Valley ranges from 19-27ºC (67-81ºF) in summer and 2-20ºC in winter, hence pleasant. There are some dangers of floods and landslides during the heaviest rain falls, the climate of Nepal is rarely hazardous and on average is very pleasant. Some indication of variation and irregularities are being noticed in recent years due to global warming.
Natural Resources of Nepal:
Nepal does not have plenty of natural resources in terms of valuable minerals and petroleum. Though there are some indications of iron, copper, gold, zinc, limestone, slate, oil and gas, coal, sulfur, quartz, cobalt etc, yet they are not substantially excavated. Nepal is rich in scenic beauty, water resources, and forest. The north part consists of a beautiful range of mountains always covered with snow.
Land Use in Nepal:
Nepal’s mountainous terrain constraints land use options, and nearly one-third of the land area is unfit for agriculture or forestry. According to government figures for 2002, approximately 18 percent of the total land area was used for agriculture, of which 88.8 percent was categorized as arable land, 4.4 percent as land under permanent crops, and the remainder as pastures, woodlands, and other categories. The most agricultural land is in the Hill and Tarai regions. From 1962 to 2002, the total area of arable land increased (from 1.6 million to 2.5 million hectares) but declined as a proportion of land for agriculture (from 94.5 to 88.8 percent) because of the increase in land used for grazing and permanent crops, particularly fruit. Permanent crop cultivation also has reduced the proportion of land used for woodland and forest harvesting.
SOCIETY and PEOPLE of Nepal
Religion is important in Nepal. Before Nepal became a secular republic in May 2008, Nepal was unique as the one and only official Hindu state in the world with just over 81 percent of its population is Hindu, 9 percent Buddhist and 4.4 percent Muslim. Buddhist and Hindu shrines and festivals are respected and celebrated by members of both of these faiths. Nepali is the official language of Nepal but many government officials also speak English. The 2011 census reported 126 caste/ethnic groups living in Nepal. Nepal is a multilingual, multicultural and multiethnic country.
There are 126 caste/ethnic groups reported in the census 2011. Chhetri isthe largest caste/ethnic groups having 16.6% (4,398,053) of the total population followedby Brahman-Hill (12.2% ; 3,226,903), Magar (7.1% ; 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6% ; 1,737,470),Tamang (5.8% ; 1,539,830), Newar (5% ; 1,321,933), Kami (4.8% ; 1,258,554), Musalman (4.4% ; 1,164,255), Yadav (4% ; 1,054,458) and Rai (2.3% ; 620,004). There are total 123 languages spoken as mother tongue which was reported in census 2011. Nepali is most spoken as mother tongue by 44.6 percent (11,826,953) of the total population and followed by Maithili (11.7% equivalent to 3,092,530 people), similarly, Bhojpuri (5.98%; 1,584,958), Tharu (5.77%; 1,529,875), Tamang (5.11%; 1,353,311), Newar (3.2%; 846,557), Bajjika (2.99%; 793,418), Magar (2.98%; 788,530), Doteli (2.97%; 787,827), Urdu (2.61%; 691,546). There are ten types of religion categories reported in the census. Hindu is followed by 81.3 percent (21,551,492) of the population followed by Buddhism (9%; 2,396,099), Islam (4.4%; 1,162,370), ,Kirat (3.1%; 807,169), Christianity (1.4%; 375,699), Prakriti (0.5%; 121,982), Bon (13,006), Jainism (3,214), Bahai (1,283) and Sikhism (609).
Nepal’s population has continuously increased over time. It is estimated to be 26.9 million in 2008. It was ranked 40th position in the world in 2008. There is a regular census in Nepal in every ten years and the last census was conducted in 2011. According to that census, the population of Nepal as of the census day (June 22, 2011) stands at 26,494,504 showing population growth rate of 1.35 per annum.
Similarly, a total number of households in Nepal is 5,427,302 with 5,423,297 counts of individual households with 4,005 institutional households which were used as Hostels, Barracks, Monasteries etc. Not least but more, One in every four households that is 25.42% equivalent to 1.38 million households are reported that at least one member of their family is absent or is living abroad. And a total number of absent population is found to be 1,921,494 against 0 .76 million in 2001 due to the death, migration to the abroad or been status unknown due to the internal conflict between Maoist and the government. Among them, the highest proportion equivalent to 44.81 % of absent population were from the age group 15 to 24 years which is due to their movement to the abroad.
Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, and Pyuthan districts were reported as the highest proportion of the people in their population being absent as staying abroad. The increment of population within the last decade was recorded as 3,343,081 with the annual average growth rate of 1.35 % which is less then that of the census of 2001 and this change is unlike the last decade which was in increasing index but due to the successful movement of the government about the population education and most of the population were absent and hence there decrease the population growth rate.
