Surendra Bikram Shah was the sixth king of Nepal. In 1847, after the Kot massacre when the prime minister Jung Bahadur Rana forced the abdication of king Rajendra, Surendra became the king of Nepal. Surendra was the son of King Rajendra and his first wife was Queen Samrajya. During the year 1856, king Surendra announced the “sanad” which characterized the control and political leadership of Jung Bahadur Rana.
As the king Surendra was completely under the control of Jung Bahadur Rana, he was forced to use the “Shri” title thrice, placing the Jung Bahadur Rana’s family in a rank that was second only to the royal family. In this way, Jung Bahadur Rana ruled the country giving King Surendra a very little power. Since king Surendra had no power, he was lived like a prisoner in his own palace. Nobody was allowed to visit him without the permission of Jung Bahadur Rana.
7. Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah-
Prthivi Bir Bikram Shah became king after the death of his father “Trilokya Bikram Shah” who was the son of Surendra Bikram Shah. He was born on 18 August 1875 in basantapur and was declared as the king on 17 may 1881. King Prithvi was honored with the sovereign of the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu in 1896. During his reign, the most notable events were the introduction of first automobiles to Nepal. Another event was the creation of strict water and sanitation of the country.
The eldest child of King Prithvi Bir Bikram was Princess Royal “Lakshmi Rajya Laxmi Devi” who got married to the field marshal, “Kaiser Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana”. She was held to the Nepal’s throne and made crown princess until she was in her late teens when her brother King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah was born. He was poisoned and killed on 11 December 1911 and after his death, he was succeeded by his son Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah.
8. Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah-
After the death of King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, his son Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah was ascended to the throne at the age of eight and crowned on 20 February 1930 at Naksal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace, Kathmandu. During that time his mother, “Divyeshwari Laxmi Devi Shah” was acted as regent until king Tribhuwan would come to his age. He married to “H.M. Queen Kanti” and “H.M. Queen Aishwarya” on the same day.
King Tribhuwan had three sons and thirteen daughters. In the month of November 1950, the refuge was taken to India Embassy by king Tribhuwan with the aim of removing Rana oligarchy from power. Then, the Rana prime ministers quickly responded to Tribhuwan’s move by calling an emergency meeting on 7th November 1950 at Singha Durbar. During the meeting, the four-year-old grandson of king Tribhuwan, “Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah” was declared the new king of Nepal.
On November 10, the Royal Family was taken to New Delhi from Guchar Airport excluding the infant king, Gyanendra. In this way, the removal of the king led to expression in the country.This move of king Tribhuwan compelled the Rana Prime Ministers to come into negotiations with Tribuwan and the Nepali Congress. According to the agreement, they agreed to form a new ministry under his leadership, consisting of Nepali Congress and the Ranas on an equal basis. In this way, king Tribhuwan formally declared an end to Rana’s family rule and establishment democracy during this period of time.
9. Kind Mahendra
Lord Mahendra born in 1920 and died in 1972 was the ninth Shah Line leader of Nepal. The time of his manage from 1955 to 1972 was set apart by a wide assortment of analyses in political frameworks and ways to deal with financial and social improvement.
Lord Mahendra (Bir Bikram Shah Dev), the ninth Shah (Gorkha) line leader of Nepal, was conceived in Kathmandu on July 11, 1920, the eldest child of King Tribhuvan and Queen Kanti. Mahendra wedded Indra R. L. Rana in 1940. She bore him three children and three girls before her passing in 1950. Mahendra at that point wedded Indra’s sister, Ratna R. L. Rana, in December 1952—over restriction from political gathering pioneers and, purportedly, from his dad King Tribhuvan on the grounds that she originated from a capable branch of the Rana family. This was one of the main events on which Mahendra exhibited the assurance to settle on his own choices, a trademark clear after he went to the honored position.
Lord Tribhuvan kicked the bucket on March 14, 1955; Mahendra succeeded him to sit on the position of the particular authority. The period from the toppling of the Ranas in 1951 until the point when 1955 had been a transitional stage in Nepal’s governmental issues with no constitution, no chose a parliament and no mindful bureau framework. The official, ostensibly acting under the specialist of the ruler, was made out of different political gathering pioneers who were, truth be told, capable to nobody however needed much political clout. Lord Tribhuvan was hesitant to affirm a strong part of the government, however, step by step felt constrained to do as such. The legislature of India, which had “regulated” the substitution of the Rana framework in 1951, thought that it was important to fill in as the power behind the position of royalty in the Nepalese government at whatever point choices must be made.
