Major Hydropower in Nepal
Development implies minimizing the use of exhaustible resources, or at least, ensuring that revenues obtained from them are used to create a constant flow of income across generations, and making an appropriate use of renewable resources.
This applies to energy (oil and oil products in particular) but also to fish stock, wildlife forest, water, land, and air. Land degradation, due to soil erosion and salinization, persistent water and air pollution, depletion of fish stock and deforestation are all examples of consequences of non-sustainable activities.
To develop the Nepal or to be enlisted in developed countries in the world, development of hydropower or hydroelectricity is must important. It plays major role in the develpment of Nepal.
There is some major hydropower in Nepal. Some of the names of major hydro power in Nepal are given below. But there are much small hydropower in Nepal. Or say, there are much micro hydropower in Nepal. The scope of hydropower in Nepal is very potential.
It will be good for investment in hydropower in Nepal. Hydropower is the alternate source of energy produced from the running river.
In Nepal, there are many rivers and waterfalls which are used to generate hydro powers. Turbines are attached to a dynamo and the force of water falling in the turbine generates power in the dynamo producing hydro power energy.
The produced energy is then connected to the transmission line and distributed to the houses and offices. Hydroelectricity is categorized into micro hydropower and hydropower according to their capacity.
The source of alternate energy is given below.
- Solar energy
- Wind energy
- Hydro power
- Geothermal energy
Solar energy is the energy obtained from the solar radiation. The solar panel is used to absorb the solar radiation and the voltaic cell present in solar panel produce the solar energy.
The produced energy is conserved in the battery and used. Solar energy is used to produce solar lights, heating of water, and even to run a car. In Nepal, the energy produced from solar energy is mainly used for the household purposes. They are used to run the television, computer etc.
Major Hydropower in Nepal
a) Micro Hydropower
In Nepal, there are a lot of small streams. We can use these streams to generate electricity in small scale. Micro-hydropower is generally the hydropower producing a low amount of hydro energy.
They generally produce the energy up to 50 kilowatts. A micro hydro power utilizes the small river streams to produce energy. Micro hydro power satisfies the electric need at the local level.
In our context, we can also use dynamo and water mill for producing electricity to fulfill the local n need. Such type of energy is known as a peltic set.
b) Mega Hydropower
Hydro comes from the Greek word ‘hydra, meaning water. It is the electricity produced by the movement of fresh water from rivers and lakes.
Also called hydropower, it is a renewable energy source dependent upon the hydrologic cycle of water, which involves evaporation, precipitation and the flow of water due to gravityMore than 1 /5th of the world’s demand for electricity is fulfilled by the hydropower.
They produce the energy in megawatt. Nepal is rich in hydro-resources, with one of the highest per capita hydropower potentials in the world.
The estimated theoretical power potential is approximately 83,000 MW. However, the economically feasible potential has been evaluated at approximately 43,000 MW. However, the present situation is that Nepal has developed only approximately 600 MW of hydropower.
Therefore, the bulk of the economically feasible generation has not been realized yet. Besides, the multipurpose, secondary and tertiary benefits have not been realized from the development of its rivers. Proper utilization of hydropower will help the country to gain foreign income.
Present status & condition of hydropower development in Nepal
There are many reasons for such a situation. There is a lack of political will and vision. There is not proper planning and programming. Political instability, poor governance, lack of manpower, fund, technology and environmental issues are some of the main causes for such a situation.
It has been quite a time that no major hydropower projects have come into existence. A number of donor countries and foreign agencies: Japan, World Bank, Asian Development etc have been helping in this sector.
Currently, some large projects: Upper Tamakoshi (456MW), Upper Marsyangdi (70 MW), Chamelia (30MW), Upper Karnali (over B00MW), and Kulekhani-III etc hydropower projects are underway. Rural electrification programs are also in operation. The government has been encouraging small hydro projects and private sectors as well.
Major Problems to Generate Hydro-electricity in Nepal
(a) Lack of clear and constant policies to develop hydroelectricity.
(b) Political instability, poor governance and government interference.
(c) Deeply rooted corruptions and inefficient management
(d) Large projects are given priority and the smaller ones neglected,
(e) Lack of fund; skilled manpower and technology.
(f) Too dependent on foreign grant and assistance.
(g) Private sectors not adequately mobilized,
(h) Leakage, theft, and poor maintenance.
Solutions & Recommendation
(a) Proper planning, programming, and policies required.
(b) The private sector needs to be mobilized and encouraged to invest.
(c) Big and small hydropower projects should be undertaken side by side.
(d) Trained and skilled manpower should be produced.
(e) Leakage and mismanagement must be controlled.
(f) Government interference must be ended.
