Facts & Information About Kings of Nepal
History of Nepal
About Kings of Nepal:- The Kingdom of Nepal was established on 25 September 1768 by Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha ruler who prevailing with regards to bringing together the kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur into a solitary state under his Shah tradition. The Kingdom of Nepal was by right an outright government for a large portion of its history. In any case, from 1846 until the Revolution of 1951, the nation was true administered by the inherited Prime Ministers from the Rana administration, diminishing the part of the Shah ruler to that of a nonentity. In November 1990, after the Jana Andolan development, the new Constitution was received and the nation turned into a sacred government.
On 13 February 1996, the Nepalese Civil War was propelled by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), with the point of ousting the kingdom and setting up a ‘People’s Republic’. On 1 February 2005, as the security circumstance decayed in the common war, King Gyanendra proclaimed a highly sensitive situation, suspended the Constitution and expected direct control over the country. On 24 April 2006, after the Loktantra Andolan development, the Lord consented to surrender supreme power and to reestablish the broke up House of Representatives. On 21 November 2006, the Civil War finished with the marking of the Comprehensive Peace Accord. On 15 January 2007, the King was suspended from practicing his obligations by the recently framed interval governing the body. At long last, on 28 May 2008, the kingdom was formally annulled by the first Constituent Assembly and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was declared. The subnational governments in Mustang, Bajhang, Salyan, and Jajarkot were additionally canceled in October 2008.
Before the democracy was implemented in Nepal, it was ruled by kings from different dynasty. For example, there was the beginning of Shah dynasty system on 25 September 1768 when Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king succeeded in unifying the kingdoms like Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan in a single state. However, from 1846 until the revolution of 1951, the country was ruled by the hereditary prime minister from Rana dynasty, reducing the role of the shah.
List of Shah Kings who ruled over Nepal
- Prithvi Narayan Shah (1743-1775)
- Pratap Singh Shah (1775-1777)
- Rana Bahadur Shah (1777-1799)
- Girvan Yudha Bikram Shah (1799-1816)
- Rajendra Bikram Shah (1816-1847)
- Surendra Bikram Shah (1847-1881)
- Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah (1881-1911)
- Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah (1911-1955)
- Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah (1955-1972)
- Birendra Bir Bikram Shah (1972-2001)
- Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah (June 2, 2001, to June 4, 2001)
- Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah (2001 – 2008)
Who was the First King of Nepal? – Prithvi Narayan Shah
The First King of Nepal: – Nepal, a small land locked country in south Asia between two giant states; India and China, is a unique nation with rich natural beauty, varied cultural diversity, and huge history. In the ancient times, before the Unification, this nation consisted of small principalities (Baise and Chaubise Rajyas). These small principalities had its own Kings or rulers and were not unified. It was only after the unification by King Prithvi Narayan Shan the Nation “Nepal” was formed as a country and had its own new appointed king who started ruling Nepal. The First King of Nepal was none other than King Prithvi Narayan Shah who unified the country.
Kings before the Unification of Nepal
The first documented history of Nepal starts from the Dynasty of Lichavi. The Lichavis are said to have ruled at around 250 AD. The first Lichavi Monarch was Anshvarma. Later, another monarch like Narendradeval and Jayakamadeva ruled the nation.
After the fall of Lichavis, mall dynasty started with the formation of the city of Kathmandu. Various Malla kings ruled over different states of Nepal like Jaya Prakash Malla, YakshyaMalla, Ranjit Malla and much more. It was only after the fall of Malla Dynasty, Nepal got its first King who ruled the unified nation. The stage of Shah Dynasty came right after the fall of the Malla dynasty.
‘Prithvi Narayan Shah’ The first King of Unified Nepal
The Prince of the Gorkha Kingdom, Prithvi Narayan Shah was born to Nara Bhupal Shah and Chandra Pravawati. As a child, Shah was a responsible kid and took the very keen interest in the politics and the foreign affairs of his father. Even as a child, he had a dream of winning over Nuwakot and subsequently take Kathmandu states as his father had to lose the initial battle with the MallaDyansty of Kathmandu. This made him even more responsible towards the unification process his father had started.
King of Gorkha.
At the tender of 20, Prithvi Narayan Shah sat on the throne of Gorkha Kingdom. His father’s early death in 1743 made him king of Gorkha. As he rose to power, he started building rapport with his countrymen and valued each and every people of his state. Most importantly, Shah had very distant relations with British and sealed his borders so that peace could be maintained in the whole country.
While Prithvi Narayan Shah was the king of Gorkha, Nepal was divided into several principalities named Baise and Chaubise States or rajyas. He predicted the urgent need to unify these small states for the long term survival of the country and he set himself according to his plans. His victory march started with the realization that Nepal was not strong enough to battle with the East Indian Company while it was divided itself. He intended to unify Nepal to make Nepal a unified and dignified state in the world and to make Nepal Independent.
