National Parks and Wildlife Reserves of Nepal

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Do you know how many national parks and wildlife reserves are there in Nepal? You can get all the information about how many national parks and wildlife reserves are there in Nepal. Nepal has declared 14% of its total area as National Parks and Wildlife Reserves. To declare such as a big portion of one nation is a world record.

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National parks and wildlife reserves of Nepal

Wildlife and national parks is of great national importance and is closely associated with climate and natural vegetation, particularly forests. In fact, forest is considered everywhere to be the abode of wild animals and birds.

There is national parks and wildlife conservation act Nepal. This national parks and wildlife conservation act Nepal regulates all the policies and rules and regulation. The name of national parks and wildlife conservation act Nepal is “National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 2029 (1973)” which is on going in Nepal.

Under this act National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 2029 (1973), nepal department of national parks and wildlife conservation managed all the related areas, functions, things about Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal.

According to Department of national parks and wildlife reserve Nepal, it is reported that there are more than 30 species of big wild animals and about 800 species of wild birds in various ecological belts of Nepal.

Bears, musk-deer, leopards, wild yaks, squirrels, wolves, wild goats, wild dogs, etc., are the principal types of wild animals associated with the Himalayan region. Moreover Giant kites, vultures, Tibetan pigeons, Monal and Danphe are the main species of birds found in the region. Among them, Danphe is the national bird of Nepal.

Snakes also are found, but these are said to be not so poisonous as those found in wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal, especially in the terai region. Rumour goes so far that even Yeti (snowman) does exist there. But nobody has so far claimed to have seen it actually.

Animals found in the hilly region (midland) are such as tigers, bears, wolves, boars, Jackals, foxes, monkeys, hares, deer and so on. Among principal bipeds, mention may be made of doves, partridges, cranes, falcons, peacocks, etc.

According to Department of national parks and wildlife reserve Nepal, the terai forest contains still bigger mammals like rhinos, wild buffaloes, wild elephants, tigers, bears, deer, stags, monkeys and so on. Important bird species include cranes, doves, parrots, peacocks, spiny babler, horn bill (Dhanesh), partridges, falcons, owls, quails, vultures and so on.

Main reptiles found in this region of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal, are poisonous snakes (cobra, krait, viper), scorpions, tortoises, crocodiles, alligators, Gangetic dolphins, etc.

The rapid growth and persistent migration of population have led to increasing deforestation in various parts of Nepal. This in turn has caused gradual disappearance or diminution of several important species of wildlife.

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How many national parks and wildlife reserves are there in Nepal

There are not sufficient wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal. In this context, with the sole objective of preserving endangered, vulnerable and rare wildlife on one side and conserving natural environment in its original form on the other, Government of Nepal (under According to Department of national parks and wildlife reserve Nepal) has now established 9 national parks, 3 wildlife reserves, 3 conservation areas and one hunting reserve in various ecological zones of the country.

All these altogether encompass a total area of 23,919 sq. km.; and most of them are located in the Himalayan zone and Terai belt as shown below :—

National parks and wildlife reserves of Nepal

1. Chitwan National Park:

Chitwan National Park is one of the major concerned area of Nepal’s national parks and wildlife, which is also supposed as wildlife holidays in Nepal.  Chitwan National Park is situated in subtropical inner low lands of the inner Terai.

The Chitwan valley, which covers an area of 932 sq. kms. The park has been declared as World Heritage Site (1984). The park is a home for one horned rhinoceros (one-fourth of the world population), huge numbers of Tiger, Gharial, gigantic dolphin, gaur, pythons are some of the extra features in the park.

One horn rhino In Sauraha, Chitwan Nepal
One horn rhino In Sauraha, Chitwan Nepal

More than 450 species of birds are found in the park. According to Department of national parks and wildlife reserve Nepal,  more than 70° o of the park is covered by sal forest and elephant grass and rest of the forest is covered by riverine forest. Royal Chitwan National Park has given permit to operate private Resorts/lodge inside the park.

They are Temple Tiger, Island Jungle Resort, Tiger Tops Jungle Lodge & Camp. Chitwan Jungle Lodge and Machan Wildlife Camp (Gaida Wildlife Camp is situated at the buffer zone). There are more than 100 resorts outside the national park in Saura only.

It is one of most popular wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in Nepal among the world wildlife lovers and researchers.It is also world famous for wildlife safari in Nepal. Chitwan National Park is one of the best wildlife photography in Nepal.

2. Sagarmatha National Park:

Sagarmatha National Park, with an area of 1148 sq. kms lies in the Khumbu region of Nepal including the highest mountains in the world, Mt. Everest, Lhotse, Nuptse, Cho You, Ama Dabam. The park was included in the World Heritage Site in 1974.

This is geologically young and broken into deep gorges and glacial valleys. The park has vegetation like pine, fir, juniper, birch, rhododendrons, scrubs, alpine plants. The park is the residence to the Himalayan thar, ghoral, musk deer, Himalayan black bear and snow leopard. The park also includes Sherpa people and their villages.

