Evidence on these 12 maps of India’s border encroachment on Kalapani of Nepal


Kalapani lipulekh Hamro Ho

The Nepalese cabinet of May 12 approved a new actual map of the alleged Lipulekh. Kalapani, Limpiyadhura among the areas of Nepal.

A day later, Nepalese Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli also emphasized that the three areas belong to Nepal and that they will recapture the areas from India through political and diplomatic efforts. The new genuine map covers 335 km of land including Limpiyadhura in Nepalese territory.

At the beginning of 1962, India blocked the route after the Chinese aggression. Earlier this month, India reopened the Lipulekh Pass to run Kailash Mansarovar, opened shortly after the construction of a new 75 km road from a village called Gunji.

Nepal has claimed that the village and the street are its territories. The Lipulekh Pass is a far western point near Kalapani of Nepal. Both India and Nepal claim Kalapani as an integral part of their territory – India as part of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand and Nepal as part of the Dharchula district.

India and Nepal share a 1,800 km open border unfortunately. Indian troops have been stationed there since 1962 with the permission of king Mahendra only for a temporary basis.

The Lipulekh Pass is claimed by Nepal on the basis of the Sugauli Treaty, which concluded with the British colonialists to define its western border with India.


Map of British India in 1792
Map of British India in 1792

Last year, New Delhi released a new map that showed Kalapani within its borders, a move that Kathmandu protested. Following the inauguration of the road, the Indian security post on the Indochinese border in the Vyans Valley of the Pithoragarh district is now linked to the rest of the country.

38-km road from Ghatibagar in Dharchula to Lipulekh near the border with China, according to a report in the Hindustan Times. On the military side, the Indian army chief MM Naravane had emphasized that Nepal’s protest against the new road to the Lipulekh pass on the Chinese border was at the request of someone and referred to China.

The recent tweet of Manisha Koirala has stirred the whole of India, she has said nothing wrong. Just because she said that all three nations should work together in solving this issue, India has outraged against her.

Especially the so-called Indian media. She is not Udit Narayan Jha who had forgotten his nationality after getting success. She is not Sarita Giri who has to seek permission from India even for a cooking meal at her home. She is the daring Nepali Cheli(daughter) who is not afraid to voice her opinion.

Nepal Kalapani Lipulekh
Nepal Kalapani Lipulekh

And one of the so-called ABP news channels said Khati Bharat ka Gaana China ka gati hai. One thing you should know she hasn’t sold her souls but her talent. Wherever she is, it is because of her talent not because of your mercy.

India’s planned disorder on these maps raises the question of whether to accept the infamous Sugauli Treaty.

The Sugauli Treaty of 1896 A. D. between the two sides in order to stop the Nepal-British War set the east-west boundary of Nepal.  In some places, boundary disputes appear when the provision of this treaty formed about 200 years ago was not practically obeyed.

This was contradicted by the fact when Nepal’s terrain was placed on the political map of India drawn by the Survey of India. The map clearly shows the encroachment of 372 square km area on the western border of Nepal.

Professor of Geography Dr. Narendra Raj Khanal considers India border crossing by showing three Kali rivers is the major root of this dispute. Prof. Dr.  Khanal says India has been said to repeat the old map, but the old map is contrary to the Sugauli Treaty.

According to Article Five of the Sugauli Treaty between Nepal and the East India Company, the Kali River is the western boundary of Nepal with India. According to a map drawn by the East India Company ten years after the Sugauli Treaty, the river with the Limpiadhura estuary is the Kali River.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

The Kali river is clearly shown in the map published in 1827 A. D. Which even shows the Kumau-Garhwal. It is evident from this, that the area on the east of Kali River that are Gungi, Kuti, Grabyang belongs to Nepal.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Seven years later, another map published by India clearly shows the estuary of the Kali river. The map was drawn by the India XII Index Map in the year 1835 A.D. has shown the border of Nepal inclined towards the western direction.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

The name of the river Kali appears to have changed in the river published by Kumaon and British Gadwal in the year 1846 A. D. Kali is called West Kali or Sama river. Although the name of the river has been tried to be renamed, according to this map, the source of Kali is Limpiadhura.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

According to the map of 1851 A. D., there are two rivers in the Gabryang area.  One is Kali from Limpiadhura and the other is  Sharada or Kawa from Lipulek.  The name of the river is not mentioned in this map drawn by Himalayan Mountain Rivers.