Looking the geographically southernmost part of Nepal, Terai had 50.27 percent equivalent to 13,318,705 of the total population while Hill and Mountain had 43 percent which is equivalent to 11,394,007 and 6.73 percent equivalent to 1,781,792 of the total population respectively. And looking on the basis of the development region, among the five development regions, Central development region was recorded to have the highest population of 36.45 percent of total population and that of far western region belongs the lowest that is 9.63 percent of the total population.
Sex ratio which is the index that provides the number of males per 100 females to the national level has decreased to 91.6 in 2011 from 99.8 in 2001 and the reason is sure that more of the household economic responsibility belongs to the male member and male has to move out or abroad from the house to earn for livelihood. And hence in abstract number, there was 796,422 more female than males population in the country. Sex ratio was recorded highest (127) in Manang district and lowest record (76) in Gulmi district.
Similarly, life standard of the women has been improved from last time. Female-headed households in the country have increased by about 11 point percent from 14.87% in 2001 to 25.73% in 2011. Average household size at the national level has decreased from 5.44 in 2001 to 4.88 in the current census 2011. The household size is recorded highest (6.44) in Rautahat district and lowest (3.92) in Kaski. The fastest population growth rate over the decade was found in Kathmandu district of 61.23 percent which is also the capital city of Nepal, and least in Manang ( -31.80 percent ). Altogether 27 districts including Manang, Khotang, Mustang, Terhathum, Bhojpur recorded negative population growth rate during the last decade. This is due to the trend of people migrating toward the developed and administrative center.
In that census, it shows that the working age population (aged 15 to 59 years) has increased from 53 percent (12,310,968) in 2001 to about 57 Percent (15,091,848) in 2011 showing the population structure is shifting for enjoying demographic dividend in the country. Talking about the literacy rate, overall literacy rate (for population aged 5 years and above) has increased from 54.1 percent in 2001 to 65.9 percent in 2011. The male literacy rate is 75.1% compared to a female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3 %) and lowest in Humla (47.8%). These are the census aspect of the people of Nepal. But talking about the living standard of the Nepalese, they are increasing rapidly in the urban area band in average pace in remote area.
ECONOMY of Nepal
According to the constitution of Nepal, the government has their fundamental economic responsibility in order to create the independent and self-dependent economy through even distribution of economic gains, preventing the economic exploitation, as well the development of quality of private and public enterprise. Prior to 2010, the economy, like the country, was essentially closed to the world, and international economic relations were largely in the form of cross-border trade with India and China but in this year Nepal is supplying their goods from the third country as well but still have to respond to a neighboring country for transportation.
Since 1990, the government has adopted market-oriented policies with priority and with greater flexibility on the domestic economy and trade. The economy of Nepal is still characterized by center oriented planning. However, the government is the main source for domestic investment, and the brief on five-year plans usually direct such investment.
Now looking to the Budget of the Nepal the total expenditure outlay for Financial Year 2017 is NRs1048 billion (an estimated 39.5% of GDP), which is 28.1% higher than the budget estimate for FY2016 (Table 2). The FY2017 outlay comprises NRs617.2 billion for recurrent expenditures (58.8% of the total outlay), NRs311.9 billion for capital expenditures (29.7%), and NRs119.8 billion for financial provision (11.4%). The substantially larger size of the budget is due to the large increase in recurrent and capital spending. The outlay for recurrent expenditure (equivalent to 23.3% of GDP) is 42.2% higher than the revised estimated expenditure in FY2016. The planned capital spending has been increased by 96.1% over the FY2016 revised estimate (equivalent to 11.8% of GDP).
A total revenue target of NRs682.8 billion (25.7% of GDP) has been set for FY2017, including projected foreign grants of NRs106.9 billion (4.0% of GDP) and principal repayment of NRs10 billion. The budget deficit is to be financed by foreign loans amounting to NRs195.7 billion, domestic borrowing of NRs111.0 billion, and the FY2016 cash balance of NRs59.4 billion. Net foreign loans and net domestic borrowings are projected to be 6.4% and 3.5% of GDP, respectively. About Rs141 billion has been allocated for post-earthquake reconstruction and rehabilitation in FY2017.
Overview of Transportation:
Nepal’s transportation state is usually regarded as poor and obstacle for Nepal’s economic development. The mountainous and hilly area physically undergo the construction of the transportation network in order to expand the transportation infrastructure, but they remain unimproved and hence natural calamities destroy such trails and road. Most of the developed transportation infrastructure are concentrated mainly in the central and eastern parts of.
Mechanically old and unimproved transportation is common in both urban and rural areas, and mechanically advanced local transportation are only common in the Kathmandu Valley and somehow in Pokhara. The major modes of transportation of Nepal are air and road. Railroads are not in developed phase and that which exist are also in a phase of decline in quality and quantity. The Department of Transport Management oversees transportation issues, and its fiscal year (FY) 2017investment on transportation from the private and governmental sector is about 17.6 billion Nepali rupees.
