The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is a protected area in the Terai of eastern Nepal. This reserve was established in the year 2032 B.S. (1975AD.) to conserve and promote the habitat of the wild and water buffaloes (Arna) and to increase their population by protecting the habitat.
Koshi Tappu wildlife is also recognized both as birdwatchers’ paradise and wetland site from 1987.
This reserve lies on the fold plain of the Koshi River. It has covered the area of 175 sq. km it lies in the Sunsari district of the Koshi zone and on the island of the Saptakoshi River in Saptari and Udaypur district of the Sagarmatha zone in the Eastern Development Region.
The Sapta Koshi both in the eastern and western side has surrounded this reserve. It ranges from 75 to 81 meters or 246 to 266 ft. in altitude.
The vegetation of the Koshi Tappu Reserve is mainly characterized by mixed deciduous riverine forest, grasslands and marshy vegetation. This reserve consist is about 68 percent grasslands, about 6 percent forest.
Some birds of here are not seen and found in other parts of Nepal. Koshi Tappu Reserve is an excellent habitat for birds like Swamp Francolin, Black-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Indian Courser, Ruddy Crake, Cotton Pygmy Goose, Baer’s Pochard, Greater Painted Snipe, Pheasant-tailed jacana, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Imperial Eagle, White-tailed Eagle, Lesser Kestrel, Black-bellied Tern, Bristle Grassbird, Bailon’s Crake, Striated Grassbird etc. Generally, there are about 514 species of bird variety recorded in this reserve.
The reserve has Sesum and Khayaer and Kharpatar grass jungle. Some of them come by flying from Siberia during winter. Different species of ducks live here. Different kinds of Ducks, Comb Duck, Falcated Duck, Spot-billed Duck, herons, storks egrets, ibis can be found and seen on the Riverbank of this reserve.
The 31 different types of species of mammals are recorded like the Asian elephant, wild buffalo, spotted deer, jackal, wild boar, hog deer and blue bull (laguna) are found in this reserve. Gaur, Blue Bull, Wild Asian Water Buffalo (Arna) has declined in numbers.
Similarly, two types of Lalsar, many other species of birds such as cranes, storks, egrets, herons, and other aquatic birds live in this reserve. Among the aquatic animals, Gharial crocodiles, endangered Gangetic dolphin, and alligators are other attractions.
About 200 species of fish have been found here in its watercourses and ponds. Two types of toad species, nine types of frog species, six types of lizard species, five different types of snake species, and 11 different types of turtle species are recorded in this reserve.
The best time to visit Koshi Tappu Reserve is between October to April.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was one of the most important protected areas for the conservation of wildlife in Nepal. It covers extensive cotton wool, reeds and freshwater meadows in the Sapta Koshi meadow at a height of 75 to 81 m (246 to 266 feet). It was founded in 1976 and designated in December 1987 as a Ramsar area.
The results showed that the white-water buffalo and the wild boar were the main crops between September and February. There was a large number of cattle that grazed freely in the reserve.
The local population is responsible for the illegal use of forest products, poaching and river fishing in the protected area. The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is one of the protected areas in Terai in eastern Nepal. The nature reserve was founded in 1976 and covers an area of 175 km².
The reserve extends between 75 m and 81 m high. The reserve is located on the banks of the Saptakoshi River and consists of swamps, freshwater marshes, rushes, and farmland. It is one of the best and most beautiful bird-watching destinations in Asia. It is one of the most famous reserves in the world. For the conservation of wildlife, it plays a vital role.
The main objective of the establishment of the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was to protect the last population of Asian wild water buffaloes in Nepal. The main habitats are wetlands, meadows and small parts of the river.
The reserve is also part of the Ramsar area (a wetland of international importance) in December 1987. The Koshi Tappu has a rectangular shape that is about 10 km long and 10 km wide. The reserve also allows fishing with the presentation of a fishing license.
Vegetation is mainly composed of tall meadows. Once a year, usually in January, the villagers gather pastures from the jungle of the reserve to cover the thatched roof. In 2005, the sanctuary along with Koshi Dam was designated as one of the 27 most important bird areas in Nepal.
The vegetation of the reserve is mainly characterized by mixed deciduous forests, grasslands, and swampy vegetation. Grassland coverage is 68% compared to only about 6% of the forest, which is predominantly Indian rosewood. Catechu forests are more common in the northwest.
The meadows near the streams are maintained by annual flooding and grazing of wildlife. In general, a large number of processes or events can lead to changes. However, for the sake of simplicity, they can be roughly classified as abrupt or gradual. Abrupt changes are commonly known as disturbances.
These include forest fires, high winds, landslides, floods, avalanches, and The Sapta Koshi River, a tributary of the Ganges, causes rapid and intense flooding during the rainy season. There are 514 species of plants in the extensive wetlands, including kapok, sugarcane, cattail, cattail, cylindrical Imperata, eel and squirrel grass, hydrilla, Azolla, and lotus.
There are many animals in the reserve. In its streams and ponds, 200 species of fish have been recorded, most of which are inhabitants. Two species of toads are recorded, nine species of frogs, six species of lizards, five species of snakes and eleven species of turtles.
Gharial and Mugger crocodiles are also produced. Although the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is the smallest protected area of the Terai Belt in the country, the reserve is rich in flowers and animals. The predominant vegetation is the deciduous forest, the meadow, and the river wetland. Around 68% of the protected area is inhabited by pastures while only 6% are covered by the forest.
Annual flooding and grazing pets keep the park’s pastures high. The wetland of the reserve houses 414 species of plants. The most common are Eichhornia, Hydrilla and Azolla. Nepal is a beautiful country full of flora and fauna. The southern part of the country is the lowland region and the highest peak in the world.
Everest is in the northern part. Due to the geographical and climatic differences in the country, there are different types of plants, birds, mammals, and reptiles in Nepal. In general, they can be divided into four parts:
The tropical region covers the large area of the lowlands and the lower hills. Flora such as Sal, Simal, Asna, Pinus Rosburghi can be found in this region. Birds like the peacock, the jungle and partridge birds and other migratory birds that can be found there.
To talk about wildlife, there are tigers, deer, gaurs, leopards, buffalo, rhinos and others in the tropical zone. Crocodiles and dolphins can be found in the rivers. Lora is present in the soil and in the collection of several plants that grow at a given time and cover the specific area. Flora also has her Latin word derived from her name.
It is also said that mythology, the plant kingdom is “flora.” The study of plant life in botany is very interesting. Let’s talk about a useful material system. Native plants come from the respective region. They grow in their climate and condition.
The plant makes our life beautiful and exciting. The plant builds everything for human purposes. It has made our life easy and fresh. Grow the plant according to the weather. Agriculture is the main objective of the Terai region. Many quantities of rice, corn and various varieties of rice are grown. Makes a perfect life Not all are native plants, but humans use them for their own needs.
Flora and Fauna
It is a “garden flora”, which is grown for decorative purposes. In the Himalayan region is the Ayurvedic plant. It is very important for us. It is used for the manufacture of medicine.