Prithvi Narayan Shah started his victory march with the intention to conquest Nuwakot. In 1744 he became successful in taking over Nuwakot which was the key point to know about other states of Kathmandu Valley. Soon after, he got victory over other states that surrounded the Kathmandu Valley and became able to cut off all the communications between the states of Kathmandu and other outer states.
Kathmandu was the most powerful state during the victory march of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and it was not easy to conquest over the three states of Kathmandu valley, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur. In order to conquest these states, he had to take over Kirtipur at first. After the two unsuccessful attempts, he finally took over the ancient city of Kirtipur on the third attempt.Finally, on September 25, 1768, King Prithvi Narayan Shan overthrew the king of Kathmandu, King Jaya Prakash Malla and sat on the throne. He marched to Kathmandu on the day of Indra Jatra and hailed victory over Kathmandu. Jaya Prakash Malla managed to escape and took refuge in Lalitpur.
After the dramatic and successful victory over Kathmandu, Prithvi Narayan Shah took over other two powerful states, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur. In this way, Prithvi Narayan Shah became able to bring all the small principalities under one dignified and glorified nation, Nepal.
King of Unified Nepal
After the unification of all the Baise and Chaubise Rajyas, on 25th September 1768, King Prithvi Narayan Shah founded the Kingdom of Nepal. King Prithvi Narayan Shah became the First King of modern Nepal as he was the one who brought all the small principalities into one unified nation, NEPAL. He remained in power from 25th September 1768 to 11th January 1775. He died at the age of 52 and his son Pratap Singh Shah succeeded his throne.
See Also: Mithila Culture of Nepal
Major achievement during the Reign
- Without King Prithvi Narayan Shah, it was highly likely that Nepal would have been under the rule of British Empire like India.
- King had the good foreign relation policy. He made good relations with both the neighbor countries.
- Unified the nation and made a sovereign state.
- He had very well-organized diplomatic force consisting of Khas, Magars, and Brahmins whom he directed to talk with Parbat, Tanahu, Awadh and even the British East India Company in Calcutta. Jumla, this diplomatic relation helped him gain the trust of EIC and also of other states of Nepal.
- He respected and gave importance to each and every religion of Nepal.
- Ruled the country for 7 long years as the head of the S
Hence, the First King of Nepal, Prithvi Narayan Shah became very successful in uniting all the small principalities and make a country of Nepal for which he was made the King of the Unified nation. He was a nationalist and made the country prosperous, glorified and united. It was only because of him, Nepal was not ruled by any other nations as India. His legacy, principles and novel works inspire every one of the Country Nepal.
Pratap Singh Shah, the eldest son of Prithvi Narayan Shah was the second king of Nepal. Her mother name was Rajendra Rajya Laxmi Devi, who was the daughter of Abhiman Singh, a Brahmin from vanarasi. She didn’t commit sati for the sake of her son and her country. After then, her son Pratap Singh Shah become king at the very young age of 24 in 1775. Pratap Singh Shah ruled the country only for 36 months and died because of natural causes at the age of 26 on 17 November 1777.
During his time period, he couldn’t extend the incomplete unification work of his father due to his poor health condition. After his death by the disease named “tuberculosis”, he was succeeded by his two years old son “Rana Bahadur Shah”. So, because of his short lifetime period, he couldn’t do much for his country.
3. Rana Bahadur Shah–
Rana Bahadur Shah was the son of King Pratap Singh Shah. After the death of his father at a very young age of 26 he succeeded to the throne in 1777. During the time, Rana Bahadur Shah was only two and half years old. So, he ruled the country under the regency of his mother, “Queen Rajendra Rajya Laxmi Devi”. she also died from the same disease “Tuberculosis” on 1 July 1785. After then, the country was ruled by the regency of his uncle, Bahadur Shah, another son of Prithvi Narayan Shah.
Bahadur Shah was more into Royal luxuries rather than the unification campaign. In 1794 when king Rana Bahadur Shah came of age, his first act was to re-constitute so that his uncle, Bahadur Shah would have no official part to play. In 1795, he became captivated with Mithila brahman widow, kantavati Jha. Rana Bahadur Shah already had two lawful wives before marrying kantavati.
His first wife was “Rajrajeshwori Devi” with whom he had one daughter and his second wife was “subarnaprabha Devi” with whom he had two sons. Later in 1797, due to the bad relationship with his uncle, he sent his uncle, Bahadur Shah to prison who later died in jail. In the same year in 1797, “Girvan Yudha Bikram” Shah was born and he was immediately declared as the prince.