Roads in Nepal:
Roads of Nepal is the principal transportation mode. From 1951 to 2005, total road length increased from 376 kilometers over 80,000 kilometers. This total road length also includes 3,028.7 kilometers that belong to national highways. Roads are mostly concentrated in the central and eastern development regions, and the government is under high pressure to expand the road network as well preserve and improve roads condition. Government allocations of the budget for roads have increased, but their construction and maintenance costs are usually high because of the mountainous topography, monsoon rains, and occasional landslides. According to Department of Transportation Ministry, the total of 1.99 million (1,995,404) vehicles was registered in the past fiscal year 2016-17
Railroads in Nepal:
Nepal’s railroad system is poor, outdated, as well is in declining use and quality. One and only Janakpur to Jaynagar rail service include two rail lines that link along the railheads of India. The rail distance of 32-kilometer section runs between Jaynagar of India to Janakpur of Nepal, and a 21-kilometer portion goes from Janakpur to Bijalpura. The planning of Birganj dry port with the railway service for freight was planned and The Birganj dry port was already completed in 2000 but only that could become operational only after 2005 due to the lack of an operating agreement between India and Nepal.
The Janakpur railroad has lost budget and money for years because of low fares, overstaffing, and political interference, as well the government is expressing their interest in privatizing the Nepal Railway Corporation. The government had signed an agreement in 2004 with the Container Corporation of India to develop container service between Birganjfor freight with various other Indian cities, including Kolkata. A narrow gauge 53 Km rail line was constructed by the East India Company for the purpose of carrying goods to India, especially for the transportation of wood from Nepalese forest in 1937(Bhattrai and Sitaula, 2011). Since then Nepal has not constructed any other railway line. However, in the first 5-year plan (1956-61) an extension of railway line up to Hetauda, nearest southern city of Kathmandu, was proposed but never materialized. In the sixth, 5-year plan (1980-85) development of railway was completely rejected, because, policy declared the mobility situation was not suitable for the railway.
In recent years, the nationwide electric railway has been given a priority. The government of Nepal has been preparing detailed project report (DPR) for the various section based on feasibility study report (GON, 2010). From the fiscal year 2014/15, a section of the construction project has been started. However, the feasibility study fails to consider the recent technological development in rail transport. One of the most serious concerns of the feasibility study is the recommended gradient. The suggested gradient is only 1%, whereas, with the Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) technology, railway track can be constructed up to 4% of the gradient. With the provision of such 1% gradient, connecting Kathmandu, the capital city of Terai will be made a 255 km additional detour route.
Another major drawback of this study is the track gauge. A broad gauge track had been suggested without doing any research. But many of the countries have been adopting a standard gauge. It seems that suggestion on the feasibility study and DPR is questionable. Without addressing those consequences, starting a construction of railway project raises serious concern about the right allocation of resources and sustainability of the transport project.
Civil Aviation and Airports in Nepal:
All the airports of the country are supposed to be operating under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), but only five of total 48 airports was ready for an airplane to take-off or land under Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR). In a country like Nepal, according to its landscape and associated meteorology, this rules can be implemented in terms of real operational time whereas most of Nepali airports have frequently seasonal problems associated with wind, clouds, rain, and mist which force the airport to delay for some hours or, even some days. Excluding, from these daily problems in the airport, some airports of Nepal remain close during the complete and after monsoon season. Hence, they are said to be seasonal, and the number of such type of airport is 20.
From the report of AIP, 29 of the total airports are considered as STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) ones, which means, airports are in which the short runway length, elevation hinderance, location or obstacles in the departure or landing path make the difficult situation for the construction of a conventional airport. In most of the case, Nepal airports are STOL because they are located in the valley that is between high hills or even the mountains, and hence their runway is too short, as well their runway slope somewhere is too high and hence they need complicated procedures in order to operate at.
Only 14 of the total number of airports in the country have a paved runway, in present status while another 22 of them have grass surface and the remaining two are made of clay material.
In accordance to report of AIP, only 9 of the total 48 airports have Air Traffic Control, and most of them are equipped with Aerodrome Flight Information Service (AFIS) of VHF Frequency. Eight of them are not equipped with any of these services and six of them are unmanned. With regard to their profits, none of the airports in the country are profitable, but some of them should be maintained since they act as a social means of transport and provide the resource to the community. The government also had classified 14 airports as social as well trying to provide some aids for private airlines and encourage them to provide their service in these routes, so that people living in those areas would not be completely isolated.
These social airports are the following ones: Bajhang, Bajura, Phaplu, Salley, Simikot, Jumla, Lamidanda, Manang, Rumjatar, Bhojpur, Chaurijhari, Dolpa, Thamkharka, and Tumlingtar. They are usually get served from the Regional Airport, but nowadays some of these routes are diverting or even disappearing along with the construction of new roads to that area. Rest of the airports in the country are most belong to tourism important ones, as well they mainly profitable like Pokhara, Syangboche, Phaplu, Taplejung, Lukla, Manang, Jomson, Meghauli, Dolpa, and Rara. Biratnagar Airport is the most profitable ones.In fact, this airport is the third Nepali biggest airport in terms of its passengers as Biratnagar is the largest business city in the country.