Ruler Mahendra, rather than his dad, was not set up to see such a shaky political framework delayed and presented a progression of investigations not long after raising the Gaddi (position of royalty). His initial step (1956) was a cleansing of the organization with the target of making it a more productive body in the usage of arrangements—for instance, Nepal’s initial five-year design. By 1959 he had, all alone activity presented a parliamentary-sort constitution that was to a great extent displayed on India’s law based constitution, however with some security for the establishment of the government. In the spring of 1959, Nepal’s initially free well-known decision in view of the general establishment was held. The Nepali Congress Party cleared 66% of the seats in the race, and the pioneer of the gathering, B. P. Koirala, was designated, leader.
Lord Mahendra noted with some misgiving, in any case, the courses in which the Nepali Congress was amassing political power in its grasp. Probably in light of dread about the fate of the government under these conditions, Mahendra utilized the crisis powers given the ruler in the 1959 Constitution to suspend the constitution, capture the vast majority of the administration pioneers, lead a discount cleanse of the organization, and pack political expert in his own particular hands. He at that point presented in 1962 another protected framework based—in principle—on the conventional Hindu social/political establishment, the Panchayat (Council of Five). The fundamental target of Panchayat Raj (Rule by Panchayats) was to be the decentralization of political power. As it worked out in actuality, be that as it may, it constituted a centralization of energy, with the last voice on any choice, regardless of how paltry, resting with the royal residence and the gathering of high administrators who filled in as the primary advisors to the ruler on strategy matters.
When of King Mahendra’s demise on January 31, 1972, there were apparent strains and lacks in the protected and political framework he had developed in the 1960s. In his last years, Mahendra changed the 1962 Constitution and tried a few endeavors to bring skilled and experienced authorities into the key positions in the managerial procedure. Yet, this had constrained impact on the political framework, which stayed tyrant, with the ruler as the support around which everything moved. It was very clear when of his demise that more fundamental political changes were required to meet the requests of an inexorably mind boggling and creating society.
Lord Mahendra’s rule, 1955-1972, was remarkable for a wide assortment of tests in political frameworks, running from the traditionally Western vote based parliamentary framework to more tyrant political structures based, in principle in any event, on customary Hindu ideas and organizations. There was a comparative receptiveness to various ways to deal with monetary and social advancement—for instance, direct yet down to earth arrived change and lawful code progression programs. Constantly, be that as it may, Mahendra kept up an exceptional worry for the suitability of the monarchical framework.
10. King Birendra Facts
Going to the position of the royalty of Nepal at 27 years old King Birendra (conceived 1945) looked to underscore monetary improvement and a decentralization of expert.
Lord Birendra (Bir Bikram Shah Dev) of Nepal was conceived on December 28, 1945, the eldest child of King Mahendra and Queen Indra. He had two siblings and three sisters, and additionally various close relatives, uncles, and cousins in the regal family escort in and around the royal residence in Nepal’s capital city. Birendra wedded Aishwarya R.L. Rana on February 23, 1970; they had three kids—Crown Prince Dipindra, Prince Nirajan, and Princess Shruti.
Birendra was conceived while the Rana family still commanded the legislature of Nepal and the regal family was kept under strict surveillance. In any case, the political development that ousted the Ranas happened when the crown ruler was just five years of age, and his socialization into legislative issues and society in Nepal and abroad was altogether different from that of his dad, King Mahendra. Birendra’s formal instruction, for example, was in renowned schools outside Nepal: St. Joseph’s in Darjeeling, India; Eton in England; Harvard University; and the University of Tokyo. All the while, he was presented with a rich arrangement of hypotheses and models on the political and financial change in “creating” social orders like Nepal, and he exhibited an open and curious personality on such subjects.
Lord Birendra went to the position of authority on January 31, 1972. He was the 10th man to rule in the Shah tradition in Nepal. The distraction of King Mahendra with the minutia of political advancements any place in Nepal was supplanted by another methodology that, as a result, minimized governmental issues and focussed rather on financial improvement subjects and issues. The goal was to protect financial projects from the restricted political and intrigue gather worries that had, as far as anyone knows, hampered their execution under his dad.
As a vital backup to this new approach, changes in the company of guides around the lord were required. The gatherings of experienced and politically clever administrators that King Mahendra had utilized were immediately supplanted by more youthful, knowledgeable “advanced” specialists who apparently would be less repressed by worries for conventional familial or position amass interests. Another foundation under direct royal residence supervision was built up to do the important strategy arranging, for the most part with insignificant cooperation by the “restricted” intrigue bunches specifically influenced by these approaches and projects. To oversee governmental issues outside of Kathmandu, the BVNC (Back-to-the-Village National Committee) was sorted out to guarantee the royal residence a controlling voice in provincial and neighborhood boards on advancement programs.