In Nepal, most of them find useful plants. Flora used in everyday life. It helps people a lot. Fossil plants consist of plants that were found in prehistoric times. The flora of today on earth is also divided according to its surroundings, which of course I have seen.
The plant is the survival method for humans. The plant is magical in the earth that has grown and given a lot to humans. The plant gave shelter, food to life. The plant is also the secret of the people. The plant is also suitable for the animal for the green plant, the animal eats green plants to survive. The animal depends indirectly on the plant.
The flora is different in another country. In botany, we deal primarily with plants and all family plants. Flora is a group of native plants in the geographical environment of an ecosystem. differs according to geographic region. The flora is made up of the biologist so that it refers to the collection of plant varieties with their geographical location.
Flora is the goddess who refers to the surface of the earth. It is also a magical truth and surface. Flora is a group of crops from each region. It is usually found in the forest.
People also travel to get that Adventure plans And people are studying intensely to find research in these plants. There are plants all over the world. It is exotic for suites that adorn the house or the Himalayan plant.
The beautiful flower can be found in the Himalayan region to decorate the house with our menu and our choice with good services. Flora is derived from the word floral, which represents a relationship with the plant. Plants spread throughout the world.
Floristry studied the science of the book of botany, the word comes from him to know all over the world. It is natural and given by God. On Earth, plant life differs from region to region. In the mountainous region, the plant is beautiful to see and it’s cold.
Rhododendron is found mainly in the mountainous region when it is very cold. It does not occur in the region of the terrain since the weather is not suitable for this flower. Only the rose, the lily is perfect for this climate. In Terai, the weather is warm because the mango tree is so warm that it survives. In cold climates, orange is grown.
The climate is suitable for this type of plants, the climate also follows the main role in the cultivation of plants (flora). because desert plants don’t get as much water to survive.
The pteridophytic plant is available there. One difference is that we cannot grow the mountain plant in desert areas and grow it ourselves due to its survival temperature in the Terai area.
This region extends to the Mahabharata mountains in Nepal. It includes several green hills and the outer core of the Himalayan mountains. The subtropical zone includes the main areas of large rivers such as Karnali, Saptakoshi, and Narayani.
This region is home to oaks, rhododendrons, and orchids, in addition to some other plants. It is also home to several wild animals. Some of them are Ghoral, bear, deer and wild boar along with several species of birds.
It is the great area of the Himalayas, which includes species of plants such as oaks, pines, larixes, and species of abies in coniferous forests. Rhododendron, bamboo, and maple are also found in this region. Red Panda, Himalayan black bear, Serow, Himalayan Tahr, Ghoral, barking deer and wild boar are some of the wild animals found in this region.
Danfe is a beautiful and native bird among several bird species, which occurs in the temperate zone. Rhododendron, peeled juniper, and other woody vegetation are the distinctive flora of this region.
In the fauna are Himalayan marmots, mouse hares, thar, musk deer, snow leopards, and occasionally blue sheep. Lammergeyer, Snowcock, Snowpatridge and bunting with redheads and buckets like birds are usually seen in subalpine and alpine areas.
The reserve is home to many animals, including some 31 species of mammals and more than 200 species of fish. Gharial’s crocodile and mugger are limited to swamps and swamps. The forested ecosystem of the reserve is also the habitat of 15 major species worldwide.
The reserve also houses the wild elephant. The reserve supports not only the important contribution to the protection of the wild water buffalo but also another 20 species, including pig, wild boar, checkered deer, blue bull and stone python.
The 31 species of registered mammals include the Asian elephant, the checkered deer, the pig deer, the wild boar, the well-covered otter, and the golden jackal. The Ganges dolphin was seen on the Koshi river. Gaur and Blue Bull have decreased in numbers.
The last remaining population of Nepal of about 150 white water buffalo lives in the area. According to the last census of 2016, this population has now grown to 432 people with an annual growth rate of 7.27 percent.
Given the population growth, the authorities are planning a possible transfer of some white-water buffalo to the alluvial plains of the Chitwan National Park, where they were exterminated in the 1950s.
If the proposed resettlement is carried out, this is a natural predator-prey scenario, since white water buffalo in Koshi Tappu have lost their natural predators in the form of a tiger, leopard, and dhole for quite some time. The white-water buffalo is a highly endangered species, which occurs only in southern and southeastern Asia.
FAO estimates that the global population of buffaloes is less than 4,000 individuals. The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is home to the second-largest wild water buffalo population after the Kaziranga National Park in the state of Assam. And the reserve is the only habitat for the white-water buffalo in Nepal.
During the establishment, only 63 animals were in the reserve. The census conducted in 2016 showed that 432 white water buffalo live in the protected area. According to the 2011 census, ornithologists recorded 17 Bengal tigers from the 9 different locations in a 34 km section of the Koshi River.
The Koshi Tappu is the only habitat for the animal. Disasters such as floods, fires, and endemic animals are always dangerous for the animal. To establish a second ecologically favorable population in Chitwan National Park, the animals were resettled in 2017.
On January 25, two wild buffaloes (one male and one female) were relocated to the Chitwan National Park in 2017. WWF Nepal has He has been working with the Nepalese government for more than five decades and is helping to achieve important conservation victories.
Rescuing unicorn rhinos from the brink of extinction and achieving their zero poachings is one of those jobs that has made Nepal an example worldwide. However, the country’s wildlife still faces a multitude of challenges as a result of habitat loss, poaching, and conflicts between humans and animals.
Consequently, WWF Nepal continues its mission of increasing and managing populations of priority species, restoring wildlife populations lost in their former habitat, improving and expanding habitats, mitigating human-wildlife conflict (HWC) and poaching and to eliminate illegal wildlife transit in Nepal.
Over the next five years, WWF Nepal will seek and mobilize resources to manage protected areas, protect, manage and / or restore critical habitats, provide corridors and connect between habitats by integrating smart green infrastructure as needed.
Sustainable financing mechanisms will be established to ensure and manage priority species throughout the world and to support local communities. Poaching and illegal wildlife trafficking are controlled by strengthening law enforcement agencies and local communities while ensuring national, regional and international support.
Similarly, safe HWC strategies are being developed and implemented to maintain the responsibility of the Community for wildlife conservation. The result of our investment will contribute directly to the global objective of doubling the population of tigers, reaching the historical population of rhinos, maintaining the population of snow leopards, eradicating poaching and wildlife trafficking, and addressing Effective way to human conflicts.
Among the 485 species of birds are the tap, the nocturnal Indian, the charlatan, the black throats, the striped grass bird, the great helper stork, the osprey, the common goldeneye and the sea swallow with a beak seagull.
The reserve is not only rich in wildlife, but also an excellent destination for birds, especially waterfowl and many migratory birds such as Siberian Sarus. Some of the striking birds in the reserve are the tap, the eagle owl, the black-headed squat sweeper, and the white-tailed Stonechat.
The park has identified a total of 485 species of birds, including ducks, ibis, storks, herons, and herons, as well as endangered swamp hens and Bengali florists.