In previous sections, it has been already mentioned that Tribhuvan International Airport is the unique and meet standard requirement of the international airport and is only one airport in Nepal with international routes, but CAANis thinking of opening some others airports in major places to manage the international traffic. These plans are now directed to Bhairahawa and Pokhara and are under construction, but right now it will be for near regional destinations as per the lateral agreements with India which explain that flights to or from there will be treated like regional ones.
Pokhara is now processing on terminal building and it is also expected to link the city with Lucknow (India) in winter 2017-2018, and the Gautam Buddha Airport which is being used as a pilgrim airport for pilgrimage which is coming mainly from India to visit Lumbini, which is famous as Lord Buddha’s birthplace. Although Pokhara Airport is being redesigned, there is an undergoing project of a new airport in the city with the international meet of the infrastructure which can be the international airport in the near future, to substitute the first one. It will be also analyzed with the available source and information, however, it will need some years in order to start operation.
Apart from these plans of opening alternative international operation to those existing airports, Government of Nepal has decided to build another international airport some years ago in Kathmandu. This SIA (Second International Airport), for the moment it is only an assumed project, but in case if it was built, it would affect considerably increase the air traffic and disturbance to the airport’s network organization.
Ports in Nepal:
Nepal is a landlocked country with two large and economically strong nation. Nepal has poor and weak waterway transportation and as well there are no any waterway ports. However, the country has inbuilt two inland container depots right atSirsiya and Birganj, which help to service cargo to and from seaports of India. Both of those ports have experienced periods of nonuse because of problems such as customs disputes with India. There also have been proposals to use Janakpur as a dry port.
Pipelines in Nepal:
Nepal has no any pipelines yet. However, the Nepal Oil Corporation had signed a memorandum of understanding with the Indian Oil Corporation to build a 35-kilometer, pipeline from Raxaul (India) to Amalekhganj (Nepal) with an annual capacity of 1.1 million tons for transport of petroleum, diesel, and kerosene September 9, 2004. But due to the conflict and political disputes that project get vanished.
Executive Branch of Government of Nepal:
The executive branch of government also includes the President, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers or Cabinet including constitutional, statutory bodies, bureaucracy, comprising various personal services, in work to carry out executive functions. The President, as being the head of state, does not have to perform most of the executive functions but is one of the parts of the executive branch
The Cabinet can make its own rules and policy for the allocation and, allow it to run up and set the central secretariat which is described under Article 43 of the Constitution of Nepal. The Constitution also requires the Cabinet of Minister to proceed the executive functions in accordance with the laws which is enacted by parliament. The Constitution of Nepal provides the political system with the impartial, efficient and fair bureaucracy.
As head of state, the President of Nepal is given the responsibility of protecting the Constitution. Whereas, on the provisions of the Interim Constitution, the President is elected among the members of the Constitution Assembly and remain in office until the formation of the new Constitution. The President does meet with the Prime Minister at regular intervals but does not relate to executive functions. All bills passed by parliament by approval of the President and after those bills will be the law of Nepal.
The President may request to review the bill made by the government but has no authority to reject it. The President may also get information of administration and advice to the Prime Minister as needed. The Vice President will be the head of state in the absence of the President like during his foreign visit. The constituent assembly elects the both the President and the Vice President, and also has authority to remove the two office holders. The CA elected Nepal’s first
President Ram Baran Yadav and Vice President Parmananda Jha in July 2008. The Prime Minister is elected by the Legislature-Parliament and is the chief executive having most of the power of Government of Nepal.The first responsibility of the Prime Minister after chairing his post is to form the cabinet of minister for important topics, ministers of state, and assistant ministers. There is no any limit on the number of ministers, and since 2008, different prime ministers had formed their cabinets of varying sizes depending upon their political needs. Those ministers are individually answerable to the office of Prime Minister, and the Cabinet of parliament, Under the act of Constitution of Nepal, an individual either may be or not to be a member of parliament in order to become a minister.
Legislative Branch of Government of Nepal:
The legislature of Nepal was first conceived since the 1948 constitution, but it was not formed at that instant. In 1952The first serving legislature, the Advisory Assembly was and was followed as the Parliament in 1959. In 1962, the Rashtriya Panchayat was acting Legislative of Nepal, in 1952 the House of Representatives is regarded as the Legislative branch. The 2007Interim Constitution of Nepal created a their legislative body as the Legislature-Parliament.Legislature-Parliament, also serves the system as the Constituent Assembly.
The Constituent Assembly was formed by the national election in April 2008, and its first meeting held on May 20 of the same year. Its original two-year term is to be expired on May 28, 2010, but it was extended its term to four times.