The new approach sounded sensible; however, the outcomes were not as much as noteworthy. While a couple of organizations or people specifically tested the castle circles, few collaborated with their projects. Various effectively thought out strategies in the instruction, well-being, and financial fields were embraced, however, the authorities and organizations that should actualize them were for all intents and purposes non-agent. By the late 1970s obviously, some significant changes in the castle’s approach were essential. Lord Birendra found a way to meet the circumstance. In 1980 he held, on a widespread suffrage premise, a well-known submission on the Constitution his dad had presented in 1962. The vote went somewhat for the current framework, however with changes. Birendra at that point presented a few essential changes in the constitution, including arrangements for the decision of the Rashtriya Panchayat (National Assembly) on a well known yet non-party premise and the choice of a PM by the Assembly. The Assembly was chosen in 1981; one head administrator was chosen and after that later evacuated by the Assembly on a non-certainty vote, and another leader introduced.
Hence, the trappings of a majority rule parliamentary framework were set up in Nepal, however, a few essential fixings were missing—fundamentally a legitimized political gathering framework. The right to speak freely, press, and get together were more apparent in the 1980s than at whatever other time since 1960, yet with a few confinements. The royal residence kept on being the wellspring of an expert on every significant issue, and the Assembly and the bureau had no truly viable impediments on the imperial forces. In the event that Nepal was blasting ahead financially, this may be of just restricted significance, however, for 10 years or more, there was for all intents and purposes no genuine monetary development.
Ruler Birendra, along these lines, had various troublesome choices to make, and inside a restricted time span. His devotion to Nepal’s welfare was acknowledged by most Nepal’s, yet there was more incredulity about the goals of a portion of the critical individuals in and around the royal residence. Birendra’s declaration of his goal to present a substantive decentralization program which would exchange basic leadership expert on numerous vital issues from the Kathmandu administration to neighborhood and local chose authorities could be a vital stride in meeting some of Nepal’s fundamental political, social, and monetary issues. While King Birendra’s aims were not addressed, there were questions about his capacity to actualize such a program inside the current political framework.
11. Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah-
The eldest son of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah was born on 27 June 1971. He received his early Education at Budhanikantha School in Kathmandu. He went to England and attended Eton college for higher study. Later, he joined Tribhuwan University and studied Geography for his master degree and was a Ph.D. student at the same time. Dipendra was very much into social service and sports. He used to represent Nepal in various national and international sports ceremonies. He used to learn “karateka” while studying in England and had received a black belt at around the age of 20.
Well, there is no evidence but it is said that Dipendra opened fire at a house on the ground of Narayanhity Royal Palace and killed his father, King Birendra, his mother, Queen Aishwarya and seven other members of the royal family before shooting himself on own head. People are assuming various theories behind this incident: Number one is, Dipendra wanted to marry the daughter of an Indian Royal family, Devyani Rana who had met in England. Due to the political alliances and family’s lower caste, Dipendra was objected by his family and was told that he would have to give up his claim to the throne in order to marry her. Another theory is Dipendra was unhappy about the change of country’s monarchy i.e. from absolute to a constitutional.
Even though some people are using all of these theories but most of the people haven’t believed it yet because the bullet shot was on Dipendra’s head was on the left side whereas the fact is he was right-handed. This fact shows that he neither killed himself nor his family members. Many questions of this massacre have remained unanswered. This incident has been a huge mystery in the history of Nepal. In this way, he died due to the injury to his head on 4 June 2001( aged 29) in Birendra Military Hospital, chhauni, Nepal.
12. Last king of Nepal – Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Nepal is a beautiful country where people are enjoying their right freely. Earlier, Nepal was ruled by a king but the monarchy came in and in 2063 B.S. Many kings ruled the country, in-fact there was Shah dynasty. Before 2007 B.S., Rana ruled the country and was exercising all the powers. There was the ruling of the king but the Rana’s forbidden king to exercise rule. During the time of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah, Nepal was in the path of development and prosperity. But after the assimilation of King Birendra and his family, His brother Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah came in the power but her exercise his powers in wrong way by which the Shah came to an end.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah is the last king of Nepal. He was born on July 7, 1947, in Kathmandu Nepal. He was the second son of King Mahendra (reigned 1972-2001). He was educated at St. Joseph College in Darjiling, India. He completed his study from Tribhuwan University in Kathmandu in 1969. In November 1950, his father and grandfather, Tribhuwan along with the Royals went to India leaving Gyanendra who was only the male member of royal family. Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher brought him back to Kathmandu from his grandmother house and declared him king on 7th November 1950. Coins were issued in the name of him. Later, King Tribhuvan and Mahendra along with royals returned back to Nepal and resumed the throne.