Hydroelectric or hydroelectric energy is energy that is extracted from the energy of rapidly falling or flowing water and can be used for useful purposes.
The hydroelectric power of many types of water mills has always been used as a renewable energy source for the irrigation and operation of various mechanical devices, such as mills, sawmills, textiles, hammers, harbor cranes, domestic elevators and mills. Sometimes a trumpet is used that generates compressed air from the falling water to power other machines remotely.
At the end of the 19th century, hydroelectric power became a source of electricity. Crag Side in Northumberland was the first house to be hydroelectric in 1878, and the first commercial hydroelectric power station was built in 1879 at Niagara Falls. In 1881, the street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were running on water.
Since the early twentieth century, the term has been used almost exclusively in relation to the modern development of hydroelectric power.
List of Mojor Hydropowers in Nepal
1. Kaligandaki hydroelectric power station, Syangja
Kaligandaki A hydroelectric power station is located near Mirmi in the Syangja district, about 300km west of Kathmandu and 100km from Pokhara in the same direction in Nepal. The hydroelectric project is also the largest hydroelectric project in Nepal.
The dam and headwaters are located on the Gandaki River at the confluence of Andhikhola, while the power plant is downstream around a bend in the river in Beltari (about 7 km to the river) southeast of Mirmi).
A 5.9 km long tunnel connects the reservoir with the power plant, which contains three 48 MW Francis turbine generators. The owner and operator of the power plant is the Nepalese Electricity Authority.
It is a past project and is currently the largest power plant in Nepal with an installed capacity of 144 MW. Construction began in 1997 and was completed in 2002. The three Toshiba Make turbines and generators were put into operation in March, April and May 2002.
They were mainly built to curb the growing energy demand at this time and to eliminate load losses due to disturbances in the imbalance in demand and energy supply. It was built with the financial support of the Asian Development Bank for a total cost of approximately $ 354.8 million (NPR 50 billion).
Hydrology and sediments.
The Kali Gandaki River is born in the high Himalayas and carries a large load of sediments. The river produces a floating sediment load of 43 Mt / year, of which approximately 25 percent consists of sand. This sand has a high concentration of highly abrasive angular quartz.
About 95 percent of this floating sediment will be delivered during the monsoon between the end of May and the end of September and is large enough to fill the tank completely in a single monsoon season.
Data on the discharge, the concentration of suspended sediment in the river and the diverted flow to the turbines are shown in Figure 3. The concentration of swirling sand in the river, which is delivered to the turbines, suddenly increases in early June.
This corresponds to the date when the reservoir level is lowered, which mobilizes sand. The sand concentration decreases again as the reservoir level rises again to its reservoir level, reducing both the flow rate through the reservoir and the sand transport speed.
This smuggling process has almost stabilized storage capacity and created a balance of sediments on storage.
The electricity generated by the three turbines will be fed to the central power grid through a single 132kV circuit, a 66km transmission line to Pokhara and a 44km double circuit transmission line to Butwal.
The flow is sent to Lekhnath Town and Butwal (known as Butwal-1 and Butwal-2). In the municipality of Lekhnath, Kaski district, a substation was built and the existing Jogikuti substation in Butwal was modernized.
2. Middle Marsyangdi hydroelectric plant
The Middle Marsyangdi hydroelectric plant is located in the middle of the Marsyangdi River, about 40 km away.
In front of the existing hydroelectric power station, Lower Marsyangdi is a pass-through power plant with a Pond upstream daily storage.
With a gross capacity of 120 m and a design discharge of 80 m³ / s, the installed capacity is 76 MW (2 Francis Turbines of 38 MW each). The average annual energy production is 470 GWh, of which 280 GWh are solid energy.
The main features of the scheme include an inlet dump that includes the overflow channel with an overflow of 4,700 m³ / s Capacity and a side dam, an underground mill, an overflow tunnel of 5.5 km, a 470 m Long steel shaft, a shaft motor and a short tunnel / channel. Consulting services include the review of the existing feasibility study, the final design and the tender.
Preparation, support in the tender, evaluation of offers and contracting and construction. Supervision. It was commissioned on December 14, 2008 and uses the latest technology of all NEA power plants. The MMHPS power station and the main gates are 27 km and 34 km from Dumre.
The dam is between Udipur and Chiti and the underground power plant is located on the right bank of the Marsyangdi River in Siundibar, Bhoteodar VDC.
The cumulative production of the station reached 1574.84 GWh in 2011/12, with a maximum generation of 425.34 GWh in the same year that exceeded the planned production of 397.59 GWh and the target production of 399.31 GWh. The station contributed 10.18% of the total energy share of INPS.