There are total 601 members in the CA among which 240 elected through the first-past-the-post system, and 335 of them are elected through proportional representation, and 26 of them are nominated by the Cabinet of Minister on the basis of discussion and decision made from amongst prominent persons and the indigenous peoples. The same person heads both of the posts, as Chairperson of the CA and Speaker of the Legislature-Parliament.
Under the act of Constitution of Nepal, the person for Chair or Speaker and Vice Chair or Deputy Speaker are elected by the members of parliament, either by formal election or by all party political understanding. The Vice-Chairperson or Deputy Speaker have to chairs the sessions if there is the absence of the chair. The Speaker can be replaced or removed from office through the session conduct through the motion approved by the members and with the approval of a two-thirds majority of total members of the Constituent Assembly.
The Legislature-Parliament has its own rules for every process.These processes are based on the act of the Interim Constitution as per the Constituent Assembly Rules 2008, including Constituent Assembly, Conduct of Business of Legislature-Parliament Rules 2008. All members of parliament have to take an oath at the first session after their nomination by parliamentary rights and privileges.
Judicial Branch of Government of Nepal:
From the 1990 constitution including the constitution of Nepal 2015 describe the three-level court system consisting of 75 district courts in all 75 district (before two districts were further divided and total district count become 77), 16 appellate courts including 14 on every zonal area, and a Supreme Court. There is the provision of Quasi-Judicial function to Village and municipal bodies for minor offenses. All courts have their original jurisdiction, but most judicial matters are over district courts. The judicial system bind on all, including the person in the major posts of Nepal.
The Supreme Court has a chief justice appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council and 14 judges are nominated by the President with the recommendation of the Judicial Council, including that of appellate and district court judges. The House of Representatives can chair Supreme Court justices by impeachment. The judiciary regarded of as more autonomous, but it usually suffers from the large case of backlogs, insufficient personnel, political influences, poor coordination of jurisdiction between courts, and biases based on caste and economic status.
Thus, many Nepalese are not experiencing the official court system as a reliable option for legal matters. From the survey that was conducted in 2000 present the report that the majority of legal-type issues were not being handled by government officials instead by local actors and village chiefs.
Supreme Court also has appellate jurisdiction as well jurisdiction over all courts, excluding military courts.
To the Local Self Governance Act (LSGA) of 1999 on a basis for Nepal’s two-tier local government system. But the local bodies had been without elected representatives from May 2002, when the teams of those elected in 1998 were expired. And long after 15 years local level election held on Nepal with 3 level of election for the local government, as a stopgap measure.
In 2008 when the government formed All Party Mechanisms (APMs) in order to make local decisions, but this system was dismissed in January 2012 with accusing of charges of misuse of local funds.The LSGA is established seeking to promote public’s participation in governance through the practice democracy and spread of authority. It as well establishes institutional mechanisms which are needed for local self-governance for making the governmental bodies accountable to the people as they serve and represent. Recently local election was held with the three terms in this year 2017.
The LSGA has right to establish the structure of local government institutions. The council is supreme to the deliberative body. This council makes programs and budgets, staffing, audit reports, taxes, fees and service, periodic annual plans, formulates and approves policies. This committee is like the executive body that implements the decisions of officials of the committee. Between elections, the rural municipality Secretary, and the Chief Executive Officer of the municipality, along with the Local Development Officer (LDO) at the District Development Committee and all central government officials carry out the functions of both council and the committee.
Under the LSGA and its Regulations, local bodies can form committees for various needs and purposes. Principal purposes include the managing of plans, recruiting and accounts, subject local matter and integrated development matters. In addition, there are district-level committees with broad monitoring for supervision and coordination functions, which are generally chaired by elected officials.
Electoral System in Nepal:
As usual of universal suffrage for citizens, Nopal follows the 18 years of age and older eligible for casting votes. The minimum age in order to run for office is 21 for local offices, and minimum 25 for the House of Representatives, and minimum 35 for the National Assembly. Members of rural municipalities and municipalities are directly elected and constitute an electoral group that would elect district development committee members. The number of district representatives for national office is proportional to the district’s population, while the number of representatives for the district and local offices is based on area, population, and other factors.
Politics and Political Parties of Nepal:
From the restoration of democracy in 1990, political parties have been among the most influential actors in politics, but their popularity and effectiveness are generally seen declining.In Nepal history in February 2005, the king has suspended all parties, claiming they were not effectively addressing the civil conflict, yet the suspension’s constitutionality is debated. For many reasons, political parties have never been capable of challenging the king’s power and have rarely mobilized a large number of the population. The parties are frequently acted as representing distinct social identities, often those activists of dominant caste/ethnic groups. Competition within and among parties is most common and is often perceived as based on personal interests rather than on ideology or policy. Many actions of parties and their member are oriented to acquiring and maintaining power. As measured from votes received in the 2013 election, the most popular parties were the Nepali Congress, Nepali Communist Party(UML), and United Nepal Communist Party(Maoist).
