Map of NepalThe shape of Nepali flag is unique that other’s country’s flag. The shape of the earth is spherical and we can compare it with the shape of an orange. Some types of imaginary lines are assumed on the surface of the earth. These lines help study the earth’s surface easily and locate any place on the earth. Such lines are drawn on the map or the globe. Read Also: 50 Hidden Facts, Information & Truth About Map of Nepal The vertical lines drawn on the earth’s surface from the North Pole to the South Pole are called longitudes. The horizontal lines drawn on the earth’s surface from the east to the west are called latitudes. With the help of longitudes and latitudes, we can locate any place on the map or globe easily. The earth rotates around its axis, and it takes about 24 hours to complete one full rotation. It causes day and night. Furthermore, the earth revolves around the sun in 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 45.68 seconds. This revolution of the earth around the sun causes seasonal changes. In actual practice, longitudes are related to the time of a place, and latitudes are related to the climate or temperature of a place. A map is a flat picture of the earth. It is made of paper or cloth. We can see the whole world at a time on a map. We can know the areas of the world covered by water and landmasses. We can see countries, capitals, rivers, lakes, mountains, etc. Besides, we can see famous places/ highways, railways, agricultural lands and so on. Globe is a small model of the earth. It shows the shape of the earth. The earth where we are living is also round like a globe. Like the real earth, landmass and water mass are shown in the globe. We cannot see all the parts of the earth at the same time on the globe. We also can get knowledge about the motion of the earth from the globe. The earth always moves from west to east which causes day and night. We can see it by moving the globe. Different colors are used to indicate land and water masses on the map and the globe. Blue color indicates the water. Green color indicates the plain land whereas yellow indicates the hills. Similarly, high mountains are shown in brown color. You are seeing a map of the world. There are seven continents and five oceans in the world. The big landmasses are called continents. It is composed of many countries. Seven continents are: a) Asia d) South America g) Antarctica b) Europe e) Australia c) North America f) Africa Asia is the biggest and Australia is the smallest continent. We live in the continent of Asia. You might have heard the news broadcast of BBC Nepali Service announce that “it is the quarter to nine in Nepal and three o’clock in London.” It means that time is different from different places. Then how is the time calculated? The time of a place or country is determined with the help of longitudes. The places that fall on the same longitude have the same time. Local time is determined with the help of the longitude of that place. We know that the earth is round and it makes a 360° angle on its center within 24 hours. During this time, the earth covers about 40000km on its perimeter (circumference). 0° longitude is called Prime Meridian which passes through Greenwich of UK. There is 180° longitude on both sides (east and west longitude). It is assumed that when the line (longitude) faces towards the sun directly, we call it midday or noon, i.e., 12 o’clock of daytime. A map is a representation of the earth or a portion of the earth drawn to scale on a flat surface. It can be in a broad sense either physical or political map. A physical map shows physical features, reliefs, natural resources, climate, population, and the political map shows political division and human-made structures. A map has a Title, Legend or Key or Index, and most importantly a scale. The big water mass is called the ocean. The five oceans are: a) Atlantic Ocean b) Pacific Ocean c) Indian Ocean d) Arctic Ocean e) Antarctic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is located in the west of Africa and Europe. The Pacific Ocean lies between North America and Asia. The Indian Ocean lies in the south of Asia. The Arctic Ocean lies in the north part of the earth whereas the Antarctic ocean lies in the southern part of the earth. In a geographical study, a map is an important source of information. A map is a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of the surface showing any place, country, or town on a smooth surface. Maps help find places and people. So, to draw a proper map, one needs expertise. Similarly, to study and understand a map, we need technical or cartographical knowledge. To understand a map, first, we must understand its scale and symbols. These days satellite and computer technology have made the map work easily. However, an expert is needed for the map work. According to the need, photos of the earth is taken from the space from a height of 700 to 1700 km and a map is drawn with the help of a computer. Nowadays, a new subject has been introduced, called Geographical Information System (GIS), which gives more accurate and clear information about any place or the entire earth.
Scale in mapsWhile drawing a map, the concept of scale is important. To draw a map that is as large as a country or a place is impossible. It must be reduced in a proper size. Therefore, there must be a relation between the size of the map and the actual distance or area of the land. A scale is a ratio of a distance on the map to the distance of actual land or objects. For example, if we are drawing a map of land with a length of 50 km, then we can take an lcm (or inch) line in a paper for 5km. It means l cm (or inch) length of the map represents 5 km of actual land or place. In this measurement, the scale is 1 cm:5 km (or 1:500000).