During the time period of Rana Bahadur Shah, a treaty was signed by “Gajraj Misra”, on behalf of Nepal durbar and “Charles Crawford”, on behalf of East India company for the establishment of trade and friendship between two states and on the pension for Rana Bahadur Shah. King Rana Bahadur Shah was not much into the unification campaign who always gave priority to his own need rather than the country’s need. He also borrowed a lot of money from different people and was reckless in the manner he spent the borrowed money. And was even banished in a Varanasi for four years from 1800-1804. Also was reinstatement to power later.
4. Girvan Yudha Bikram Shah-
Girvan Yudha Bikram Shah was the fourth king of Nepal who ruled the country from 1799 to 1816. Although he was not the legitimate to the throne according to rule, his father king Rana Bahadur Shah made him prince for being the son of his favorite wife, kantavati. He was given the throne at the age of 1 and ½ years old when his father resigns to be ascetic. During his time period, the anglo- Nepalese war happened. It was the war between the British East
India company and the kingdom of Nepal. Battle of makawanpur ghadi, the battle of jitgadh, the battle of hariharpur gadhi, the battle of nalapani and the battle of jaithak, all of the great battles was taken place during his ruling period. Later the war was ended with the signing of sugauli treaty. According to the treaty, a third of Nepal’s territory was ceded to British. It became a very much expensive treaty for Nepal. Now those places are the part of India where many Nepalese people live.
5. Rajendra Bikram Shah-
Rajendra Bikram Shah was the fifth king of Nepal who ruled the country from 20 November 1816 to 12 may 1847. He became king at the very early age of three on the death of his father king Girvan Yudha Bikram shah dev. In 1832, Rajendra came out of age and In 1837 he declared his motive to rule independently of the prime minister, Bhimshen Thapa and stripped him and his nephew of their military authority. Rana dynasty was raised during his ruling period. Jung Bahadur Rana came to power through the “1846 kot massacre” when 36 members of the palace court including the prime minister and relatives of the king were murdered. During that time, King Rajendra Bikram was insulted and his trusted bodyguard was beheaded.
The forces of Jung Bahadur Rana arrested the king Rajendra and brought him to Bhaktapur. Later, he was permitted to stay in Hanuman Dhoka Palace but was not permitted to leave the palace without the permission of Junga Bahadur Rana. Due to such arrangement of Junga Bahadur Rana, nobody was able to meet the ex-king Rajendra without the permission. King Surendra was given the permission to visit his father once a month. Rajendra lived under house arrest for the rest of his life. He died at the age of 67 on 10 July 1881 during the reign of his grandson.
6. Surendra Bikram Shah-
Surendra Bikram Shah was the sixth king of Nepal. In 1847, after the Kot massacre when the prime minister Jung Bahadur Rana forced the abdication of king Rajendra, Surendra became the king of Nepal. Surendra was the son of King Rajendra and his first wife was Queen Samrajya. During the year 1856, king Surendra announced the “sanad” which characterized the control and political leadership of Jung Bahadur Rana.
As the king Surendra was completely under the control of Jung Bahadur Rana, he was forced to use the “Shri” title thrice, placing the Jung Bahadur Rana’s family in a rank that was second only to the royal family. In this way, Jung Bahadur Rana ruled the country giving King Surendra a very little power. Since king Surendra had no power, he was lived like a prisoner in his own palace. Nobody was allowed to visit him without the permission of Jung Bahadur Rana.
7. Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah-
Prthivi Bir Bikram Shah became king after the death of his father “Trilokya Bikram Shah” who was the son of Surendra Bikram Shah. He was born on 18 August 1875 in basantapur and was declared as the king on 17 may 1881. King Prithvi was honored with the sovereign of the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu in 1896. During his reign, the most notable events were the introduction of first automobiles to Nepal. Another event was the creation of strict water and sanitation of the country.
The eldest child of King Prithvi Bir Bikram was Princess Royal “Lakshmi Rajya Laxmi Devi” who got married to the field marshal, “Kaiser Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana”. She was held to the Nepal’s throne and made crown princess until she was in her late teens when her brother King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah was born. He was poisoned and killed on 11 December 1911 and after his death, he was succeeded by his son Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah.
8. Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah-
After the death of King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, his son Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah was ascended to the throne at the age of eight and crowned on 20 February 1930 at Naksal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace, Kathmandu. During that time his mother, “Divyeshwari Laxmi Devi Shah” was acted as regent until king Tribhuwan would come to his age. He married to “H.M. Queen Kanti” and “H.M. Queen Aishwarya” on the same day.
King Tribhuwan had three sons and thirteen daughters. In the month of November 1950, the refuge was taken to India Embassy by king Tribhuwan with the aim of removing Rana oligarchy from power. Then, the Rana prime ministers quickly responded to Tribhuwan’s move by calling an emergency meeting on 7th November 1950 at Singha Durbar. During the meeting, the four-year-old grandson of king Tribhuwan, “Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah” was declared the new king of Nepal.