Mass Media in Nepal:
Historically, radio has been the most popular means of mass communication. Government-owned Radio Nepal as the sole domestic radio provider since 1951, and by 1995 it started broadcasting in short-wave, medium-wave, and FM frequencies. Private operators can take lease the FM channel, and there are also plans to establish FM stations outside the capital. Television programming has commenced in 1985, and broadcasters include government-owned Nepal Television, with three channels, and private broadcasters Nepal One, Shangri-La, and Space-Time Network Kantipur television.
Most of the private television broadcasters have experienced financial losses and content restrictions. Foreign programs are accessed via satellite or distributed through cable. Statistics on viewership are not available, but it is more than 75% percent of the population. From to government figures, in 2015 Nepal had 5570 registered newspapers, of which 1092 were published daily. Kantipur had the highest daily circulation at around 7,80,902. Most registered newspapers have published either weekly (3,876) or monthly (1,580). Most of the news media are regarded as having little credibility as a result of affiliations with political parties.
Constitutionally, foreign policy is to be followed by “the principles of the United Nations Charter, nonalignment policy, the Panchsheelnational law that include five principles of peaceful coexistence, inter and the value of world peace.” In practice, foreign policy has not been aimed toward projecting influence internationally but toward persisting autonomy and addressing of domestic economic and security issues. Nepal’s most international relations are perhaps with the international economic groups, such as the International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a multilateral economic development association.
Nepal also has strong bilateral relations with the major donor of economic and military aid, such as France, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, the United States, and particularly the United Kingdom, with whom the military agreement was made on the date to the nineteenth century. The country also maintains strong and equal political relations with India and China, usually tendency of balancing one against the other. However, relations with India are fraught with trade and border misunderstanding and Indian have suspicions that Nepalese and Pakistani rebels use the and of Nepal as a haven to attack India. Relations with Bhutan have been cold since 1992 over the nationality and possible repatriation of refugees from Bhutan.
Nepal Membership in International Organizations:
Nepal is a member of numerous international organizations including; Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation; Colombo Plan; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, South Asian Association for Regional CooperationInternational Development Association;the Asian Development Bank; Group of 77, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International Chamber of Commerce;International Fund for Agricultural Development International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes; Mulitlateral Investment Guarantee Association; Nonaligned Movement; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons; South Asia Coope; International Civil Aviation Organization; International Criminal Police Organization; World Meteorological Organization;International Organization for Standardization; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies;World Customs Organization; International Finance Corporation;; International Labour Organization; International Maritime Organization; International Monetary Fund; International Olympic Committee; International Organization for Migration (observer); International Telecommunication Union; rative Environment Program;; United Nations (UN); UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UN Industrial Development Organization; Universal Postal Union; World Bank; World Health Organization; World Intellectual Property Organization;, World Tourism Organization, and World Trade Organization.
Major International Treaties of Nepal:
Nepal had made treaty with numerous international treaties including the Basel Convention for the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal;Convention on the Rights of the Child; International Atomic Energy Association Safeguards Agreement; Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (signed but not ratified as of September 2005); Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; Convention on Biological Diversity;Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas (signed but not ratified as of September 2005); Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna; Chemical Weapons Convention; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat; Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Geneva Protocol;; International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights; International Tropical Timber Agreement 1983; International Tropical Timber Agreement 1994; Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer; Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water; United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification; and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Foreign Military Relations:
Nepalese has served in both the British and Indian armies, but Nepal has no formal military links with other countries or other intergovernmental organizations other than the United Nations. Since 2001, India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other governments have provided various forms of assistance to maintain the peace in Nepal
Nepal has no threats from another country’s regular military forces.
Major Military Units:
Nepal has an army but no any, coast guard, navy, marines, or air force.But command and control of the military have undergone significant changes since 1990, and in 2008 there was the formation of the Nepalese Army (NA) shifted from a brigade-based figure to one based on divisions. There are six combat divisions, each responsible for a particular area (Far-Western, Mid-Western, Western, Central, Eastern, and Valley), and each of them includes combat brigades, combat support, and combat service support units. One combat brigade is designated as the Royal Guards Brigade, and there are separate aviation and special operations brigades. Each brigade contains two to three infantry battalions that include logistics, rifles, and support and several other independent infantry companies, such as air defense, artillery, engineers, ordnance, repair, light artillery, and signals. Foreign observers estimate that in 2014 the army had between 63,000 and 85,000 active-duty personnel, including nearly 320 personnel in the Nepal Army Air Wing (NAAW)
The minimum age to get involved military service is 18. Women are also eligible for military service, but most serve in noncombat positions.
The Armed Police Force (APF) was established in January 2001 as a subordinate part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, which had dominantly created some tensions between the ministry and the army. The APF has a force of approximately 70,000 personnel, and its primary function is to maintain internal security, Other duties include security of VIP and assisting the Nepal Police in the maintenance of law and order.
Foreign Military Forces:
The British Gurkhas Nepal, a British Army organization, has 567 personnel engaged in recruitment, pension payment, and other administrative services for Nepalese that serve or have served in the British Army as part of the Brigade of Gurkhas.