Types of scale in Map OutlineGenerally, there are three methods of scaling a map. The first method is verbal. In this method, the scale is explained in words. If it is mentioned that” 1 inch is equal to 10 km,” it means that one-inch distance on a map represents 10 kilometers on the actual ground. The second method is the Representative Fraction (RF). In this method, a scale is shown in fraction number. The numerator is the distance on the map and the denominator is the distance on the ground. For example 1 cm/ 100km (1/10000000). The third method is the graphic scale. In this method, a small scale or ruler is drawn at the side or the bottom of the map. It is written on a line; it means that one cm on the map is equal to 100 km on the ground. This ratio is the same as in the representative fraction. The direction in a Map The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are North, East, South, and West, commonly denoted by their initials: N, E, S, W. East, and west are at right angles to North and South. The intermediate directions are Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW), and Northwest (NW). On Earth, upright observers facing north will have south behind them, East on their right, and West on their left. Types of map There are major two types of maps. They are:
- Physical map and
- Political map
3. Distributional map:This map gives information about the distribution of natural or human-made things such as forests, minerals, schools, residential areas, factories, mines, etc. Certain types of symbols are used to show the distribution.
Use of symbols in a mapA map should be understandable. So, there should be common or shared symbols to represent certain things. In general practice, the following conventional symbols are used for the following things. Or, we can indicate the meaning of the symbol within the map. Look at the map given above. Some signs are given there. Can you guess what facts are shown there? Rivers, mountains, lakes, capitals, cities, etc are indicated by the above-given signs. These signs are called symbols or index. Maps cannot be complete without such symbols. It is not possible to write the names of the place and things of everything on a map. It makes a map very dirty as well. So to represent the certain items in the map like capitals, rivers, hills, lakes, natural vegetation, highways, etc different types of the symbol are used on a map. Some of the important symbols used on the map are given below:
Methods of Drawing Map of NepalThere are 3 major methods of drawing the map of Nepal. These methods are as follows: 1. Tracing Method It is the easiest method of drawing the map of Nepal. As shown in the picture, take an original map of and gently draw an outline seen in Nepal, put the tracing paper over it the tracing paper with a pencil. Now your map of Nepal is ready. This way of drawing is called Tracing Method. 2. Freehand Method How to draw a map of Nepal easilyIt is another way of drawing the map of Nepal. Take an outline ma| of Nepal and a clean plain white paper. Look at the original map and try to copy the map. If you make a mistake, rub the line and draw again. After practicing several times you will be able to draw without looking at the map. This way of drawing is called Freehand Method. 3. Graphing There is another way of drawing the map of Nepal. As shown in the map given below, trace the outline map from your book or atlas. Now, draw several vertical and horizontal lines. Draw similar lines of the same measurements on another blank sheet of paper and draw a map of Nepal. This way of drawing the map is called Graphing.
How to draw Map of Nepal (Tuterial Video)
how to draw an outline map of NepalStep 1: Draw a rectangle of 20x 12 square centimeters and divide it into 4cm, 6cm, 6cm 4cm parts vertically, again divided it into 4cm, 4cm, and 4cm horizontally. Step 2: Draw the figure shown below on the graph from left to right. Step 3: You can use the numbers as shown in the figure to remember the parts of Nepal; like; 1 represents Mt. Api, 2 for Mt. Change, 3 for Mt. Mustang, 4 for Mt. Ganesh, 5 for Mt. Langtang, 6 for Mt. Gaurishankar, 7 for Mt. Everest, 8 for Mt. Kanchanjangha. 9 for Mahendranagar, 10 for Nepalgunj, 11 for Lumbini, 12 for Chitawan National Park. 13 for Birgunj, 14 for Janakpur, 15 for Koshi River, and 16 for Japan. Step 4: After drawing the map of Nepal, but the north line on top of the figure, give suitable title indicate the scale at the bottom of the map (i.e. let = 40km), but the boundary line on all the sides of the map and draw borderline to make it attractive. We can insert any information we like on this map using proper conventional signs and symbols. Some Symbols Used in a Map: peak, canal, state boundary, district boundary, mountain range, spring, ropeway/cable car, airways, lake, dam, river, north of the map, oil, bridge, international boundary, minerals, town/city, temple, church, mosque, airport, settlement path, capital, road, pass, railways, hydroelectricity, industry, etc.
The size and distance in a mapWe have discussed the scale on a map. If the scale is represented exactly, we can find the distance between any two places with the help of a ruler. Suppose the map of Nepal is drawn with a scale ratio of 1 cm: 100 km and we have to find the actual distance between Dhanakuta and Tansen. Now measure the distance between Tansen and Dhanakuta. If the length is 5 cm and we have the scale ratio 1 cm: 100 km, then the actual distance between these two places is 5 x 100 km = 500 km. Similarly, we can find the distance between different places in an atlas using the map scale. Now, can you find the distance between Tokyo and New York, London, and Paris? Kathmandu and New Delhi with the help of your atlas.