India’s planned disorder on these maps raise the question of whether to accept the infamous Sugauli Treaty.
The Sugauli Treaty of 1896 A. D. between the two sides in order to stop the Nepal-British War set the east-west boundary of Nepal. In some places, boundary disputes appear when the provision of this treaty formed about 200 years ago was not practically obeyed.
This was contradicted by the fact when Nepal’s terrain was placed on the political map of India drawn by the Survey of India. The map clearly shows the encroachment of 372 square km area on the western border of Nepal.
Professor of Geography Dr. Narendra Raj Khanal considers India border crossing by showing three Kali rivers is the major root of this dispute. Prof. Dr. Khanal says, India has been said to repeat the old map, but the old map is contrary to the Sugauli Treaty.
According to Article Five of the Sugauli Treaty between Nepal and the East India Company, the Kali River is the western boundary of Nepal with India. According to a map drawn by the East India Company ten years after the Sugauli Treaty, the river with the Limpiadhura estuary is the Kali River.
The Kali river is clearly shown in the map published in 1827 A. D. Which even shows the kumau-Garhwal. It is evident from this, that the area on the east of Kali River that are Gungi, Kuti, Grabyang belongs to Nepal.
Seven years later, another map published by India clearly shows the estuary of the Kali river. The map was drawn by the India XII Index Map in the year 1835 A.D. has shown the border of Nepal inclined towards the western direction.
The name of the river Kali appears to have changed in the river published by Kumaon and British Gadwal in the year 1846 A. D. Kali is called West Kali or Sama river. Although the name of the river has been tried to be renamed, according to this map, the source of Kali is Limpiadhura.
According to the map of 1851 A. D., there are two rivers in the Gabryang area. One is Kali from Limpiadhura and the other is Sharada or Kawa from Lipulek. The name of the river is not mentioned in this map drawn by Himalayan Mountain Rivers.
According to the British Survey of India Map in 1856 A. D., the source of the Kali river is Limpiadhura.
Another important factor can be seen in this map of April 24, 1856. Kalapani also appears on the map to the west of the Kali river. There is some analysis of the possibility that the Indian army, who came to live on the opposite side of Kalapani lived on the Nepal side of Kalapani.
According to the 1857 maps of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Tibet, the source of the Kali river is Limpiadhura. On the map of 1859, the river with Limpiadhura source is named as Kali river.
The Planned Disorder in the Map
India has so far shown three different rivers to indicate the Kali river mentioned in the Sugauli Treaty. Apart from which the river with Limpiadhura source is the true Kali river and the other two rivers are fake kali rivers.
Let’s assume for a moment that the fake rivers shown by India are the Kali river, still, India seems to be dishonest. Since the river was considered as a border in the treaty, it has been treating any river it liked as the Kali river.
In 1879 map, it has been tried to indicate a small hill as the fake border. In the map, the border has been shifted from Lipulek to Vyasrishi Himal. This is the root of the last-seen border dispute.
Not only that but on the map, the name of the river Kali is also renamed as Kutiyangdi. Whereas in the local Vyasi and Sauka languages, Kuti means Kali and Yangdi means river. That is to say, kutiyangdi also means the river, Kali.
On the map, the river Lipu is named as Kali river. And, the Kali river, which is explicitly referred to as the boundary of the two countries by the Sugauli Treaty, has been included in India.
Kalapani is clearly visible inside Nepal on the map drawn by Britain in 1967.
India seems to have set up seven camps along the Lipukhola coast. Three of which are placed in the land of Nepal. Camps 1, 2, 3, and 4 appear to be on the opposite side of Lipukhola. The four camps seem to be heading to India according to Nepal’s map without Limpiadhura.
The map of the Survey of India has just shown the hither area of Lipukhola as that of India. It has interpreted the Turture stream in the Kalapani area as a fake Kali river.
The map, published in 1835 and 2019, shows how India has broken or exploit the boundaries of West Nepal. After the Sugauli Treaty, Nepal lost one-third of the land along with the Kali River west of Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra west of the Sutlaj River, and a large part of Terai.
The western boundary of the next three periods can be seen on the map above.
Borders with Limpiadhura from 1816 to 1850, Border with kalapani from 1850 to 1879 and then the border without kalapani.
Whether to agree or disagree with the Sugauli Treaty
Looking at all the maps, it can be said that Limpiadhura is the source of the Kali river mentioned in the Sugauli Treaty. Evidence that Nepal has done the census, paid land tax. And participated in national panchayat elections in Gunji, Kuti, and Gabryang in 2018 clearly shows that the kutiyangdi border is none other than the Kali river.
India has changed the name of the river Kali three times. First is the original Kali river from Limpiahadura. Second is the Lipukhola from Lipupas. And third is the Turture stream flowing from the small temple built above Kalapani.
In the 1879 map made by India, it appears that the map has been drawn by pressing the area beyond the Turture stream flowing from Kali to Vyas Himal.
Even on the map released by the Survey of India, it is clear that the river Kali is a river flowing through Limpiadhura. Whether or not they know what the Kali River is, they also seem unclear. However, it seems to be used three different times in different borders.
It seems that seven camps of the Indian Army have been built from Dobhan of Lipukhola to Lipulek. These camps are located on the Nepalese side of the border. It seems that it has been difficult for the Indian army to dig on the opposite side of Kalapani. Therefore they built the bridge and came towards the Nepalese side.
It appears that they have temporarily tried to use it during the Indo-China war. Some say that King Mahendra allowed them to stay there temporarily. But couldn’t remove later. It is not officially clear whether he had allowed them to stay or not.
However, when looking at the official map of Nepal, all the land east of Lipukhola is that of Nepal. It does not seem necessary to dispute for it. The problem was seen as the Indian army did not move out of the temporary camp.
If the Eastern area of Lipukhola is that of India, then they would have constructed the road leading to Lipupas from the eastern side. But the road has been built from East of Kalapani and then diverted to the long way on the opposite side.
That is, even when India considers the Lipukhola as the Kali river, the land beyond the Eastern side of the river belongs only to Nepal. The entire Kalapani area is Nepal.
Not only that, according to the Sugauli Treaty, Gunji, Navi and Kuti also belong to Nepal. If the treaty is agreed upon, the border can’t be made by drawing the line from the hills of Vyasrishi Himal. If India does not abide by this treaty, then it is Nepal from Tista to Kangra as well.