3. Marshyangdi hydroelectric power station, Tanahun
The Marsyangdi hydroelectric power plant is a pass-through power plant with an installed capacity of 69 MW and three units of 23 MW each and an annual design generation of 462.5 GWh.
It is located in Aanbu Khaireni, Tanahun in the central region, about 114 km west of Kathmandu on the Prithivi Highway and is located on the right bank of the Marsyangdi River. He was commissioned in 1989 and developed with the support of IDA, KFW, KFED, SFD, ADB and GON for $ 22 million.
The generation of this power plant contributed 10.67% of the total energy to the INPS. Electricity production at the Marsyangdi hydroelectric plant in Aabukhaireni-6, Tanahun district, has increased. Electricity generation increased with an increase in the flow of water from the river.
During the winter season, the project generated only 42 megawatts of electricity with a capacity of 69 megawatts. Now the project has begun producing 63 megawatts of electricity, with water levels in the river rising during the rainy season, said the project’s young mason, Durga Prasad Neupane.
The electricity generated here is connected to the national transmission line through the Balajau metro stations in Kathmandu and Bharatpur in Chitwan.
4. Khimti hydroelectric power station, Dolakha
This project has an installed capacity of 60 MW and uses a gross height of 684 m for a total waterway length of 10 km with a nominal flow of 10.75 m3 / s. 350 GWh of energy are generated every year.
The construction of the project began in 1993, although work did not begin until after the financial closure in June 1996. The project was completed prematurely in May 2000 despite the enormous geological, logistical and other local problems.
The environmental impact of the project is very low and the project has been praised for its excellent compliance with strict health, safety and environmental standards. The collaboration between the workforce during the construction of the project was also very good throughout the project period.
5. Kulekhani I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Makawanpur
Kulekhani-I in Dhorsing, Makwanpur, is the only storage hydroelectric plant in Nepal with an installed capacity of 60 MW and two units with a capacity of 30 MW each.
This station was designed as a peak power plant, but it is often operated according to the system requirements to improve system voltage and stability. The planned annual power generation capacity is 165 GWh as primary energy and 46 GWh as secondary energy.
This project was created with the financial support of the World Bank, the Kuwait Fund, the OPEC Fund, UNDP and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) of Japan and the Government of Nepal. The total cost of the project was $ 117,843 million and, consequently, the project was transferred to NEA at a capital cost of approximately NR. 1,550 million.
The telemetry system installed to measure precipitation, water level, etc. It costs around NR. 137.4 million the cost of dams and inclined tunnels is Rs 23 million.
The first unit was put into operation on May 14, 1982 and the power plant was inaugurated on December 8, 1982 (B.S.2039-Marga-23). In 1994, with the help of Japan, a review of the power plant was carried out.
The generation of this power plant contributed 6.09% of the total energy to the INPS. The maximum and minimum water level of the Kulekhani reservoir was 1521.34 m and 1495.22 meters above sea level in the 2010/11 financial year and in the 2011/12 financial year with 1530.38 m asl and 1497.33 m above sea level. dam recorded.
The main objective of the dam is the production of hydroelectric power. It supports the Kulekhani I hydroelectric plants with 60 MW and Kulekhani II with 32 MW.
Kulekhani II was put into operation in 1986 and a third power plant, the 14 MW Kulekhani III, was scheduled to go into operation in May 2015, but was delayed due to to problems with the client. The project was completed in 2017 and is expected to generate electricity by the end of 2018.
The $ 117.84 million project was funded by the World Bank, the Kuwait Fund, UNDP, the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund and the Fund of the OPEC. It belongs to the Electricity Authority of Nepal.
The 114 m high dam forms a reservoir called Indra Sarobar, in which 85,300,000 m3 of water is stored. From the reservoir, the water is channeled through a 5.8 km tunnel to a control booth that controls the flow of water to the power plant, to the Kulekhani I hydroelectric power station.
From the surveillance booth, water flows through a 1,340 m long pressure line to the underground plant. It contains two 30 MW Pelton turbine generators. The difference in height between the tank and the power plant gives a net hydraulic height of 550 m.
The water drained from the power plant enters a series of tunnels and is diverted to the Kulekhani II hydroelectric plant, which is also underground and contains two 16 MW Francis turbine generators.
The difference in height between the reservoir and the power plant gives a net hydraulic height of 284.1 m. The dam and the reservoir are in the Bagmati river basin, while the power plants are in the Rapti river basin.
The construction of the Kulekhani III hydroelectric power plant has been ongoing since 2008 and is still ongoing. The Nepalese Electricity Authority (NEA) has extended the completion period of the Kulekhani 3 hydroelectric project for the fifth time until January 2018, as construction was delayed by the slowpoke contractor.