On November 10, the Royal Family was taken to New Delhi from Guchar Airport excluding the infant king, Gyanendra. In this way, the removal of the king led to expression in the country.This move of king Tribhuwan compelled the Rana Prime Ministers to come into negotiations with Tribuwan and the Nepali Congress. According to the agreement, they agreed to form a new ministry under his leadership, consisting of Nepali Congress and the Ranas on an equal basis. In this way, king Tribhuwan formally declared an end to Rana’s family rule and establishment democracy during this period of time.
9. Kind Mahendra
Lord Mahendra born in 1920 and died in 1972 was the ninth Shah Line leader of Nepal. The time of his manage from 1955 to 1972 was set apart by a wide assortment of analyses in political frameworks and ways to deal with financial and social improvement.
Lord Mahendra (Bir Bikram Shah Dev), the ninth Shah (Gorkha) line leader of Nepal, was conceived in Kathmandu on July 11, 1920, the eldest child of King Tribhuvan and Queen Kanti. Mahendra wedded Indra R. L. Rana in 1940. She bore him three children and three girls before her passing in 1950. Mahendra at that point wedded Indra’s sister, Ratna R. L. Rana, in December 1952—over restriction from political gathering pioneers and, purportedly, from his dad King Tribhuvan on the grounds that she originated from a capable branch of the Rana family. This was one of the main events on which Mahendra exhibited the assurance to settle on his own choices, a trademark clear after he went to the honored position.
Lord Tribhuvan kicked the bucket on March 14, 1955; Mahendra succeeded him to sit on the position of the particular authority. The period from the toppling of the Ranas in 1951 until the point when 1955 had been a transitional stage in Nepal’s governmental issues with no constitution, no chose a parliament and no mindful bureau framework. The official, ostensibly acting under the specialist of the ruler, was made out of different political gathering pioneers who were, truth be told, capable to nobody however needed much political clout. Lord Tribhuvan was hesitant to affirm a strong part of the government, however, step by step felt constrained to do as such. The legislature of India, which had “regulated” the substitution of the Rana framework in 1951, thought that it was important to fill in as the power behind the position of royalty in the Nepalese government at whatever point choices must be made.
Ruler Mahendra, rather than his dad, was not set up to see such a shaky political framework delayed and presented a progression of investigations not long after raising the Gaddi (position of royalty). His initial step (1956) was a cleansing of the organization with the target of making it a more productive body in the usage of arrangements—for instance, Nepal’s initial five-year design. By 1959 he had, all alone activity presented a parliamentary-sort constitution that was to a great extent displayed on India’s law based constitution, however with some security for the establishment of the government. In the spring of 1959, Nepal’s initially free well-known decision in view of the general establishment was held. The Nepali Congress Party cleared 66% of the seats in the race, and the pioneer of the gathering, B. P. Koirala, was designated, leader.
Lord Mahendra noted with some misgiving, in any case, the courses in which the Nepali Congress was amassing political power in its grasp. Probably in light of dread about the fate of the government under these conditions, Mahendra utilized the crisis powers given the ruler in the 1959 Constitution to suspend the constitution, capture the vast majority of the administration pioneers, lead a discount cleanse of the organization, and pack political expert in his own particular hands. He at that point presented in 1962 another protected framework based—in principle—on the conventional Hindu social/political establishment, the Panchayat (Council of Five). The fundamental target of Panchayat Raj (Rule by Panchayats) was to be the decentralization of political power. As it worked out in actuality, be that as it may, it constituted a centralization of energy, with the last voice on any choice, regardless of how paltry, resting with the royal residence and the gathering of high administrators who filled in as the primary advisors to the ruler on strategy matters.
When of King Mahendra’s demise on January 31, 1972, there were apparent strains and lacks in the protected and political framework he had developed in the 1960s. In his last years, Mahendra changed the 1962 Constitution and tried a few endeavors to bring skilled and experienced authorities into the key positions in the managerial procedure. Yet, this had constrained impact on the political framework, which stayed tyrant, with the ruler as the support around which everything moved. It was very clear when of his demise that more fundamental political changes were required to meet the requests of an inexorably mind boggling and creating society.
Lord Mahendra’s rule, 1955-1972, was remarkable for a wide assortment of tests in political frameworks, running from the traditionally Western vote based parliamentary framework to more tyrant political structures based, in principle in any event, on customary Hindu ideas and organizations. There was a comparative receptiveness to various ways to deal with monetary and social advancement—for instance, direct yet down to earth arrived change and lawful code progression programs. Constantly, be that as it may, Mahendra kept up an exceptional worry for the suitability of the monarchical framework.
10. King Birendra Facts
Going to the position of the royalty of Nepal at 27 years old King Birendra (conceived 1945) looked to underscore monetary improvement and a decentralization of expert.