3. Langtang National Park:

Langtang National Park is situated in the central Himalayan region of Nepal. The park with an area of 1710 sq. kms borders with Tibet includes holy lakes of Gosainkunda and forest hill above the village of Helambu.

The complex topography and geology with varied climate patterns supports a wide spectrum of vegetation. Oaks. chirpine, maple, fir, blue pine, various species of rhododendron are some of the main species. Wild dog, red panda, musk deer. Himalayan black bear, Himalayan thar. ghoral, inhabit due to the parks altitudinal and topographical variations.

The majority o: people living within the park are Tamangs and Sherpas practicing Buddhist religion.

4. Bardiya National Park:

Bardiya National Park is situated in the mid far western terai on the eastern banks of the Karnali river with an area of 96S sq. kms. The park is the largest and most undisturbed wilderness area in the Terai. It is thickly forested by sal trees, grasslands.

Savannah and riverine forest. Animals like wild elephant, tiger, swamp deer, black buck, gharial crocodile, gigantic dolphin and over 200 species of birds are found in the park. Tiger Tops is running Tiger Tops Karnali Jungle Lodge.

Tiger Tops Tented Camp is the only operation inside the National Park. Forest Hide Way, Rhino Lodge, Dolphin Manor are some of the operations operating in Bardia National Park. It is also most popular wildlife safari in Nepal. Bardiya National Park is one of top rated wildlife photography in Nepal.

5. Shey-Phoksundo National Park:

Shey-Phoksundo National Park is the largest National Park of Nepal which covers an area of 3,555 sq. kms. It is rich in trans-Himalayan eco system which lies in the Dolpa and Mugu districts in western Nepal. The Kanjiroba Himal, Shey Monastery, the Phoksundo lake and Langu Gorge are the major attraction of the park.

Blue pine, walnut, willow oak cypress are found in the lower southern parts. Pine juniper and birch makes up the flora in the higher altitude. The alpine areas are vegetated by berries and trans-himalayan are grassy alpine meadows, and it is almost dry in the north.

It is the primal habitat for the snow leopard, sheep, ghoral, musk deer, wild dog, wolf, himalayan thar, himalayan black bear, etc. People of Tibetan descent who are pre-Buddhist bon-po religion inhabit the park.

6. Rara National Park:

Rara National Park is the smallest park, which covers 106 sq. kms. Most of the park lies at an altitude of about 3,000 metres. Alpine and subalpine ecosystem of himalaya are its major inhabitants.

The biggest lake of Nepal, Rara lake is habitated by snow trout fish and is surrounded by hills richly forested by blue pine, black juniper, oak, himalayan cypress, horse-chestnut, walnut. It is an ideal habitat for musk deer, red panda and black beer.

7. Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area:

Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area covers an area of 2,300 sq. kms among which 830 sq. kms is the conservation area.

The park and conservation area is the most pristine eco system of Nepal and is richest in terms of bio diversity. It consists of 67 species of aromatic and medicinal plants, 47 varieties of orchids, 30 varieties of rhododendron, 15 types of oak, 48 species of primrose, 86 species of fodder tress and 67 species of Bamboo. Over 400 species of birds, 84 varieties of fish are found in Arun river.

Wildlife includes endangered red pandas, musk deer and himalaya black bear. Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area is most visitable wildlife photography in Nepal.

8. Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve:

According to Department of national parks and wildlife reserve Nepal, the Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve with an area of 350 sq. kms is situated in the extreme south west of Nepal.

The main character of the reserve is the grassland, which is the home of barasingha (swamp dee., and different types of deer, hog deer, chital, which support tiger and leopard. Sal, asna, semal karma, sissou are the trees that make up the forest and supports wild elephant. More than 200 species of birds are found in the reserve.

9. Dhor Patan Wildlife Reserve:

The Dhor Patan Wildlife Reserve encompassing an area of 1,325 sq. kms is situated in the western Nepal. The reserve is the place which holds controlled hunting policy.

The reserve is one of the prime habitats of blue sheep, which is a highly prizec trophy animal which is the main target of hunters. Dhor Patan Wildlife Reserve is most visitable wildlife photography in Nepal.

10. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve:

This Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is situated in the embankment of the saptakoshi river system. It covers an area of 1 “5 sq. kms. Its main character is the water holes which support the aquatic birds. It has the highest concentration of aquatic birds.

The wild water buffaloes are the unique feature of the reserve. Gharial crocodile and gigantic dolphins are the extra ordinary v. a:er animals found in the reserve.

11. Annapurna Conservation Area :

Annapurna Conservation Area covers an area of 2600 sq. kms in the Annapurna Himal region which includes some of the world’s highest peaks and the deepest river valley.

It has been widely recognized as a naturalist’s paradise because of its extreme geographical variations, which includes middle hills to trans- himalayan plateau, highest rainy area to rain shadow. It is the internationally renowned model for sustainable development scheme which aims to integrate environmental conservation.

Author: Hari KC

National parks and wildlifereservees of Nepal

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