The project contractor, Sino Hydro, has completed 98 percent of the construction work, but little progress has been made on the installation of the turbine, the water gate and the transmission lines to evacuate the plant’s electricity. It will use the Kulekhani II submarine and will have an installed capacity of 14 MW.
6. Bhotekoshi hydroelectric project, Sindhupalchok
The Bhote Koshi power station (also known as the Upper Bhote Koshi Project) is a pass-through power station in the Sindhulpalchok district, Nepal. It was built between 1997 and 2000 with power generation from January 2001. The project cost around US $ 98 million.
Most of the funding was provided by Panda Energy International. The dam at 27 ° 56’20 “N 85 ° 56’42” Or directs the water downstream to a 3,300 m long tunnel that ends at two barriers that supply water to the Francis 22 MW turbines.
The difference in height between the dam and the power plant results in a normal hydraulic height of 135.5 m.
The installed capacity of the project is 44 MW, while the Nepalese Electricity Authority has signed an Energy Purchase Agreement (PPA) for a maximum generation of 36 MW. The PPA determines how much the project can generate for each month of the Nepalese calendar.
During the monsoon season (approximately three months a year), Bhote Koshi can operate at full installed capacity, even spilling excess water. However, during the winter season, the power generation of the plant decreases dramatically due to the low river flows.
7. Kulekhani II hydroelectric power station, Makawanpur
The Kulekhani-II hydroelectric plant in Nibuwatar, Makwanpur, is a Kulekhani-I waterfall with an installed capacity of 32 MW and an annual design generation of 104.6 GWh.
It was commissioned in 1986 and developed with the support of the OCEF Japan and the Government of Nepal for a price of NR. 124 million
The system has faithfully connected the Kulekhani-I generation and at the same time has increased water absorption by pumping Mandu and Rapti. Each year, after the rainy season, the image of Mandu is cleaned so that the filtered water reaches the receiving pond.
A survey was conducted to investigate the possibility of adding Mandu and Rapti on a large scale so that a unit can operate while Kulekhani-I is not operated to store water.
The Kulekhani II Hydroelectric Project resumed operations on Thursday after being closed during the last month and a half. The 32 MW project in Hetauda was closed after three of its transformers were damaged by a fire on the night of April 16.
The Nepalese Electricity Authority (NEA), owner and operator of the Reservoir Project, announced that it will re-generate electricity on Thursday at 12:30 p.m. after a 10 MPA transformer purchased at the Gandak Hydroelectric Project has been installed to repair the transformers damaged. to replace
“With the installation of a 10 MPA transformer, the project can only generate 10 MW of power,” said Krishna Prasad Yadav, project leader of Kulekhani II I. The three damaged transformers had a capacity of 12 MPa.
Although the project had removed the transformer from the Gandak project at the end of April, it could not be installed immediately because it had to be revised. The Kulekhani project was criticized for having carried the transformer without previous tests.
According to project officials, the three damaged transformers could return to operation within a month. Yadav said the maintenance would be granted to the Ekarat Engineering Company of Nepal.
“We will sign an agreement with the company in a few days.” According to the tender documents, the company must repair the transformer within a month.
Transformers imported from Korea were installed in 1985 and have been in continuous operation for the past 28 years. The Takaoka engineer from Japan, who conducted a technical study of the project transformer in March 2010, said the transformers had been completely repaired or replaced, since they were operated for a period of time longer than the expected useful life.
Project officials also said the project would have a new transformer within a maximum of five months. NEA signed a tender contract with Nepal Hydro and Electric Company for the supply of new transformers in the first week of April.
Meanwhile, the project office has made it clear that the project did not lose energy during the time it was out of service. “As it is a reservoir project and no reserved water was spilled during the period, the project has not lost energy without its use,” Yadav added. ”
A study committee formed to investigate the cause of the project fire concluded that this was purely technical and that there was no human error.
According to the study report submitted to the Department of Energy three weeks ago, the fire broke out as the transformers had been used beyond their useful life. The committee suspected that lightning had hit and damaged the transformers.
8. Trishuli Hydroelectric Power Station, Nuwakot
Trishuli Jal Vidhyut Company Limited (TJVCL) is a public company founded on May 11, 2011, to use the country’s hydroelectric potential at a reasonable cost, using all available national water resources.
The company is co-founded by the Nepalese Electricity Authority (NEA) and Nepal Doorsanchar Company Limited (NDCL). The company plans to develop the Upper Trishuli 3B hydroelectric project (UT3BHEP) with an installed capacity of 37 MW in Nuwakot and Rashuwa district.