According to the British Survey of India Map in 1856 A. D., the source of the Kali river is Limpiadhura.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Another important factor can be seen in this map of April 24, 1856.  Kalapani also appears on the map to the west of the Kali river.  There is some analysis of the possibility that the Indian army, who came to live on the opposite side of Kalapani lived on the Nepal side of Kalapani.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Read Also: Controversy Over Kalapani And Lipulekh Pass – Everybody Must-Know Facts

According to the 1857 maps of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Tibet, the source of the Kali river is Limpiadhura. On the map of 1859, the river with Limpiadhura source is named as Kali river.

The Planned Disorder in the Map


India has so far shown three different rivers to indicate the Kali river mentioned in the Sugauli Treaty. Apart from which the river with Limpiadhura source is the true Kali river and the other two rivers are fake kali rivers.

Let’s assume for a moment that the fake rivers shown by India are the Kali river, still, India seems to be dishonest. Since the river was considered as a border in the treaty, it has been treating any river it liked as the Kali river.

In the 1879 map, it has been tried to indicate a small hill as the fake border. In the map, the border has been shifted from Lipulek to Vyasrishi Himal. This is the root of the last-seen border dispute.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Not only that but on the map, the name of the river Kali is also renamed as Kutiyangdi.  Whereas in the local Vyasi and Sauka languages, Kuti means Kali and Yangdi means river.  That is to say, Kutiyangdi also means the river, Kali.

On the map, the river Lipu is named as Kali river.  And, the Kali river, which is explicitly referred to as the boundary of the two countries by the Sugauli Treaty, has been included in India.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Kalapani is clearly visible inside Nepal on the map drawn by Britain in 1967.


Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

India seems to have set up seven camps along the Lipukhola coast.  Three of which are placed in the land of Nepal.  Camps 1, 2, 3, and 4 appear to be on the opposite side of Lipukhola.  The four camps seem to be heading to India according to Nepal’s map without Limpiadhura.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

The map of the Survey of India has just shown the hither area of Lipukhola as that of India. It has interpreted the Turture stream in the Kalapani area as a fake Kali river.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

The map, published in 1835 and 2019, shows how India has broken or exploit the boundaries of West Nepal. After the Sugauli Treaty, Nepal lost one-third of the land along with the Kali River west of Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra west of the Sutlaj River, and a large part of Terai.

The western boundary of the next three periods can be seen on the map above.

Borders with Limpiadhura from 1816 to 1850, Border with Kalapani from 1850 to 1879, and then the border without Kalapani.

Kalapani Nepal Image Border
Border Image Of Kalapani, Nepal

Whether to agree or disagree with the Sugauli Treaty

Looking at all the maps, it can be said that Limpiadhura is the source of the Kali river mentioned in the Sugauli Treaty. Evidence that Nepal has done the census, paid land tax. And participated in national panchayat elections in Gunji, Kuti, and Gabryang in 2018 clearly shows that the Kutiyangdi border is none other than the Kali river.

India has changed the name of the river Kali three times. First is the original Kali river from Limpiahadura. Second is the Lipukhola from Lipupas. And third is the Turture stream flowing from the small temple built above Kalapani.

In the 1879 map made by India, it appears that the map has been drawn by pressing the area beyond the Turture stream flowing from Kali to Vyas Himal.

Even on the map released by the Survey of India, it is clear that the river Kali is a river flowing through Limpiadhura.  Whether or not they know what the Kali River is, they also seem unclear.  However, it seems to be used three different times in different borders.

It seems that seven camps of the Indian Army have been built from Dobhan of Lipukhola to Lipulek. These camps are located on the Nepalese side of the border. It seems that it has been difficult for the Indian army to dig on the opposite side of Kalapani. Therefore they built the bridge and came towards the Nepalese side.

It appears that they have temporarily tried to use it during the Indo-China war.  Some say that King Mahendra allowed them to stay there temporarily. But couldn’t remove later.  It is not officially clear whether he had allowed them to stay or not.

However, when looking at the official map of Nepal, all the land east of Lipukhola is that of Nepal.  It does not seem necessary to dispute for it.  The problem was seen as the Indian army did not move out of the temporary camp.