In early 2011, 17 Bengali Floridians from nine different locations were registered along a 39 km north-south section of the Koshi River. Seven were men and 10 women. Only five people registered outside the reserve, two couples north of Koshi Tappu and a woman has seen twice near the Koshi Barrage area.
The great helper; A member of the endangered stork family was observed in the Koshi Tappu Reserve for 22 years. The bird lives mainly in some parts of India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, but the number is decreasing due to the threat of habitat. Currently, there are only 800 great helpers in Assam, 150 in Bihar and 200 in Cambodia.
In Koshi Tappu, a new species of Nightjar was sighted in 2018, bringing the number of bird species in the country to 863. The Nightjar is nocturnal and visits Nepal from Pakistan, southern China, and northern India.
Nepal is exceptionally rich in bird species with a total of 871 species recorded in just 200 years of modern ornithological research. The protection of birds is deeply rooted in the culture, tradition, and religion of the Nepalese.
The government of Nepal has occasionally initiated many important conservation initiatives to fulfill its obligations to protect birds.
The most important steps of the government include providing more than 20% of the land as protected landscapes, listing selected species of birds among strictly protected species in accordance with Law 2029 for the protection of national parks and wildlife, approving the action plan for Vulture protection and the start of the vulture breeding center, manufacturing Nepal has also signed numerous international agreements and treaties, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, CITES, the Ramsar Convention, etc.
Several important studies on birds have been completed in Nepal. However, these studies have focused mainly on threatened species worldwide. Many important national species are not studied, including Spiny Babbler Turdoides bengalensis and Danphe Lophophorus impejanus.
The funding available for the study of birds in Nepal is largely determined by the interest of donors outside Nepal, whose main priorities are to preserve globally threatened species and sites of global importance. National funding agencies are missing to initiate and support studies of birds of national value.
Despite the tireless efforts of the government and several non-governmental conservation organizations, bird populations in Nepal have continued to decline. Periodic evaluations of bird species show that the list of nationally endangered species continues to grow and more and more species are considered endangered.
Recommendations have been made on the restoration of threatened habitats, which adequately protect species and habitats, especially during reproduction, establish funding mechanisms at the national level for the study of birds of national and global importance, and review the boundary of the protected area to guarantee the functional integrity of the ecosystem species. and habitat conservation, research, and incorporation of new bird conservation concepts.
HOW TO GET TO THE KOSHI TAPPU WILDLIFE RESERVE?
The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is easily accessible both by air and by land. There are regular flights from Kathmandu to Biratnagar.
The flight lasts about 45 minutes and offers stunning views of the eastern Himalayas, including Mount Everest, Makalu, and Kanchenjunga. It is only 3 to 4 hours’ drive from Biratnagar to reach the nature reserve.
The reserve is almost 560 kilometers from Kathmandu. A trip of almost 14 hours on the Mahindra highway takes you to the reserve. The trip leads through the hills of Mahabharata and Churia Range. Driving on the road is an excellent option if you are ready to experience life in a mountain village and the countryside. If you have enough time, you may prefer to travel with this method.
If you are looking for a more adventurous trip, you can also choose whitewater rafting from the Sunkoshi River to the SaptaKoshi River. The exciting 8 to 10-day tour is one of the most exciting whitewater rafting tours in the world. The adventure ends in Chatara and is then transferred to the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve.
The best time to visit the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is between October and March. This is because at this time of year you can see migratory birds and inhabitants in the dam and the main channel of the river.
This time the heavy rains during the monsoon season and the extreme summer heat are also avoided. Besides, visitors can enjoy the beautiful view of the mountains from October to March. The fifth highest mountain in the world, Mount Makalu (8475 m), can be seen from the park. It is the first Ramsar site in Nepal, which was expelled in 1987.
The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve protects virgin wetlands, cattails, swamps, grasslands, forests, swamps, lakes, and ponds, as well as excavated ponds.
Some of the emblematic species of the reserve are the endangered wild water buffalo, which in Nepal is “Arna” (Bubalus bubalis arnee), the Ganges dolphin (Platanista gangetica) and endemic fish species (Barilius jalkapoorei and Pseudeutropius murius). Other endangered species include nilgai, black-eared otters, and red-crowned turtles.
Residents depend on irrigation, grazing, fishing and food production, as well as the extraction of construction materials in the wetland. The biggest threats are wild cattle, floods, and sedimentation, depletion of wildlife and traffic.
The Creator of the Earth gives us everything without constantly expecting anything. We live in a beautiful world with different types of flora and fauna, animals, forests, mountains, oceans, etc. National parks and nature reserves are just some of them.
They contribute to the protection of nature and benefit us all in many ways. Unfortunately, humans are the selfish animal that destroys nature so beautiful for their needs. They destroy creatures, pollute nature, cut down forests and eliminate the oceans. We destroy the favorable condition of plants and animals.
The animal world is a precious gift from God. It consists of all non-domesticated animals, birds, insects, plants, fungi, and even microscopic organisms. The animal forest is important to maintain ecological balance. These places play an important role in society.
To protect and care for wildlife, plants, and forests, we must understand the importance of wildlife and the jungle in our lives. The main objective of national parks and game reserves in the conservation of wild nature.
Conservation System in this Reserve
National parks and nature reserves are two aspects of a medal. The national park is a nature reserve, which is demarcated for the protection of wild animals. The natural reserve is a geographical area reserved for the conservation of biodiversity.
National parks have an exact limit and human activities are not allowed there. On the other hand, natural reserves have no limits. Before its declaration as a reservation by the Government of Nepal in 1976, the area was open to the public local communities for fishing, hunting, grazing, livestock and fodder collection, firewood and more Resources (CSUWN 2009).
Your access was limited, however, with the explanation of the reservation, which leads to the illegal harvest of resources (Heinen 1993b). To stop the illegal harvest and the For basic human services, the reserve has established a buffer zone of 173.5 km2 comprising 16 villages Development Committees (VDC) of the Sunsari, Saptari, and Udayapur districts Population of 77,970 people from 10,693 households (Shakya et al., 2013).
The general literacy rate is less than 50% and agriculture is the dominant mode of production for just over 87% of households. Only 20% of households have food security.
The density of cattle is very high with 1.5 cattle per household. The harvest and use of the resources of this important floodplain region plays a prominent role at the local level. Occupations and lifestyles of people. In addition to subsistence farming, cattle play an important role.
Economic activity and livestock income represent an important part of the local budget. Biodiversity values of the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve | 73 Income (see 1997, CSUWN 2009). A large part of the communities remains direct or indirect. depending on the reservation for different goods and services (ICIMOD and MoFSC 2014).
We use a DPSIR framework (Driver, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Response) to Understand the socioecological relationships coupled in the Koshi basin. The frame elements used for the development of the links were taken from the published literature (for example, Pinto et al., 2013).
Value of biodiversity.
The protected area was designated by the Ramsar Convention in 2000 as a wetland of international importance. 1987 for its special value for the preservation of the genetic and ecological diversity of the region. The reserve is located in the meadows of the Sapta Koshi River and is a natural and permanent freshwater.
river system the reserve is rich in biodiversity with 670 species of vascular plants (Siwakoti 2006), 21 species of mammals (Chhetri and Pal 2010), 23 species of herpetofauna (Chhetri 2010), 77 Butterfly species (DNPWC 2009), 494 bird species (BCN 2011) and is habitat for a large number of endangered species worldwide and nationally (CSUWN 2009).