Military Forces Abroad:
The prestigious reputation of Nepalese soldiers is due to part to their foreign service. The Indian army has more than 40,000 Nepalese, and approximately 3,300 Nepalese serves in the British Army’s Brigade of Gurkhas. The number of Nepalese in the British Army has declined from the 8,000 that served in 2010 but remains one of Nepal’s most important sources of foreign exchange. Nepalese in the Brigade of Gurkhas have served anywhere that British soldiers do, except in Northern Ireland. Currently, all units of the Brigade of Gurkhas are centered in the United Kingdom except the Gurkha battalion on Brunei, the British Gurkhas Nepal, and through the deal with the British Army the Gurkha Contingent of Singapore Police Force.
Nepal is also the member of the United Nations (UN) Disengagement Observer Force, and Nepalese troops also have been actively working in multilateral forces under UN auspices. As of January 2005, Nepal was the world’s fourth-largest contributor of troops for peacekeeping missions, which include 3,016 troops serving in various international peacekeeping operations. Since 1958, almost 46,000 Nepalese troops have participated in 29 different missions. As of 2005, Nepalese troops were serving in, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Haiti, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo , Israel and Syria, Kosovo, Liberia, the Middle East, and Sudan. Nepalese troops are serving in numerous other UN peacekeeping operations.
Police: The police force is the unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs. It was established under the Police Act 1956 to control as well to investigate crime and maintain law and order. When investigating a crime, the police may, according to a court order, detain suspects for investigation. Upon completion of the investigation, the police have to submit a report supporting evidence in the office of the district attorney’s office. The District Attorney, have to be satisfied with the report and the evidence, which then files a case in District Court. If he is not satisfied, the district attorney can direct the police in order to investigate further. Investigations are done through the Department of Crime Control and Investigation. Police officers in the department can be transferred at any time, and this can obviously affect investigations.
Human Rights in Nepal:
The constitution of Nepal provide basic human right of
1) Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
i) Arbitrary Deprivation of Life and other Unlawful or Politically Motivated Killings
iii) Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
iv) Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
v) Denial of Fair Public Trial
vi) Arbitrary or Unlawful Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence
2) Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
i) Freedom of Speech and Press
ii) Internet Freedom
iii) Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
iv) Freedom of Religion
v) Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons
3) Freedom to Participate in the Political Process
4) Against Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government
5) Right to be against Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
6) Right of against Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons
7) Worker Rights which include:
i) Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining
ii) Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
iii) Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment
iv) Discrimination with Respect to Employment and Occupation
v) Acceptable Conditions of Work
Regional AND FEDERAL DEVELOPMENT of Nepal
Nepal is a landlocked country situated in South Asia. it has an area of l,47,181 sqm. It is bordered by China to the north and India in the east, west, and south. On the basis of landform, Nepal is divided into three geographical regions. They are :
- Mountain Region
- Hilly Region
- Terai Region
Terai Region of Nepal
There is a significant variation in terms of resources and development amongst the regions. The land of Terai is plain and fertile, so cultivation of various crops and other economic activities can be easily developed in this region. Most of the districts of the Terai region are connected to the cities and India by roadways. But, construction of infrastructures like transportation, irrigation, etc is difficult and expensive in Hilly and Mountain region due to difficult topography. On the other side, Terai region has easy access to India so that import and export of raw material and manufactured goods is easy. Therefore, industry and trade can be easily developed in the Terai. But, due to inadequate transportation and other facilities development of industry and commercial farming is not easy and smooth in Hilly and Mountain regions.
According to 2011 census, it accommodates over 50 (50.27)% population of the country and it is at an increasing rate. About 40% of its land is fertile and there is irrigation facility as well. A variety of food and cash crops like paddy, wheat, maize, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, tea, etc. are cultivated here. This region can be provided with infrastructure facilities like transportation, communication, education, health, electricity, etc. easily. Hence, the region is under population pressure due to internal migration. But these horizontal specialties hinder parallel and harmonious development. The grain of Terai region does not find market whereas people of Hilly and Himalayan regions die of starvation.
Hilly Region of Nepal:
The Hilly region is located in the middle part of the country, between the Himalayan and the Terai regions. It stretches from east to west and lies between the altitude of 610 to 4,877 meters above sea level. This region has several attractive hills, Mahabharat, Churai, fertile valleys, and river-basins. These valleys and basins are densely populated while other parts are sparsely populated. This region occupies 68% of the total land area of the country of which only one-tenth is suitable for cultivation. Over 40 (43.01)% population of the country lives in this region but at a decreasing rate. The main occupations of the people living in its higher altitude are animal farming, cottage industry and cultivation of high altitude cereals like maize, millet, buckwheat, fruits, and vegetables. People in the lower altitude cultivate a variety of cereal crops and cash crops. Besides river basins, valleys and undulating slopes, other parts are better by fruit culture Than agriculture.