UT3BHEP is a Run-Off-River (ROR) cascade project of the Upper Trishuli 3A HEP (60 MW) located on the Trishuli River. TJVCL is in the process of completing the financial statements, including the debt-to-debt ratio of the project and the equity participation of NEA, NDCL, local development agencies and the public.
With the main investment of Nepal Electricity Authority and Nepal Telecom, construction of the Upper Trishuli 3 B hydroelectric project began. The Minister of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation laid the foundations for the construction of the Upper Trishuli 3 B 37 MW hydroelectric project in Division No. 5 of Nuwakot Municipality in Kispang.
Although Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli must visit the sites to lay the foundations of the project. He postponed the program at the last minute due to his other important schedule.
Minister Pun said the project is very close to the capital and will help manage the load. He instructed interested officials to carry out the work on time.
The CEO and president of Trishuli Hydropower Company Ltd., Kul Man Ghising, has made it clear that the timely completion of the project will help make the power supply reliable and reliable.
The project will be created according to the EPC model (Engineering, Acquisitions and Construction). China’s Sichuan hydroelectric engineering company ANAHE has secured the contact with $ 31.8 million.
With a total project estimate of Rs 1.44 trillion, including Rs 780 million interest, the project has 30 percent or 2.47 trillion capital and 70 percent 5.76 trillion loans.
The loan will be granted to the project through a consortium led by Nabil Bank. Under the terms of the agreement, the contractor will complete the construction work and install all the electromechanical and hydromechanical components of the projects.
MD Ghising said the contractor has already brought the necessary equipment for construction and that the company is currently building 3800-meter tunnels, power plants, warehouses and other structures. The project will be completed in three years or until Falgun 2077.
This is a 60 MW upper cascade project from Trisuli currently under construction. Once the project is finished, 13.48 million dry units and 15.77 units of electricity will be generated during the monsoon season.
According to the managing director of Mohan Gautam, the power plant will receive Rs. 1.89 billion a year. The electricity generated by the project will be connected to the Trishuli 3 B substation through a 3 km transmission line.
9. Chilime Hydroelectric Project, Rasuwa
The Chilime hydroelectric power station is a river power plant in the Nepalese district of Chilime, Rasuwa state, 133 km north of Kathmandu. The main factories are located near Chilime, while the underground power plant in Syafrubesi, on the banks of the local Bhotekoshi River, is about 4.5 km southwest.
Water from a landfill is diverted to a reservoir before it can be used at the power plant. The difference in height between the reservoir and the power plant gives a gross hydraulic height (water fall) of 351.5 m.
The electricity generated is fed to the national grid through a single circuit line of 66 kV 38 km long. Most of the power plant equipment is underground, the cell being the only feature left on the surface. The plant will use two Pelton turbines with a horizontal axis of 11.28 MW each.
Production of the power plant began in August 2003. Damber Bahadur Nepali, a leading hydropower expert in Nepal, who founded the company and became its first director.
The success story of this locally designed power plant, built locally and financed by Nepal, largely the result of Dr. Ing. Nepal is living proof that the paradigm shift in Nepal’s hydroelectric plan has brought a real change. The power plant has manufactured a large number of efficient and robust electromechanical equipment.
As a result, the plant can generate an excess of 13.8% energy in addition to the energy assumed under the power purchase agreement with the Nepalese Electricity Authority. In financial year 2067/068, the facility was able to supply estimated energy of 132.79 Gwh, estimated surplus energy of 10.07 Gwh and free surplus energy of 8.26 Gwh. Plant insurance was completed in Rastriya Beema Sansthan.
The water structures of the plant are in good condition and no major repairs have been required.
The main equipment has proven to be robust and the overall design of the electromechanical system has proven effective and in accordance with the conditions and practices of the Nepalese system. The data shows that the production of the plant in the last seven years has been much higher than expected.
The improvements of the system, such as the cooling water system, the inlet waste container, the dehydration drain, the washing of the tank, etc., have contributed to the high availability of the system.
As a result, from the second year of production, the plant was able to produce surplus energy in addition to the anticipated energy.
10. Devighat Hydroelectric, Nuwakot
The Devighat hydroelectric station is the cascade hydroelectric power station of the Trishuli plant. It is located in Devighat, Nuwakot, with an installed capacity of 14.1 MW and an annual design generation of 144 GWh.
It was commissioned in 1984 and developed with the support of the Government of India and the Government of Nepal with the total cost of the NR. 750 million including transmission line. The rehabilitation of the three units at a price of INR 338.15 million was successfully completed by the contractor BHEL and delivered to the NEA on July 13, 2011.
The capacity of the units has been improved and the three units are currently in normal functioning. Operational capacity is based on the availability of electricity from the Trishuli hydroelectric plant upstream.