The reservation is also shown as one of the most important bird areas in Nepal with a habitat for several endangered bird species. The wetland is also home to the Ganges dolphin (Plangetnista gangetica), a Gharial crocodile. (Gavialis gangeticus) and Nutria Lisa (Lutrogale perspicillata).
These are important worldwide Species play an important role in preserving the ecological integrity of the area. A matrix of soil/ecosystem/ habitat coverage has shown that most species use a wide variety of land cover or ecosystems and, in many cases, overlap (Chettri et al., 2013). to the Example: stone python (Python molurus), red turtle (Batagur kachuga), yellow head Turtle (Indotestudo elongata), Grand helper (Leptoptilos dubius) and Sumpfranken (Francolinus gularis) has been reported by more than three types of land cover or ecosystems.
Many 74 Biodiversity values of the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve The species have nearby habitats. Gavial crocodile (Gavialis gangeticus) and Mugger (Crocodylus) palustris) were limited to swamps/swamps and rivers/lakes.
In a matrix analysis, The swamps/swamps reached the highest number of species with 15, followed by forest (14), river and lake (13) and grassland (12) and less than agriculture.
Challenges and opportunities
In the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, the sources of sociocultural services come mainly from Rivers, swamps and forest ecosystems.
This is obvious since forest and wetland ecosystems are the main economic sectors. more productive ecosystems in terms of service provision (Biswas et al 2010, Gopal 2013, Lamsal et the. 2015). This is very important in the nature reserve since the local population depends on the forest and the forest. Wetland ecosystems are important since other alternatives for energy and livelihoods are limited (ICIMOD and MoFSC 2014, Sharma et al., 2015).
It is also obvious that wetland ecosystems in no one Man-dominated landscapes depend more on natives (for example, Ambastha et al., 2007, Lamsal et al. 2014). The reserve has undergone significant changes in its ecosystems in the last three decades. The reserve has undergone significant changes in its ecosystems in the last three decades.
The The changes are manifested by human pressure (Chettri et al., 2013), climate change (Agarwal et al. In 2014, Bharati et al. 2016, Rajbhandari et al. 2016b); Land use and change of land cover (Chettri et al. 2013, ICIMOD and MoFSC 2014, Uddin et al. 2016) with loss of habitat for many aquatic and rural residents Species (Chettri et al., 2013).
Interestingly, the loss of soil of different kinds of land cover (Uddin et al. 2016) and greater vulnerability (Neupane et al., 2013) present many challenges Reserve and the basin. Some of the biggest challenges are the availability of water and the ecosystem.
Susceptibility and poor adaptability of humans in the buffer zone of the reserve and the pelvis (Bharati et al., 2016). Thus, natural and human activities bring with them different Management challenges in the reserve, as reported by others in the region (Chettri et al.
Lamsal et al. 2014). The forest ecosystem is strongly associated with wetland ecosystems. and plays an important role as an interface (Kollár et al., 2011). It has been observed that some of the Critical ecosystems such as the forest have changed significantly in the last three decades.
The country’s land use and changes in land use cause visible changes through anthropogenic or natural processes. The ecosystem functions of a given ecosystem, resulting in a reduction in its ability to provide services. (Crossman et al. 2013, Baral et al., 2014). its change over time, but if one of the ecosystems is lost beyond its threshold, then it will have an irreplaceable impact on society, which depends on such ecosystems (Gopal 2013, Davidson 2014).
Unfortunately, due to human use and the changing ability to provide services, there is one common challenge for the wetland ecosystem (Zhoali and Wu 2005, Deka et al. Romshoo and Rashid 2014). In addition to the reserve, even the Koshi basin has testified Changes in its ecosystems (Uddin et al., 2016).
Such Spatio-temporal changes and the use of geodata The instruments have contributed significantly to understanding the dynamics of ecosystems (for example, Rebelo et al.
In 2009, Chettri et al. 2013). Although the government of Nepal has proactively cooperated with the EU local communities for participatory conservation and management of the reserve (CSUWN 2009, MoFSC 2011), the dynamics of ecosystems require special attention for management Interventions as a reserve destination are directly related to the health of the pelvis ecosystem.
Understanding of monetary and non-monetary values, including human dependence. This could have a significant positive impact on ecosystem services and ecosystem dynamics. Implementation of adaptive management measures. This can further improve the flow of the ecosystem.
Reservation services and management
Biodiversity and ecosystem services are declining worldwide. Wetlands are well known for their important role in promoting biodiversity and the provision of food, water, and food.
The safety of people living in their environment is subject to constant changes by different driving forces. Category Descent With growing signs of climate change and other drivers of change in Koshi The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in the pool seems to be very vulnerable.
The reserve is an important reservoir for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially for local communities This review found that the reserve is an integral and strong part influenced by the Koshi basin and any minor change in the pelvis directly affects the Koshi basin Reservation.
In light of this vulnerability and the changes reported, we recommend planners and managers to take urgent and necessary measures to maintain the reservation by providing an A better understanding of the catchment area for the sustainable provision of environmental flows Otherwise, this will negatively affect the remaining biodiversity of the protected area.
It seems that habitat deterioration within the reserve is also caused by changes in the river’s course. One approach to managing river basins is to avoid high sediment loads and occasional flash floods. recommended as a prerequisite for various management and planning activities to support a holistic vision Understand.
It has become more important in terms of contraction and degradation. Ecosystems and related values of biodiversity and human nutrition.
Conflict in Bio diversity of wildlife reserve
Conflicts between humans and animals are a major conservation problem that is difficult to resolve. Is It is difficult to decide what to do when people’s needs collide so directly with the needs of people in danger of extinction. Species.
The study was conducted in Paschim Kusaha VDC, adjacent to Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve from January 1997 to January 1998 to identify the main problems of conflict between reservations Authorities and villagers.
It was based on the observations and responses that emerge from the schedules. They were distributed separately to the local population and reserve staff. Failed crops and people The harassment by wildlife was considered a major problem by the villagers. Illegal activities of People in the reservation area were the main problem for managing the reservation.
The present study The recommendation to minimize conflict helps with future planning programs for management policy and further exploration of this field. The Park People conflict is the main problem in almost all protected areas of Nepal.
According to Mishra (1984), the tug of war between turtles and park management is not limited to Nepal compared to natives but takes place in parks and reserves in most developing countries. The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve has also faced conflicts between parks and humans for several years.
Since its inception, the reserve has been successful in protecting wildlife, improving biodiversity and benefiting the country’s economy. However, people were denied access to the use of resources in the reserve.
The Koshi Tappu game reserve and its periphery are good for practicing the family accommodation program initiated by the local community. nan promoted by the park authority can be expected to help create the most fertile alternative livelihoods for the local population and ultimately contribute to it Create a harmonious relationship between the park and people (Acharya and Halfpenny, 2013; Shrestha, 2015).