Lord Birendra (Bir Bikram Shah Dev) of Nepal was conceived on December 28, 1945, the eldest child of King Mahendra and Queen Indra. He had two siblings and three sisters, and additionally various close relatives, uncles, and cousins in the regal family escort in and around the royal residence in Nepal’s capital city. Birendra wedded Aishwarya R.L. Rana on February 23, 1970; they had three kids—Crown Prince Dipindra, Prince Nirajan, and Princess Shruti.
Birendra was conceived while the Rana family still commanded the legislature of Nepal and the regal family was kept under strict surveillance. In any case, the political development that ousted the Ranas happened when the crown ruler was just five years of age, and his socialization into legislative issues and society in Nepal and abroad was altogether different from that of his dad, King Mahendra. Birendra’s formal instruction, for example, was in renowned schools outside Nepal: St. Joseph’s in Darjeeling, India; Eton in England; Harvard University; and the University of Tokyo. All the while, he was presented with a rich arrangement of hypotheses and models on the political and financial change in “creating” social orders like Nepal, and he exhibited an open and curious personality on such subjects.
Lord Birendra went to the position of authority on January 31, 1972. He was the 10th man to rule in the Shah tradition in Nepal. The distraction of King Mahendra with the minutia of political advancements any place in Nepal was supplanted by another methodology that, as a result, minimized governmental issues and focussed rather on financial improvement subjects and issues. The goal was to protect financial projects from the restricted political and intrigue gather worries that had, as far as anyone knows, hampered their execution under his dad.
As a vital backup to this new approach, changes in the company of guides around the lord were required. The gatherings of experienced and politically clever administrators that King Mahendra had utilized were immediately supplanted by more youthful, knowledgeable “advanced” specialists who apparently would be less repressed by worries for conventional familial or position amass interests. Another foundation under direct royal residence supervision was built up to do the important strategy arranging, for the most part with insignificant cooperation by the “restricted” intrigue bunches specifically influenced by these approaches and projects. To oversee governmental issues outside of Kathmandu, the BVNC (Back-to-the-Village National Committee) was sorted out to guarantee the royal residence a controlling voice in provincial and neighborhood boards on advancement programs.
The new approach sounded sensible; however, the outcomes were not as much as noteworthy. While a couple of organizations or people specifically tested the castle circles, few collaborated with their projects. Various effectively thought out strategies in the instruction, well-being, and financial fields were embraced, however, the authorities and organizations that should actualize them were for all intents and purposes non-agent. By the late 1970s obviously, some significant changes in the castle’s approach were essential. Lord Birendra found a way to meet the circumstance. In 1980 he held, on a widespread suffrage premise, a well-known submission on the Constitution his dad had presented in 1962. The vote went somewhat for the current framework, however with changes. Birendra at that point presented a few essential changes in the constitution, including arrangements for the decision of the Rashtriya Panchayat (National Assembly) on a well known yet non-party premise and the choice of a PM by the Assembly. The Assembly was chosen in 1981; one head administrator was chosen and after that later evacuated by the Assembly on a non-certainty vote, and another leader introduced.
Hence, the trappings of a majority rule parliamentary framework were set up in Nepal, however, a few essential fixings were missing—fundamentally a legitimized political gathering framework. The right to speak freely, press, and get together were more apparent in the 1980s than at whatever other time since 1960, yet with a few confinements. The royal residence kept on being the wellspring of an expert on every significant issue, and the Assembly and the bureau had no truly viable impediments on the imperial forces. In the event that Nepal was blasting ahead financially, this may be of just restricted significance, however, for 10 years or more, there was for all intents and purposes no genuine monetary development.
Ruler Birendra, along these lines, had various troublesome choices to make, and inside a restricted time span. His devotion to Nepal’s welfare was acknowledged by most Nepal’s, yet there was more incredulity about the goals of a portion of the critical individuals in and around the royal residence. Birendra’s declaration of his goal to present a substantive decentralization program which would exchange basic leadership expert on numerous vital issues from the Kathmandu administration to neighborhood and local chose authorities could be a vital stride in meeting some of Nepal’s fundamental political, social, and monetary issues. While King Birendra’s aims were not addressed, there were questions about his capacity to actualize such a program inside the current political framework.
11. Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah-
The eldest son of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah was born on 27 June 1971. He received his early Education at Budhanikantha School in Kathmandu. He went to England and attended Eton college for higher study. Later, he joined Tribhuwan University and studied Geography for his master degree and was a Ph.D. student at the same time. Dipendra was very much into social service and sports. He used to represent Nepal in various national and international sports ceremonies. He used to learn “karateka” while studying in England and had received a black belt at around the age of 20.