Gyanendra was not directly involved in any governmental activities and politics during the reign of his father and brother but he was actively involved in several business firms and also the conservationist organizations. He frequently traveled abroad, as he visited many Asian and European countries and maintained the diplomatic relations with those countries. But in Jestha 19, 2059 B.S. the family of King Birendra along with the royal members were assassinated. The family of Gyanendra was safe in that bloody insurrection and many questions were raised from media and the Nepali people about the saving of Gyanendra family. But after the death of Dipendra, Gyanendra
But after the death of Dipendra, Gyanendra has unexpectedly ascended the throne on June 4. He then begins to rule the country but from 1996, Moiast war begins which wanted to replace monarchy of Nepal with the communist party. He was in the political turbulence but he maintained the situation of the country. Several major political parties as well the periodic flare up of the rebellion contributed the atmosphere of disorder and confusion in the country. He also became the Supreme Commander of the Royal Nepalese Army. He participated in the throne ceremony of Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan in 1972, At the wedding of the Prince of Wales of united kingdom in 1981 and also at the funeral of President of Yugoslavia H.E. Mr. Josip Broz Tito in 1980.
Gyanendra attempt much more to control the insurrection by which he adopted the authoritarian policies which were harmful to the monarchy. He also dissolved the parliament in October 2002. He also appointed the series of prime ministers but he put off the elections repeatedly. He also dismissed the Prime minister and cabinet in February 2005 and he assumed his direct rule. With more than two weeks of sustained objection forced the king to abnegate direct palace rule and to replace the Parliament.
In November, Government i.e. King and the Maoist revolutionary signed a UN-mediated peace record. On 18th May 2006, the reinstated Parliament revoked all the powers of the king and he declared Nepal as a secular country. It was declared to nationalize all the properties that he obtained by the virtue of being king such as Palace, forests and national park and also the important heritage sites. In January 2007, an interim constitution was promulgated which was called for the formulation of an elected constituent assembly. This time the Revolutionary Maoists who fought a war against the ‘feudal centralized state’ also supported the interim constitution as such disregarding their earlier commitment to empowering all the oppressed segments of the society. The Maoists joined the Seven Party Alliance to bring down the powers of
The Maoists joined the Seven Party Alliance to bring down the powers of the king. In December 2007, it was agreed to abolish the monarchy. When the election was fixed for April 10, 2008, the people were as doubtful about the date as it was been retarded twice in the past. The situation of the country was deteriorated more because of the sustained violence in the different parts of the country by several organizations affiliated to indigenous nationalities, women and disadvantaged low caste group.
When the people’s movement of 2006 was launched, the target was the authoritarian monarchy. In the movement against the king rule, people of all walks including janajatis, madhesis, Dalits, and women were participated with the hope to turn Nepal into an inclusive, accommodating and democratic state where every citizen could enjoy all right equally and could share in the state power. They shared the state power with their one time class enemies that had to force them to resort to arms by which all the janjatis and Madhesi remained dissatisfied and Madhesis led to violence in Terai coinciding with the promulgation of the interim constitution. The Government showed little interest to solve the issue fearing that it would help the Maoists and therefore the Terai problem in Parliament was magnified.
Due to the Terai burning affecting the economy and security of the country, the election was uncertain. In April, elections were held for the constituent assembly. The Maoist won the most of the seats and the more than centuries old, monarchy system came to an end on May 28, 2008. The new assembly voted to declare the Nepal as a democratic republic country.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah left the palace. On 23rd August 2007, Nepal’s transitional government nationalized all the properties of Gyanendra which he had inherited from his brother including Narayanhiti Royal Palace. All the properties he owned before his accession to the throne is with him and he is residing in the Nagarjuna palace as a normal citizen and being a businessman.
These are the 12 Kings Of Nepal during their own specific time. If we see and study their life then we can find that there was a lot of ups and downs in the history of Nepal. Today Nepali is a democratic country and every Nepalese citizen are the ruler of this country.
There is no king system or any kind of absolute monarchy system in Nepal at present. Now, the country is being ruled by different political parties and the saddest part is they are making the country’s situation even more worst. Its causes are corruption, power in the hand of a bad person, lack of strict rules, carelessness of Nepalese citizen.. and so on.
I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.