Nepal is extremely rich in bird species with a total of 871 species, which were counted only in Nepal About 200 years of modern ornithological research. Bird protection is deeply rooted in culture, tradition, and religion of the Nepalese people.
The government of Nepal has occasionally initiated many key conservation initiatives to combat its obligations to birds Preservation. The most important steps taken by the government include the closure of more than 20% of the population.
Land as protected landscapes, under a strict selection of selected bird species, protected species following the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2029, Confirmation of the action plan for the protection of the vultures, beginning of the vulture breeding.
Center, production of stamps with birds, etc. Nepal has also signed numerous international agreements and treaties, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, CITES, Ramsar Convention, etc. Several important studies on birds in Nepal have been completed.
However, these studies have focused mainly on threatened species worldwide. Many species that are of great importance nationwide, including Spiny Babbler Turdoides Bengalensis and Danphe Lophophorus impejanus are not studied. financing opportunity For the study of birds in Nepal, donor interest outside Nepal is of paramount importance.
Priorities include the preservation of threatened species worldwide and places of global importance. Money Agencies within the country to start and support the study of birds of national origin.
Lost value Despite the tireless efforts of the government and several State nature conservation organizations have further reduced bird populations. Nepal. Periodic reviews of bird species show that the list of endangered national species
It continues to grow, with more and more species classified as threatened. Have recommendations were created for the restoration of habitats threatened with adequate protection of the environment. It can be said that the market demand of KTWR is much higher than that of Parks with a similar distance from the capital Kathmandu, which has Privilege only of the international airport, the main gate for most tourists.
to Nepal in terms of the distance from Kathmandu, both KTWR and SuNP are in one approximately equidistant from Kathmandu. But the tourist who comes to KTWR is a lot higher and the rate of increase is also higher in Koshi (DNPWC / MoFSC / GoN, 2018).
This indicates that the Koshi Tappu Game Reserve market is growing faster and improving the opportunity to develop as a destination for ecotourism. Efforts have been made to establish the new whitewater population Buffalo in Chitwan National Park (DNPWC / MoFSC / GoN, 2018), until today, Koshi Tappu is known for its wild water lust.
The last census of Wild Water Buffalo He has counted 416 people from the Wild Buff Alo in the park. Is the population wild? Water Enhancer was also established at CNP and the park remains exposed to herd threats of the native Buffalo that graze in large quantities inside the park (Khatri, Shah, Tachamo Shah and Mishra, 2010; KTWR, 2018), KTWR remains without identity.
KTWR is the first wetland classified as Ramsar. Next to the wild water Buffalo, the parks are considered a paradise for winter migratory birds in Nepal ( Baral, 2005; Khatri et al., 2010; Shakya et al., 2013). Together with the house of 416 white water buffalo houses 490 species of birds in a small area Area.
The area also provides habitat for four other protected species, namely the Indians. Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), striped hyena (hyena), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and dolphin of the Ganges (Platanista gangetica). The park is home to five of the 27 protected mammals in Nepal. (Shrestha and Pantha, 2018).
Also, four of the nine species of protected birds (Black stork, white stork, Bengali Florentine, and small stork) and the three protected Nepalese reptiles are within the limits of KTWR (Shrestha and Pantha, 2018). These protected mammals, birds and reptiles add value to KTWR’s ecotourism Objective.
Cultural characteristics are equally important for the development of ecotourism. compared to environmental characteristics (Wearing & Neil, 2009). But almost half of the respondents were unaware of its cultural appeal. We are Marketing may be necessary (Sangpikul, 2010, Wearing & Neil, 1988). The satisfaction of the respondent with food, accommodation, and food. KTWR hospitality can help attract more tourists to the region Areas (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996).
The effort of local communities. to participate in ecotourism and, ultimately, to conserve biodiversity taken as a positive sign to achieve this effort to achieve the protection objective, The government agency in question should promote the development of ecotourism. through political intervention (Carroll & Groom, 2006). However, there were 15 host families. started with the support of the park, this number will not be in the wide region Enough to capture the tourist and make a significant contribution to improving the situation.
Parklet conflict reported in the park (Limbu and Karki, 2003). The number of the host family can expand and the location and services of the host family can be improved It can be diversified This host family can serve as a tourist attraction. a remote destination within the park’s buffer zone and livelihood address Park requirement (Acharya and Halfpenny, 2013).
You can also help with the training of the collaboration network with other possible ecotourism destinations of the resort. In addition to the place indicated by the interviewees, there is another place like Indra Canal (first irrigation canal of Nepal Oriental), area of Pandavas (Phattepur) of Saptari District and other unexplored areas of Saptari, Udayapur, Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari The district can be explored and maintained in the ecotourism cycle, which interests tourists.
More than a single day. Also, curriculum development to improve the educational and interpretive experience of visitors is equally crucial (TIES, 2015; Walter and Reimer, 2012). If planned and performed properly, ecotourism can intensify The three pillars namely. Physical, social and economic aspects of sustainable development.
coordinated form The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and associated wetlands, including the Saptakoshi River, are important wetlands for the endangered white-water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis arnee), migratory and river dolphins (Platanista gangetica).
The rapid and complete flooding of the reserve during the monsoon season and frequent changes in riverbeds were the biggest threat to the existence of wild buffaloes (locally known as “Arna”) and other wild animals almost every year.
Therefore, a study was carried out to determine the state of biodiversity in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone from March to November 2009 and to assess the state of arna, dolphins, swamp crocodiles, marshes (Simtitra) and vultures.
To study the state of biodiversity, a direct counting method, a method of transaction, scoring, qualitative sampling, field observations and social surveys were performed. A total of 219 whitewater buffalo, 11 dolphins, 5 swamp buffalo crocodiles, 52 to 74 swamps and 517 vultures. The wetlands investigated were moderately contaminated.
A total of 42 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were recorded. The results were compared with data a few years before the flood. The current result shows an encouraging population of key species in the reserve, but threats to nature conservation remain challenging.
Bird protection is deeply rooted in culture, tradition, and religion of the Nepalese people. The government of Nepal has occasionally initiated many key conservation initiatives to combat its obligations to birds. Nepal has used some limited hunting opportunities on the hunting grounds to finance efforts to conserve wildlife.
Endangered species should not be hunted. However, it is allowed to hunt some other species in a very controlled way to serve the programs for the parks and people living in the park’s boundaries.
Causes of extinction of wildlife.
The main causes of extinction of wild animals are the following:
Impairment of the ecosystem.
There are different types of animals in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Cattle, Insects, Plants, trees, etc. They grow in the terrestrial ecosystem, while fish, some insects, and small plants live in the region. aquatic ecosystem the terrestrial ecosystem is affected by forest fires, forest destruction, use of insecticides and pesticides, etc.
An aquatic ecosystem is destroyed by the fall of stones and earth when Construction work and explosions. Therefore, creatures are both on earth and in water. affected. Due to the deterioration of the ecosystem, living things will lack the habitat.