Following the successful completion of the RMU project in Devighat in the 2010/11 financial year, production was satisfactory and limited only by the production barriers faced by the plant upstream of Trishuli in one of its units.
The cumulative generation of Devighat HPS has reached 2309.38 GWh since its first execution until 2011/12. This station generated 74.13 GWh in fiscal year 2010/11 and 105.09 GWh in fiscal year 2011/12, an increase of 41.76%. The generation of this station contributed 1.92% and 2.51% of the total energy to the INPS in the years 2010/11 and 2011/12, respectively.
11. Modi Hydroelectric Power Station, Parbat
Driven by a river, the Modikhola hydroelectric plant is located in Dimuwa, Parbat, with an installed capacity of 14.8 MW and an annual design generation of 92.5 GWh. It was commissioned in 2000 AD and developed with the support of EDCF (Korea), the Government of Nepal and NEA for $ 30 million.
The performance of the plant during the rainy season is largely unsatisfactory compared to other identical hydroelectric plants, although it is a relatively new plant. Modi Khola has a high content of abrasive sediments.
Due to the reported suboptimal design of the main gates, the existing sediment management equipment is inadequate and results in the penetration of abrasive sediments in the turbines and, therefore, the erosion of the turbines, butter gate valves and gates sliders, as well as other associated facilities, such as combined storage coolers.
The station also lacks sufficient spare parts to carry out repair and maintenance work. The current rehabilitation project aims to address these problems.
The cumulative generation of the transmitter has now reached 610.41 GWh from the first disk until 2011/12. The station generated 59.96 GWh in fiscal year 2010/11 and 34.61 GWh in fiscal year 2011/12, with a decrease of 42.28%. The station’s generation contributed 0.83% to the total energy in the INPS in 2011/12.
The Lower Modi Hydroelectric Project (LMHEP) is located in Deopur, Bajung, Tilahar, Durlung and the Chuwa Village Development Committee of the Parbat district in the Western Development Region of Nepal.
This project is located 50 km west of Pokhara on the Pokhara-Baglung road. Geographically, the basin is between latitudes 28º14’08 “and 28º16’18” and between longitudes 83º42’30 “and 83º44’43”.
The river basin extends up to 7555 meters above sea level. The annual energy production is 117 GWh with an installed capacity of 20 MW.
The LMHEP is located on the Pokhara-Baglung Highway, about 50 km from Pokhara. The Pokhara-Baglung motorway is available to the powerhouse and the desert. However, there is a 2km access road to the entrance, the reservoir, the tunnels and the required detour.
The Khola mode is a snowy river of several years and one of the main tributaries of the Kali Gandaki. It drains a catchment area of 510 km2 at the entry point of the existing 14 MW hydro mode project. Pati Khola, which is draining a 42 km2 basin, is also mixing with modes about 120 m from the proposed LMHEP landfill.
The flow rate is estimated by the Jhapre Bagar 406.5 reference station. According to the hydrological analysis, the estimated average monthly flow for the project is 28.8 m³ / s. The combined long-term average annual flow (modes and Pati Khola) and the 100-year flood at the entrance and the power plant are 54.6 m³ / s. 1516 m³ / s or 1688 m³ / s.
The LMHEP is between Pati Khola and Paradi. All related structures are located on the right bank of the Khola mode in alluvial deposits and mother rock. The area consists of quartzite, phyllite, shale, metasandstone and phytic shale.
12. Modi Superior Hydroelectric Project, Parbat
The 25 MW Upper Madi hydroelectric project, jointly owned by a Chinese-Nepalese company, began producing electricity in the Kaski district of western Nepal on December 30.
China International Water & Electric Co. (CWE) financed the project as part of its construction, ownership, operations and transfer model with the Nepalese investor Bijay Babu Malla.
CWE, a wholly owned subsidiary of China Three Gorges Corp. (CTG), is currently developing the 750 MW West Seti hydroelectric project, whose construction was completed by the China Sino Hydro Corp. began in December 2012.
According to Independent Power Producers of Nepal (IPPAN), private energy producers added 140 MW in 2016.
13. Jhimruk Hydroelectric Power Station, Pyuthan
The Jhimruk hydroelectric power project has a wash basin that can contain 90 percent of particles more than 0.2 mm in size.
However, due to the unexpectedly high content of mud particles of less than 0.2 mm, the plant faced problems of abrasion in the hydromechanical equipment from the beginning. Sedimentation tanks, improved plant operation and a hard coating have reduced turbine wear. As a result, the loss of power generation was minimized.
The Jhimruk hydroelectric power plant is a 12 MW power plant built in 1994 and put into operation. Jhimruk is owned by Butwal Power Company (BPC) and is operated by it in the Pyuthan district in the Midwest region of Nepal.