Well, there is no evidence but it is said that Dipendra opened fire at a house on the ground of Narayanhity Royal Palace and killed his father, King Birendra, his mother, Queen Aishwarya and seven other members of the royal family before shooting himself on own head. People are assuming various theories behind this incident: Number one is, Dipendra wanted to marry the daughter of an Indian Royal family, Devyani Rana who had met in England. Due to the political alliances and family’s lower caste, Dipendra was objected by his family and was told that he would have to give up his claim to the throne in order to marry her. Another theory is Dipendra was unhappy about the change of country’s monarchy i.e. from absolute to a constitutional.
Even though some people are using all of these theories but most of the people haven’t believed it yet because the bullet shot was on Dipendra’s head was on the left side whereas the fact is he was right-handed. This fact shows that he neither killed himself nor his family members. Many questions of this massacre have remained unanswered. This incident has been a huge mystery in the history of Nepal. In this way, he died due to the injury to his head on 4 June 2001( aged 29) in Birendra Military Hospital, chhauni, Nepal.
12. Last king of Nepal – Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Nepal is a beautiful country where people are enjoying their right freely. Earlier, Nepal was ruled by a king but the monarchy came in and in 2063 B.S. Many kings ruled the country, in-fact there was Shah dynasty. Before 2007 B.S., Rana ruled the country and was exercising all the powers. There was the ruling of the king but the Rana’s forbidden king to exercise rule. During the time of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah, Nepal was in the path of development and prosperity. But after the assimilation of King Birendra and his family, His brother Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah came in the power but her exercise his powers in wrong way by which the Shah came to an end.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah is the last king of Nepal. He was born on July 7, 1947, in Kathmandu Nepal. He was the second son of King Mahendra (reigned 1972-2001). He was educated at St. Joseph College in Darjiling, India. He completed his study from Tribhuwan University in Kathmandu in 1969. In November 1950, his father and grandfather, Tribhuwan along with the Royals went to India leaving Gyanendra who was only the male member of royal family. Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher brought him back to Kathmandu from his grandmother house and declared him king on 7th November 1950. Coins were issued in the name of him. Later, King Tribhuvan and Mahendra along with royals returned back to Nepal and resumed the throne.
Gyanendra was not directly involved in any governmental activities and politics during the reign of his father and brother but he was actively involved in several business firms and also the conservationist organizations. He frequently traveled abroad, as he visited many Asian and European countries and maintained the diplomatic relations with those countries. But in Jestha 19, 2059 B.S. the family of King Birendra along with the royal members were assassinated. The family of Gyanendra was safe in that bloody insurrection and many questions were raised from media and the Nepali people about the saving of Gyanendra family. But after the death of Dipendra, Gyanendra
But after the death of Dipendra, Gyanendra has unexpectedly ascended the throne on June 4. He then begins to rule the country but from 1996, Moiast war begins which wanted to replace monarchy of Nepal with the communist party. He was in the political turbulence but he maintained the situation of the country. Several major political parties as well the periodic flare up of the rebellion contributed the atmosphere of disorder and confusion in the country. He also became the Supreme Commander of the Royal Nepalese Army. He participated in the throne ceremony of Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan in 1972, At the wedding of the Prince of Wales of united kingdom in 1981 and also at the funeral of President of Yugoslavia H.E. Mr. Josip Broz Tito in 1980.
Gyanendra attempt much more to control the insurrection by which he adopted the authoritarian policies which were harmful to the monarchy. He also dissolved the parliament in October 2002. He also appointed the series of prime ministers but he put off the elections repeatedly. He also dismissed the Prime minister and cabinet in February 2005 and he assumed his direct rule. With more than two weeks of sustained objection forced the king to abnegate direct palace rule and to replace the Parliament.
In November, Government i.e. King and the Maoist revolutionary signed a UN-mediated peace record. On 18th May 2006, the reinstated Parliament revoked all the powers of the king and he declared Nepal as a secular country. It was declared to nationalize all the properties that he obtained by the virtue of being king such as Palace, forests and national park and also the important heritage sites. In January 2007, an interim constitution was promulgated which was called for the formulation of an elected constituent assembly. This time the Revolutionary Maoists who fought a war against the ‘feudal centralized state’ also supported the interim constitution as such disregarding their earlier commitment to empowering all the oppressed segments of the society. The Maoists joined the Seven Party Alliance to bring down the powers of
The Maoists joined the Seven Party Alliance to bring down the powers of the king. In December 2007, it was agreed to abolish the monarchy. When the election was fixed for April 10, 2008, the people were as doubtful about the date as it was been retarded twice in the past. The situation of the country was deteriorated more because of the sustained violence in the different parts of the country by several organizations affiliated to indigenous nationalities, women and disadvantaged low caste group.