Thus, Humans should not affect the ecosystem. We must not drain anything harmful like garbage, Insecticides, etc. directly to water sources. If we protect the ecosystem, it helps protect that Biodiversity
Habitat plays an important role in biodiversity conservation. The natural habitat is destroyed by humans.
Activities such as construction, expansion of agricultural work, destruction of forests, etc., the adverse effects on the animal’s habitat, food cycle, climate, and reproduction.
The growth of living beings and their life cycles are hampered. It is not wise to destroy the natural habitat Implementation of development work and human activities. The habitat that was destroyed must be restored
Loss of mobility.
The causes of the deterioration of the environment are the destruction of the forest, the expansion of agricultural land and urbanization. All these factors limit the space for animals and birds to roam. Thus the natural habitat for different animals and birds has been reduced.
In this situation, they have to Stay in a limited area. Therefore, people should not ruin the natural environment if they want to save animals and birds, we should try to make dry and underdeveloped land suitable for the habitat of animals and birds.
Limitation of vegetation expansion.
The area will expand due to population growth. Different types of development and construction work continue. Settlement areas are also increasing and urbanization is increasing Web page. Pastures are getting smaller.
These activities damage the forest, vegetation, herbs, etc. why These adverse effects worsen biodiversity. People were supposed to let the trees grow around them. Houses, on both sides of the road and bare fields. Grasslands should not be damaged. The grass has to be grown in the bald area for cattle. Therefore, vegetation can be increased.
The trade of some objects of wild origin, such as animal skins, bones, fangs, musk or orchids, is medicinal. Plants led to the decline of wildlife and plants.
Maximum use of decorative objects. Souvenirs, perfumes, cosmetics, etc. In industrialized countries, the loss of wildlife has increased and plants in many countries. species conservation methods. The conservation methods of the species are the following: National parks, game reserves, and the nature reserve have been designated as protected.
Areas in different parts of Nepal. There is a total of 10 national parks, 3 nature reserves, 4 Nature reserves, 1 game reserve, and 11 buffer zones. Game reserves, conservation National areas, and parks contribute to the preservation of living organisms on the site, d. B Its original places where living beings receive there the natural environment, the right food, and the right habitat.
Chitwan National Park, Langtang National Park, Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Annapurna. The nature reserve, the Dhorpatan game reserve, etc. Are some examples. The artificial environment (ex-situ conservation) must be created for the conservation of rare species.
Living beings, since in situ conservation is not possible for all types of living beings. For what To receive rare and missing animals, birds and vegetation, the government has built a botanical garden, parks, and zoos. Try to create a suitable environment in the central zoo for the protection of animals and birds.
They are also botanical gardens Conservation of various types of vegetation. These activities contribute to the conservation of Biodiversity protect the genes of living things and help them grow and grow. to play Government and non-governmental organizations participate in the preservation of biodiversity.
They sensitize your forest and the Ministry of Soil Protection has carried out Program for the conservation of the environment and water catchment areas. Similarly, the Ministry of Environment, Science, and technology formulates and implements environmental policy. The coordinates programs that contribute to the conservation of the ecosystem and biodiversity. Biodiversity is common property.
Therefore, its preservation is everyone’s duty. Joint efforts can help to succeed in the nature conservation program that must be carried out at the community level.
National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) conducts local programs International organizations such as IUCN – World Conservation Union, World Conservation Fund (WWF) also participates in nature conservation programs. These programs help with the Conservation of biodiversity and the environment.
To protect wildlife, it is essential to have an accurate knowledge of their habitat. Critical Living Space Areas such as food, reproduction, kindergarten, and wildlife should be studied. Large animals and migratory birds cover large areas that may differ in their habitat.
Not quite a known area, but the areas that come on your routes must be protected The species, habitats of migratory animals are divided into two different nations, one bilateral or one Multilateral precaution must be taken to protect all habitats.
All about wildlife and biodiversity in Koshi tappu reserve
Nepal is an extremely diverse and unique country with an extraordinary variety of landscapes, cultures, and wildlife.
Although it represents less than 1% of the total landmass in the world, its physiographic characteristics range from the highest terrestrial ecosystem in the world, the Himalayas, to the subtropical lowlands of the Terai. This contrast makes Nepal one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity in the world.
With an area of 141,181 km², 4.2% of all mammals, 8.5% of all birds and 2.2% of all flowering plants on earth, including endangered emblematic species such as the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris Tigris), the Asian elephant (Elephas) Maximus), the Great Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and the South Asian River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) (Shrestha et al., 2001).
In addition to the great biodiversity, there are 35 types of forests and 118 ecosystems in Nepal (GoN, MoFSC 2009). Almost 25% of the land area of the country is designated as a protected area, with 10 national parks, three nature reserves, five nature reserves and a game reserve (Figure 1).
Nepal is located between China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, and is a landlocked country in the collision zone between the Indian subcontinent and the Eurasian continent.
Most of the landmass of Nepal is found along the Himalayas. As a result, the country’s attitude changes from a small latitude of about 200 km from 60 m along with the southern limit to 8,848 m from Sagarmatha (Mount Everest). This variation leads to dramatic changes in the landscape and climate of Nepal.
The country can be divided approximately into five physiographic zones: Terai, Siwaliks, low mountain ranges, high mountains and the high Himalayas, and the climate varies considerably between these regions.
The humid and subtropical Terai in the south of the country can reach temperatures of more than 40 ° C in the summer months, but cold conditions like the Arctic prevail on the northern border of the country, as in Mustang and Solukhumbu, summer can fall
Freeze. The monsoon season lasts from June to September. During this period, approximately 80% of the annual rainfall falls in Nepal (ICIMOD 2010).
The Terai runs along the southern border of Nepal and consists of high alluvial forests, forests with subtropical features such as rivers, hardwood forests and salt forests (Shorea robusta). In the southeast of Terai is Nepal’s most important wetland: the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, an important bird sanctuary and the only area in Nepal that still has white water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee).
Other iconic and endangered mammals in Terai include the Great Rhinoceros, the Royal Bengal Tiger and the Asian Elephant. The Terai were once plagued with malaria and, therefore, prevented human settlement.
After malaria eradication in the mid-1950s, many areas became habitable and resulted in large-scale settlements. Almost half of the Nepalese population lives here today (CBS 2009, Grimmett et al., 2009, Pant 2010). Although terai represents only 14% of the country’s total land area, its fertile soils represent 42% of the country’s total land area (UNEP 1993).
Beyond the flat plains of the Terai are the first foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwaliks. This area consists of subtropical forests, coniferous forests and mixed hardwood forests, including pine, deciduous and evergreen forests (Inskipp 1989). Siwaliks are important for species such as Gaur (Bos gaurus), Vierhornantilope (Tetracerus quadricornis) and lazy bear (Melursus ursinus).
To the north of the Siwaliks runs the low mountain range, including the Mahabharat mountains. Composed of temperate forests, hardwoods, pines, and subalpine forests, this area is an important bamboo habitat of vital importance for the survival of species such as the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) (UNEP 1993, Grimmett 2009).