The project benefits from a net height of 205 m, caused by the diversion of water from the Jhimruk River to the Madi River. Both rivers are about 30 km downstream.
The project involves a dam on the Jhimruk River, which diverts water into two parallel sedimentation tanks, before it goes to the semi-underground power plant with a design discharge of 7.05 m3 / s through a tunnel 1 km long aerial and a 250 m long pressure pipe. Water is finally introduced through a small spillway in the Madi River.
The diversion dump has a curvilinear shape with an overflow length of 205 m. The height of the ridge is 738 meters above sea level. In accordance with the usual design criteria of similar projects in Nepal, the 42 m long, 5.5 m wide and 7 m deep sedimentation tanks were designed to contain 90% of particles larger than 0, 2 mm they were. The power plant houses three Francis turbines, each with 4 MW.
14. Sunkoshi hydroelectric power station, Sindhupalchok
The small Sunkoshi hydroelectric power station is located in Dhuskun, in the Sindhupalchok district, in central Nepal. Downstream, where the Sunkoshi and Bhotekoshi rivers meet. The construction of the plant began in 2003 and was completed in 2005.
The plant is a pass-through project with an installed capacity of 2.5 MW, a design flow of 2.7 m3 / s and a gross height of 124.5 m.
This is just a project in Nepal that uses fiberglass reinforced plastic (GRP) pressure pipes to drive the flow. The power is dissipated through a 33-kVA transmission line to the courtyard of the Sunkoshi power plant (9 MW).
The plant was completely submerged in 2014 by Sunkoshi constipation.
15. Andhikhola hydroelectric power station, Syanga
Andhikhola has been operating since 1991 with an installed capacity of 5.1 MW. The power plant had 3 Pelton turbines, each with 1.7 MW. The project was built under the auspices of UMN with old used equipment from Norway.
The Andhikhola Project is a pool transfer project to extract water from the Andhikhola River from a point near the Andhikhola-Kaligandaki River and introduce it into the Kaligandaki River after power generation. This is a unique multipurpose project in Nepal.
Water is extracted from the pressure line and is used for agriculture, irrigating 309 hectares of land in the Tulsi Bhanjyang area of Syangja district and the Asardi district of Palpa district.
Since the remaining useful life of the electromechanical equipment of the 5.1 MW system is very short, BPC has updated the project to 9.4 MW. For irrigation, additional water is available, which increases the total irrigation area to 599 hectares.
16. Gandaki Hydroelectric Power Station, Nawalparasi
The Gandak hydroelectric plant in Surajpura, Nawalparasi, with an installed capacity of 15 MW and an annual design generation of 106.38 GWh, was commissioned in 1979 and developed with the support of the Government of India and the Government of Nepal with the total cost of NR, 170 million.
The project is initially being developed with the dual purpose of hydroelectric power and downstream irrigation in Uttar Pradesh, India. The station is of the Canal Drop type and the first low pressure power station (6.09 m) in Nepal.
The landfill is regulated by the Bihar state government and the canal is closed twice a year for regular repairs and maintenance. Therefore, the operation of this power plant is affected by irrigation in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
The modernization work began in 2067 and was completed at the end of 2072. The date of commercial operation (COD) was reached in the 22nd Chaitra 2072. After the update, 4.3 MW of power and 30 GWh of annual power generation were added.
Nepal Integrated Energy System (INPS). The energy is derived from a 132/33 kV substation recently built by NEA in Rangkhola, Syangja. The project was funded by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Mega Bank Limited, Nepal.
17. Upper Tamakoshi hydroelectric project
The Upper Tamakoshi hydroelectric plant is a 456 MW peak hydroelectric plant in Nepal. It is the largest hydroelectric project in Nepal and was originally scheduled to be completed in July 2018, then moved to December 2018 and again to November 2019.
It is located on the Tamakoshi River (also spelled Tamba Koshi), a tributary of the river Sun Koshi (also Sunkoshi), near the border between Nepal and Tibet.
The Upper Tamakoshi hydroelectric plant is a national priority project in Nepal. When completed, it is expected to be the largest hydroelectric plant in Nepal, with a capacity equivalent to two thirds of Nepal’s current power generation. The project is fully funded by financial institutions and national companies.
The Nepalese Electricity Authority (NEA) established in March 2007 (2063/11/25 B.S.) an autonomous company called Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Limited (UTKHPL) as the executive agency for project implementation.
Currently, the Board of Directors is composed of six full-time members and two guests. Of six full-time members, four are members of NEA, one of the Employee Pension Fund (EPF) and one of Nepal Telecom (NTC) on the Board.