When the people’s movement of 2006 was launched, the target was the authoritarian monarchy. In the movement against the king rule, people of all walks including janajatis, madhesis, Dalits, and women were participated with the hope to turn Nepal into an inclusive, accommodating and democratic state where every citizen could enjoy all right equally and could share in the state power. They shared the state power with their one time class enemies that had to force them to resort to arms by which all the janjatis and Madhesi remained dissatisfied and Madhesis led to violence in Terai coinciding with the promulgation of the interim constitution. The Government showed little interest to solve the issue fearing that it would help the Maoists and therefore the Terai problem in Parliament was magnified.
Due to the Terai burning affecting the economy and security of the country, the election was uncertain. In April, elections were held for the constituent assembly. The Maoist won the most of the seats and the more than centuries old, monarchy system came to an end on May 28, 2008. The new assembly voted to declare the Nepal as a democratic republic country.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah left the palace. On 23rd August 2007, Nepal’s transitional government nationalized all the properties of Gyanendra which he had inherited from his brother including Narayanhiti Royal Palace. All the properties he owned before his accession to the throne is with him and he is residing in the Nagarjuna palace as a normal citizen and being a businessman.
These are the 12 Kings Of Nepal during their own specific time. If we see and study their life then we can find that there was a lot of ups and downs in the history of Nepal. Today Nepali is a democratic country and every Nepalese citizen are the ruler of this country.
There is no king system or any kind of absolute monarchy system in Nepal at present. Now, the country is being ruled by different political parties and the saddest part is they are making the country’s situation even more worst. Its causes are corruption, power in the hand of a bad person, lack of strict rules, carelessness of Nepalese citizen.. and so on.
When was monarchy abolished in Nepal?
The abolition of the institution of the monarchy on May 28, 2008, marks a turning point in the political and constitutional history of Nepal. This saga of constitutional development exemplifies the systemic conflict between people’s aspirations for democracy and Kings’ ambitions for unlimited power. With the abolition of the monarchy, the process of making a new constitution for the Republic of Nepal had started under the auspices of the Constituent Assembly of Nepal. The end of the monarchy has its long story on going to the throne, massacre, janayuddha and conflicting environment.
Here we analyze three main reasons for the abolition of the monarchy. First, it argues that frequent slights and attacks to constitutionalism by the Nepalese kings had brought the institution of the monarchy to its end. Second, it analyzes the indirect but crucial role of India. Third, it explains how the 10-year-long Maoist insurgency and the second people’s movement (Jana Andolan II) culminated as a final blow to the monarchy. Finally, it concludes by recapitulating the main arguments.
For Plato, philosopher kings were the best kind of rulers. His idea of monarchy was based on the assumptions that a monarchy could be the best institution to promote free will, the rule of law, and the institutionalization of democracy on the nonpartisan basis. Time and again, history has refuted these Platonic assumptions.Monarchies have often caused their own demise by assaulting the sovereign power of the people, ignoring democracy as a way of life, and disrespecting constitutionalism. The Nepalese case of conflict between the king and the people broadly reflects a similar pattern of a clash between the aspirations of democracy and greed for unlimited power at its core. Thomas Hobbes, who justified monarchy as the best possible form of governance, also warned that a monarchy could turn into tyranny.
Throughout its history, Nepal has seen tyranny unbridled and people fell victim to the caprices of the kings. Therefore, the Nepalese people solemnly decided to abolish the source of their oppression, the monarchy. After the people were educated about their right and democracy, they have been against the tyranny of the monarchy and peek out the different series of the Andolan. The 1950 revolution was the starting point for the institutionalization of democracy in the country despite serious challenges ahead. First, the foremost challenge was that the Ranas were still in power and dominating the political landscape of Nepal.
Removing them from power was not an easy task, but it was the only way to end their political domination. Second, for the first time in a century, the king had an opportunity to enjoy state power and authority, resulting in his mounting ambitions, seeking to wield even more power. Since the Royal Nepal Army was loyal to the king, at any time the monarch could step in and assume absolute power posing a serious threat to the democratic aspirations of the people. Third, for centuries the country had been social, politically, and financially exploited by its rulers and desperately needed socioeconomic transformation along with the political change. To accomplish these tasks meant overcoming serious challenges down the road, made even more difficult due to fragile institutions on the one hand and inexperienced political leaders on the other hand.
In general, political parties and their activities were quite new for the Nepalese people, and leaders had never gained any experience organizing political parties. So lack of the skill to bring about the desired change. Fourth, amidst these challenges, the Nepali Congress had the great responsibility of institutionalizing democracy while it was itself mired in internal conflict over party leadership and additionally facing the noncooperation of almost three-dozen political parties, including the Communist Party of Nepal. The road ahead was thus risky and dangerous.