The area is very terraced. It is the predominant practice. The capital, Kathmandu, is located at 1,300 m. The high mountain area rises to 4,000 m and has a cool subalpine climate with an average temperature of 10 at 15 ° C (Agrawala et al., 2003).
It consists of temperate and subalpine forests and thickets with both Needle and hardwood species, including oaks (Quercus spp.), Spruce (Abies spectabilis), birch (Betula spp.), And mixed deciduous and rhododendron forests. This region has some of the least disturbed forests, probably due to the relatively low population and general inaccessibility (UNEP 1993).
Here are species such as Himalayan pika (Ochotona himalayana) and, along with other small mammals in the region, are associated with a greater diversity of plants due to the soil disturbances caused (Bagchi et al., 2006).
Along the northern border of Nepal, the neighboring country of China lies the Himalayan region with seven of the ten highest peaks in the world, including the highest point: the summit of Sagarmatha with 8,848 m.
The landscape consists of subalpine forests and alpine vegetation, permanent snow and glaciers. It covers the Trans-Himalayan area in the northwest, which has virtually no trees and has dominant vegetation of shrubs, pastures and alpine flora (Grimmett 2009).
The Upper Himalayas is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to the effects of climate change. Himalayan glaciers are shrinking and have a great impact on drinking water supply, biodiversity, hydroelectric power, local industry, agriculture and the threat of a tsunami and glacial lake outbreaks (Bajracharya et al., 2007).
In this landscape, there are species such as the snow leopard (Panthera uncia), the Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), the Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) and the gray wolf (Canis lupus).
Although rich in biodiversity, Nepal is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world.
138th place in the Human Development Index and the 10 least developed countries in Asia and Oceania (UNDP 2010, IMF 2010). The country’s rapidly growing human population is putting great pressure on natural resources and wildlife, and even basic human needs suffer from water scarcity.
and electricity in addition to direct anthropogenic pressures, invasive alien plant species are rapidly destroying the primary habitat and the rising temperature of climate change is likely to have a severe impact on the world’s highest mountain habitats.
This combined pressure leads many species to extinction. Although the decline of many species, such as the Royal Bengal Tiger and the Rhino of a major horn, has been known, it has been a challenge to fight them with growing human settlements.
The main objective of the status of Nepalese mammals was to compile a complete list of mammals found in Nepal, assess the status of each species, identify specific threats to the species and make recommendations for conservation. As part of this process, the species list has been revised by international zoological nomenclature rules. A Nepalese biodiversity database was built
Information on the location of points and related data, species names, synonyms, potential threats, conservation measures, habitat preferences and other areas considered useful for conservation assessments.
These data come from published reports and reports from previous museums, reports from unpublished projects and field studies, and expert opinion. This database provides a basis for future revisions of the Red List.
Researched the information about Koshi Tappu by our Team
National evaluations of the Red List were carried out in 2010 according to the regional categories and criteria of the IUCN Red List. This is the first time that the state of biodiversity in Nepal is evaluated
carried out at the national level based on the IUCN categories and criteria, which are internationally recognized as the most authorized and objective method in the world to classify the risk of extinction.
Nepal State Mammals have highlighted the most threatened species that are underrepresented and under-researched. Conservation recommendations have been made through a network of field technicians, scientists and government officials to further secure the future of Nepalese mammal species.
The Red List will continue to evaluate all major taxa in Nepal, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and flowering plants, which provide a true picture of the general state of biodiversity and production in Nepal. Conservation recommendations to prevent future deterioration.
Each review of the National Red List highlights trends the programmer already exists. This information will also allow the Government of Nepal to monitor its progress in achieving national and international objectives, as set out in the Convention.
The Nepalese nation has benefited from its conservation efforts by seeking the help of animal welfare organizations. The Nepalese government is ready to listen to scientists and experts in the field to introduce strategies that contribute to wildlife and habitat conservation.
Community-level efforts to combat poaching are also important in Nepal. The government recognizes that people need to benefit from wildlife. People know that ecotourism brings considerable money to the community. Because of this, people in the community are ready to work with government officials to ensure that poachers are exposed and brought to justice.
We asked the participants to name the species that were hunted in the area. Participants named nine different species of prey and leopards: Sambar Deer, Wild Boar, Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Gray Langur, Rhesus Monkey, Puerco spin, Pheasant Kalij, and Goral.
Respondents discovered that sambar deer is the most preferred type of meat because it is a large animal and can deliver more than 100 kg of game meat. With less fat than wild boar. It has also been reported that the wild boar tastes good and that the animal is also relatively large.
Respondents discovered that spotted deer (chital) in Khabar (a ropes sling) are sociable and easy to catch. Unlike other areas, the Siwalik region has a low proportion of Chital, so they are not hunted as often as in the lowlands. The Goral Himalayas, which live in the Siwalik mountains, are frequently hunted in this place.
Although no questions were asked about protected species, some respondents mentioned the hunting of tigers and rhinos. Several respondents reported that the number of sightings of leopards, signs of the tiger (eg footprints, also known as pugmarks) and vocalizations of foxes and jackals had decreased, which led to prey hunting. They reported that these signs of predators have increased again after the recent delivery of weapons to the park authority.
We tried to investigate the frequency of hunting (total number of animals hunted in a given year), but the answers were vague and we could not capture this information. However, it was clear that hunting was a reasonably common activity. Respondents reported that the search for buffer zones was generally at least twice a year and that almost all households participated in the hunt.
In response to questions about the seasonality of hunting, 41% of the participants said that spring was the traditionally sought season. Autumn was named by 37% of the participants, winter by 10% of the participants and summer by 5% of the participants. Seven percent of the participants said that hunting was carried out in all seasons.
Environments 03 00032 g002 550 Figure 2. Distribution of responses to the main stations for illegal hunting of wild animals in the northern part of Bardia National Park in Nepal (n = 41).
In terms of hunting methods used, the majority of respondents (55%) stated that dogs and handmade weapons were used in combination. 17% of respondents said they only use weapons (not dogs, traps or baits). 15 percent cited the combined use of dogs, traps, and weapons (n = 41 for this question).
Respondents reported that dogs were used most effectively to hunt gray long-tailed and chital monkeys (spotted deer). These animals were attacked with slings or rifles. An interviewee said: “We use dogs to hunt Guna (langur), all the Gunas gather in a tree, cut trees and kill Gunas.”
In response to questions about current hunting grounds in the region, 62% of respondents said that hunting at the local level was intended for the consumption of venison, and 36% said that hunting for the purchase of meat Hunting was for sale to others.
The body is determined. Only two percent of respondents said the search was by recovery Respondents gave different prices for game meat, with an average of 613 NR per kilogram. Participants reported that the sale of venison is carried out locally in small markets along the road.
Chhinchu, Surkhet, Babai (Chepang) and Karnali Chisapani are important local markets in the region. Some respondents said that meat was also delivered to the capital, Kathmandu (about 550 km from the study area, more than 13 hours by car on difficult roads). Occasionally, wild meat is delivered to nearby regional cities such as Kohalpur and Nepalgunj.
These cities are almost 60 km and 76 km away from our study area. Some respondents (n = 4) reported that army officers come to buy game meat directly from the local population. Such buyers often sit in official vehicles, which easily pass through the National Park’s security controls.