Likewise, the representatives of Citizen Investment Trust (CIT) and Rastriya Beema Sansthan (RBS) are invited as members.
NEA has a 41% interest, NTC 6% and CIT & RBS 2% each. Similarly, the general public and residents of the Dolakha district will have a 15% and 10% stake, respectively.
The remaining 24% is paid by contributors of the Employee Pension Fund (EPF), NEA & Company employees and bank employees.
Construction began in February 2011. Sinohydro is in charge of site management.] The Nepalese army mobilized in 2012 to secure the site after it was reportedly threatened by vandalism and threats against construction workers and foreign workers.
Work was interrupted by the earthquake in Nepal in April 2015, after which more than 200 Chinese workers were evacuated. The work was interrupted by strikes throughout the construction project. The earthquake also caused damage to roads and bridges and buried troop barracks at the site.
In May 2018, it was reported that the expected completion date in July could be compromised by the late installation of the turbomachine delivered to the site. Later, in May, the country’s finance minister announced that the project is expected to contribute to strong national economic growth in 2018.
The installation of pressure vessels began in February 2019 by a European contractor, after the original Indian contractor had not carried out the work. For the initial energy production, a new date was established in November 2019.
The infrastructure for the installation includes an underground power plant 142 meters long and 25 meters high near Gongar Khola with six Pelton wheels; a dam 22 m high x 60 m wide in Lamabagar; a 360 m high surge shaft; and a total of 16 km of underwater and submarine tunnels.
The gross head height is 822 m. Near the dam there are two settling tanks of 246 m × 26 m to remove particles larger than 0.15 mm.
In January 2019, it was reported that the project did not have permission to clear forest land for new dual 220 kVA power transmission lines that replace existing 132 kVA lines.
Since delays in the execution of the hydromechanical component threatened to postpone the late completion date of the project, the project developer asked the Indian contractor to delegate the crucial task of installing the pressure pipe to the Austrian company Andritz Hydro.
In January, Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Limited, Texamo and Andritz signed a tripartite agreement under which the Indian company awarded the installation of the floodgates to the Austrian company. Immediately after signing the pact, Andritz mobilized the staff at the project site and construction work resumed.
Kulman Ghising, Managing Director of the Nepalese Electricity Authority, said the construction of the power plant had been completed and that project officials would accelerate work on the pressure pipes. “The project will also evaluate brain work by filling water at the dam, the entrance and the doors in May,” he said.
The project faced huge cost overruns as its completion was delayed due to natural disasters, logistical challenges, design changes and poor work by the contractor. The original plan was to build the project at Rs 35 billion, but the price has now doubled to an estimated Rs 70 billion.
After the flowering of Upper Tamakoshi, at least during the rainy season, an energy surplus is projected in Nepal, and the Nepalese Electricity Authority, the utility company that operates as the only pantograph in the country, will be able to generate energy in The Energy Market. Banking mechanism to export electricity to neighboring India.
18. Fewa Hydroplant
The Fewa hydroelectric plant is a 1.0 MW power plant located in Pardi, Birauta, Pokhara, with an annual design generation of 6.5 GWh. It consists of 4 units of 0.25 MW each.
It was commissioned in 1969 and jointly developed by the Indian government and the government of Nepal. Public intervention in the energy channel leading to the power plant is a problem for normal operation, regardless of the availability of generating units.
19. Kulekhani III Hydroelectric Power Plant
According to the revised plan, the Kulekhani III 14-megawatt hydroelectric project is expected to be connected to the national grid before Vijaya Dashami. The project began to be tested in the first week of September.
The electricity generated is connected to the Hetauda-Kulekhani transmission line. Tomorrow, a Chinese technical team will arrive for the final test and will officially open the project.
The Kulekhani III hydroelectric project is located in the municipality of Indrasarobar, Makawanpur district.
According to the original plan, the project should start operating from 2012, but it was delayed due to persistent problems with the contractor. Another problem that delayed the completion of the project was the frequent change in policy and the change of government.
The Kulekhani III project was delayed mainly by Dilly’s delay of the Chinese construction company Jheijian Jialin, which won the contract to complete the electromechanical and hydromechanical work. The government has recently pressured the contractor to complete his work on time.
The initial construction cost was Rs.23.44 billion, but after several years of delays, they have now increased to around Rs.5 billion. The initial projection placed production costs per megawatt at Rs 173.6 million. According to a revised estimate, costs of more than Rs 310 million per megawatt are now expected.
Currently, the Kulekhani I reservoir project produces 60 megawatts of energy and Kulekhani II, a cascading hydroelectric project, 32 megawatts of energy. Following the launch of the Kulekhani III project, the capacity of the Kulekhani reservoir will be increased to 106 MW.