Taking advantage of this on May 8, 1962, the king composed a six-member Constitution Drafting Commission.42 In a period of less than one and a half months, the commission drafted the constitution and submitted it to the king on June 14, 1962.43 The king promulgated the new constitution on December 16, 1962, known as the Panchayati Constitution, which posted all prerogatives in the hands of the king and placed the king above the Constitution.
As a result, it propelled the struggle between the king and the people—represented by their political parties—to a new height. The conflict continued for about 50 years until 2008. During this period, the Shah Kings ignored their promises to the people, undermined the democratic aspirations the people, banned political parties, violated human rights, oppressed civilians, amassed wealth by abusing public resources, and ruled the country as dictators above the Constitution. What is more, the Kings incessantly distributed their images to the people as a living god, deserving unrequited worship, and admiration without rebuke?
On April 16, 1990, King Birendra restored multiparty democracy and agreed to be a constitutional monarch due to the pressure from people and political party. On November 9, 1990, a new constitution was promulgated that legitimized democracy and modestly brought the absolute monarchy into the limits of the Constitution. The Constitutional Recommendation Commission (CRC), formed on June 1, 1990, for “the preparation of a draft constitution with a view to strengthening Constitutional Monarchy and Multiparty Democracy” prepared the draft of the 1990 Constitution. But this could not sustain the freedom of people.
There were continuous autonomous practice in the name of the democracy and so on the similar step was done. When the House of Representatives was dissolved on May 25, 2002, the National Assembly was conducting its session. The king prorogued the National Assembly as well and never summoned its session. In this way, King Gyanendra started ruling the country without a parliament. King Gyanendra obsessively tried to follow in his late father King Mahendra’s footsteps. It was the fundamental principle of a constitutional monarchy that the “king can do no wrong,” and therefore, the Council of Ministers should take all responsibilities for both the constitutional and unconstitutional acts perpetrated by the kings.
During the 17-year history of the 1990 Constitution, the kings undermined and violated the Constitution several times. However, no governments took any responsibility for the unconstitutional acts of the kings. Rather, each government, willingly or unwillingly, became a silent spectator of these acts. Instead, one of the former ministers. It develops the new underground revolutionist group Maoist and revolt against the government from the barrel of the gun. After 10 years of the commencement of “ janayudha” following the November 2005 Agreement, the people’s movement broke out all over the country like a blazing fire. King Gyanendra kneeled down before the power of the people on April 24, 2006, announcing that the sources of state power were the people and that sovereignty inherently belongs to the people alone.
The king also reinstated the Parliament, which had been dissolved on the recommendation of the former Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba on May 22, 2002. The Maoists joined the parliament and government, and the parliament promulgated a new Interim Constitution in January 2007. The Interim Constitution provided that the fate of the monarchy would be decided by the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly. Elections were held for the Constituent Assembly. No party secured a majority, but the Maoist secured a position of the largest party in the Constituent Assembly.
Following the CA elections, the CA met for the first time on May 28, 2008. In its first meeting, the CA declared the abolition of the monarchy, and Nepal became a republic. Finally, the conflict between the king and the people concluded with the abolition of the institution of monarchy.The saga of the constitutional development in Nepal is a case of systemic conflict between peoples’ aspirations for democracy and Kings’ ambitions for unlimited power.
During the 240 years of monarchic rule, the rulers suppressed free will, took away liberties, denied democracy, impeded development, fostered poverty, and sustained injustice. The abolition of the institution of the monarchy on May 28, 2008, marks a turning point in the political and constitutional development of Nepal. Following the abolition of the monarchy, the Nepalese people had an opportunity to engage in institutionalizing democracy, entrenching liberty and free will, building the nation on the basis of democracy, promoting development, ending poverty, and securing the rule of law and justice through writing a new constitution. These aspirations of the Nepalese people are basic, dear, and undeniable.
It can be predicted that if the Ranas had not usurped power from the Shah Kings in 1846, perhaps the monarchy would have been abolished earlier. The reason is simple: the burden of blame for the misrule, despotism, nepotism, and exploitation of Nepal was solely heaped upon the Ranas instead of the kings. But after the abolishment even today, the feudalistic undemocratic culture has immeasurably imprisoned the vision of institutions, political parties, and leaders. No matter who they are, communists or so-called Democrats, they all commonly share this feudalistic undemocratic culture.
The monarchy is abolished, but the feudalistic undemocratic culture is the pandemic. Unless this culture is uprooted, the vestiges of monarchy will keep ruling the country. It seems reasonable that the conflict between the king and the people will finally be settled with the abolition of the feudalistic political culture. The feudalistic undemocratic political culture is the stumbling block both for the institutionalization of constitutionalism and fostering the pace of growth and human development. Democracy needs a culture of diligence, perseverance, as well as the pursuit of knowledge, innovation, industriousness, honesty, and self-respect. Peace can only be built on constitutionalism, justice, the rule of law, and the democratic way of life espoused by a rights-based approach.