It is reported that these products are intended for consumption by senior officials in Kathmandu. In return, the natives who supply game meat were accused of being used as soldiers in the national army (Nepalese army). In our study areas live carnivores such as tiger, leopard, striped hyena, red fox, golden jackal, and lazy bear.
The tiger is classified as an endangered species and degradation of the prey population is considered the main threat to populations of tigers and other predators. The decline in the prey population reduces the survival of adolescents and the density of carnivores directly depends on the richness of species and the abundance of the prey population.
The elimination of herbivores can also affect the pattern of vegetation since large herbivores play a role in seed dispersal, which in turn affects the composition of carnivores and herbivores.
In our study area, for example, gray langur is one of the most important seed propagators for tree species, and this species is designated for hunting due to its supposed medicinal properties.
In Section 2 of the Nepalese National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, hunting in 1973 is defined as the persecution, capture, harassment, and killing of wild animals or the attempt to kill wildlife.
According to § 5 of the same law, hunting in parks and protected areas is prohibited without permission. Similarly, Section 49 (n) of the Forestry Act of 1993 prohibits hunting in national forests without prior authorization. National forests can be considered forests outside national parks and game reserves managed and managed under the Forest Law of 1993. These national forests are under heavy hunting pressure and most do not have large vertebrates.
Before falling under the responsibility of the Management Committees of the Buffer Zone in 2010, the areas around the northern part of the Bardia National Park were extensively hunted After the buffer zone was expelled, illegal hunting declined significantly, mainly due to the continued and energetic efforts of Bardia National Park staff and associated protection agencies.
In our study, respondents indicated that they are still being hunted. Bardia National Park records also show that hunting is currently taking place in the area. According to these records, since the area has been integrated into the buffer zone, The reasons for the hunt seem to have changed.
The reports of the locals interviewed during our study indicate that prey hunting in the northern part of the park used to be for traditional reasons/livelihoods and meat products were consumed locally. After the road was built, local hunters sell meat and animal parts at local markets along the road.
This is a considerable nuisance for hunters since the road is a little further from the villages and can only be reached on foot. Occasionally, buyers are in regional centers (Kohalpur, Nepalgunj or Surkhet) or even in Kathmandu.
The price of game meat rises to 2000 NR (~ 20 USD) per kg when sold in Surkhet, Nepalgunj or Kathmandu. However, there is a greater risk of being arrested by the authorities. Occasionally, respondents mentioned the sale of deerskins and antlers.
The skins of these ungulates are used to make local musical instruments such as Madal and Damaha. One respondent told us that some skins were sold to a processing plant in Nepalgunj. However, the price of the skins was unknown to him.
Not all hunting products are sold outside the area. Surveys conducted by protected area managers (including park rangers and wildlife conservation officials) have shown that some people hunt wild animals to meet the protein needs of their diet due to the high unemployment rate and poverty Associated in the study area..\
Although the participants’ responses to the need and the potential benefits for the conservation of skills are not necessarily reliable, these observations suggest better employment opportunities for local communities for sustainable development and wildlife protection. For this reason, our project team carried out a very busy qualification program at the end of 2015.
Some respondents have also stated that the attack of wild boars and monkeys in crops is also a driving force in the hunting of these animals, with the main objective of reducing the incidence of raids instead of consuming game meat. Similar motivations were reported in a study by Mittermeier and Paudel.
The traditional belief in the medicinal values of game meat, including the extraction of fresh blood from langur monkeys to cure asthma, is one of the main drivers of hunting.
Similar results were reported in a Poudel study in locations near our study area. Likely, poverty, low educational level, and remoteness in the region (without a walkable road) that affect access to health facilities have an impact on the death of wildlife for medical purposes.
In our study, respondents stated that the hunt took place mainly during the Dashain holiday season, which fell in October. Dashain is an important Hindu festival and meat is a staple food in every home at the moment. Therefore, hunting events often take place during the festival.
During the Dashain period, surveillance of National Park personnel is greatly reduced, since this is a holiday period. The hunters, therefore, have easy access to the forest. Protected area administrators also found that other illegal activities, such as timber smuggling during the Dashain period, also increased.
Because handmade weapons are manufactured in the community, it is not difficult for local people to produce or acquire weapons and use them for hunting. A self-proclaimed former hunter, who now chairs a community-based poaching department, explained the practice of hunting.
In other parts of the Bardia National Park, poaching of prey occurs occasionally, but in the northern part (our study area), cases of prey are more common. The park’s conservation chief mentioned four reasons for the high frequency of hunting in this part of the park and the buffer zone.
A wildlife conservation officer at Bardia National Park had similar ideas about the reasons for the continued illegal hunting of game meat in the National Park. He added that the network of bad news, compared to other areas of the park, could be an additional reason to continue hunting in the northern part of the park.
Many authors claim that, under certain circumstances, legalized hunting has beneficial effects on the management and conservation of the game. Carefully supervised and controlled hunting can lead to population management, and license fees can generate significant revenues that can then be used to finance conservation measures.
On the contrary, illegal hunting generally leads to a decrease in population and, in a severe scenario, can lead to loss of species and loss of income since wildlife tourism is less available.
Our study included a relatively small number of informants, a common limitation when seeking information on illegal activities.
Therefore, we are careful to generalize and overinterpret our findings, but we recognize that this study contains important preliminary information on illegal hunting activities in Bardia National Park, which could be useful for park managers in planning activities conservation and information of additional studies. The strength of our results has been further improved by including secondary information from the National Park Authority.
Conclusions and Implications for the conservation of carnivores.
Dam protection is important for the conservation of predators. When the amounts of prey are run out, even small-scale poaching can accelerate the extinction rate.
Therefore, combating prey hunting should be a conservation priority along with efforts to reduce poaching of endangered predators. This study has shown that illegal hunting of predatory species is carried out in the northern part of Bardia National Park in Nepal. Hunting takes place mainly in spring and autumn and is associated with festive times.
The introduction of a road network in the region offered locals the opportunity to sell wild meat, so hunting is now a means to supplement the limited income of the natives. Households also use game meat as a source of protein and for the perceived medical benefit.
Hunting uses handmade weapons and dogs on the site, linking Protected Area Managers with the lack of presence of park authority, isolation and underdevelopment, and poverty in the community. Participants in our study agreed that skills training for members of the local community could reduce the local population’s dependence on game meat for both consumption and income, thus reducing illegal hunting.
Some examples could be training in the maintenance of solar panels, household power wiring, modern agricultural technologies, plumbing, etc. The development of such skills would allow community members to make a living without relying on hunting, and alternative sources of employment would increase costs.
In our project, test training was carried out, which focused on the maintenance of solar panels and domestic electricity. There is considerable scope to expand these programs, perhaps even wildlife tourism, to spread the message that the protection of wild animals in the region brings economic and environmental benefits.
the local population about the proper treatment of diseases such as asthma and access to adequate health information, facilities and medications will also help promote wildlife hunting for medical purposes.
with Shishir Acharya