See Also: Top Information about Nepal
The geographical diversity and unequal distribution of resources in the country have become major causes of unequal development. This situation has also caused the uneven population distribution and migration of people from Hill and Mountain to the Terai and to the cities from village areas. This sort of regional disparity in Nepal is a great problem.
With a view to maintaining balanced development in all parts of the country, the concept of regional development commenced in Nepal along with the rule of late King Birendra. This concept has been implemented by the creation of developing regions. So, Nepal was divided into four development regions in 2029 BS. Later, in the year 2037 BS, one more development region, Far-Western Development Region was added including Seti and Mahakali. If you have questions about When was Nepal divided into development regions, then this is the answer. Thus, Nepal has five development regions with their regional headquarters. These regional headquarters conduct the administrative and developmental works of their respective development regions.
Tourism includes all the activities or services such as lodging, feeding, guiding. translating, entertaining through hotels, lodges, travel agencies, guides, translators, etc. rendered for the tourists during their stay. The moment a group of tourists arrives in Nepal, they are escorted to their hotels in the vehicles by the local guides. During their stay in Nepal, some of them go out of the town to trek in the surrounding hills where they are helped and looked after by the guides and hotel owners. Some of them may be interested in understanding the religious and cultural characteristics of Nepal and they visit historical places, temples, monasteries or like to stay with a particular community. Some of the tourists may prefer more adventurous sports and go for mountain climbing. During their stay in Nepal, they may like to buy pieces of handicrafts, carpets or curio items as souvenirs. Providing accommodation to the tourists, taking them from one place to another, flooding and entertainment come under tourism.
Today, the tourism industry is one of the largest and most expanding industries in the world. In 1997, the World Travel and Tourism Organization estimated that the industry provides employment to some 262 million people, about 10 percent of the total working population of the world and accounts for 8 percent of the total Gross Domestic Product.
There are 4,000 types of Monoecious and 2800 types of dioecious flowers in Nepal. The highest national park is Sagarmatha National Park enlisted on the World Heritage List. Of the total flora found in the world, 233% are found in Nepal. 9.57% or 852 species of birds are found in Nepal. The Spiny Babbler (‘Bhyakura’ in Nepali) is a unique bird which is not found elsewhere. One horn rhinoceros, snow bear, snow leopard and rare blackbuck are found in many parts of the country.
Terai region of our country attracts a number of tourists. The highest number of tourists are lured by Chitwan National Park. Tourists raft and camp in and on the bank of Trisuli river for about two-three days and reach Chitwan. Chitwan gives a feeling of seashore due to the second biggest river Narayani which passes almost through the middle part of Chitwan National Park. Many traditional lodges are established there. Tourists can go for Jungle Safari. They can hire an elephant and view other wild animals. Gharial crocodiles of Chitwan are very famous all over Nepal and in the world. Tourists can also watch Tharu’s stick dance here.
Adjoined with it is a Parsa Wildlife Reserve. It is equally rich in flora and fauna. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve preserves many wetland creatures. It is very famous for the several species of birds and fish. Bardia National Park is another famous habitat for wildlife. The birthplace of Gautam Buddha, Lumbini, is a famous pilgrimage not only for Buddhists but also for Hindus. Janakpur attracts thousands of Indian and other tourists annually. Dhulabari, Biratnagar, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj are other famous places for tourists.
Capital of Nepal
Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. The only international airport – Tribhuvan International Airport – lies in this capital city. The tourists who land here spend a few days in Kathmandu and go for trekking outside. Some tourists stay in Nepal only for three to seven days. Some of them only stay in the Kathmandu Valley and go back. During their stay here they may visit Banepa, Dhulikhel, Nuwakot. The Kathmandu Valley is a historical city. It is a good destination for tourists. Most of the top level offices have been established in this city. So, it is the center for official works and conferences. The five star, four star, and other star hotels are located here. The religious places like Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Dakshinkali, Bajrabarahi, Bauddhanath, Changunarayan and Budhanilakhantha attract a large number of tourists.
There is Natural Museum at Swayambhu, National Museum at Chhauni and a Museum in Hanumandhoka. Tourists visit them, especially on the rainy days. The surrounding hills offer ample opportunity for cycling and motorcycling. The tourists can view the attractive sunrise from Nagarkot early in the morning. It takes almost half a day to visit and study the zoo at Jawalakhel. Lalitpur. Godawari botanical garden is another beautiful place to visit.
The Kathmandu Valley is an equally famous place for the domestic tourists as well. They come to see the capital city, to do business or to visit religious places as pilgrims.
Main Cities of Nepal
The other main cities include Pokhara, Biratnagar, Lalitpur (Patan), Bhaktapur, Birendranagar, Bharatpur, Siddhartanagar (Bhairahawa), Birgunj, Janakpur, Nepalgunj, Hetauda, Dharan, Itahari, Ghorahi, Lahan, Rajbiraj, and Mahendranagar.
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