If the Eastern area of Lipukhola is that of India, then they would have constructed the road leading to Lipupas from the eastern side. But the road has been built from East of Kalapani and then diverted to the long way on the opposite side.

That is, even when India considers the Lipukhola as the Kali river, the land beyond the Eastern side of the river belongs only to Nepal. The entire Kalapani area in Nepal.

Not only that, according to the Sugauli Treaty, Gunji, Navi and Kuti also belong to Nepal. If the treaty is agreed upon, the border can’t be made by drawing the line from the hills of Vyasrishi Himal. If India does not abide by this treaty, then it is Nepal from Tista to Kangra as well.


Let’s talk to you in your own language. Zee News has compared the army status of both nations. Let’s have a true comparison then.



Nepal is the birthplace of Sita who has welcomed Rama and gave him our daughter.

In return, Ram exiled Sita to the forest where she alone gave birth to his sons, raised them independently. She also has to go through Agniprikhshya to prove her purity.

Nepal is known in the world as the birthplace of Gautam Buddha who has enlightened the world with the wisdom of nonviolence and peace.

India claims Gautam Buddha born in India and started building fake Lumbini.

India is known as the Rape nation and Delhi as the rape capital in the whole world. We have not forgotten the brutal rape in 2012 December 16.

Nepal has always been the country of Char Jat Chhatis Warna ko Mala. The united garland of four casts and 36 Warna.

Once united India divided into Hindustan and Pakistan in 1947 as the conflict between Muslims and Hindus.

Nepal has always been an independent nation.

India was once the part of British Colony.

Nepal’s strategy is to be unified. Nepal was in existence when there was no country named Bharat. We are talking here with evidence.

India’s strategy is to divide and rule.

It is time for us all Nepalese to be united again. India has been again utilizing its strategy of divide and rule in Nepal. Dividing Nepalese of Terai from the rest of the nation.

Our Terai brothers and sisters should recognize their strategy. one of the complaints of terai Nepalese is that we Pahadi of Kathmandu and other parts refer them as Bhaiya.

Why is it a bad word? Bhaiya means brother so what’s bad in there to call you by this name. Nepalese culture has always taught us not to call each other by name. that’s why we say dai, didi, uncle, aunty while talking according to their age. that’s the show of respect. If we are newar, we call dai, or didi, Bhauju in Newari language.

Likewise because you are from Terai, that’s why we call you Bhaiya in your own native language. There’s nothing to feel bad about it. Neither there is any kind of intention of oppressing you.

Few so-called politicians had given the key of Janakpur to Narendra Modi saying he is their prime minister. But have you ever thought of being part of India was so great, then why Darjeeling is seeking independence.

Look at the state of Jammu and Kashmir. You are able to say these things because currently, you are the proud citizen of the independent nation.

Once you become the colony of some other nation, you will realize what living with your hands,  legs, and tongue bound with chains is really like. this is the time to be united, help each other and not fill your pocket. I want to request all the Nepali traders to be reasonable and not to indulge in black marketing.

We all know what’s gonna happen next. we may have to face blockade again. So we have to help each other not be another Yuvraj Sharma and Omni Group. We are not newars, gurungs, bahuns but we are Nepali. We are not himali, pahadi, or Madhesi but we are Nepali.

अब हामीहरु फेरि एकजुट हुने समय आएको छ। भारतले फेरि नेपालमा फूट र शासनको रणनीति प्रयोग गरिरहेको छ। तराईका नेपालीलाई बाँकी देशबाट विभाजन गर्दै। हाम्रा तराई भाइबहिनीहरूले त्यस्तो रणनीतिलाई चिन्न सक्नु पर्छ। तर्राई नेपालीहरुका गुनासो मध्ये एउटा यो हो कि हामी काठमाडौंको पहाडी र अन्य भागहरुका नेपालीले भैया भनेर बोलाउछौं।

किन यो नराम्रो शब्द हो? भइयाको मतलब भाई हो। नेपाली संस्कृतिले सधैं हामीलाई एक अर्कोलाई नाम द्वारा सम्बोधन नगर्न सिकाइएको छ। त्यो आदरको प्रदर्शन  हो। यदि हामी नेवार हौं भने, हामी दाई, वा दीदी, नेवारी भाषामा भन्छौं। त्यस्तै प्रकारले तपाईं तराईबाट आउनुभएको हो, त्यसैले हामी तपाईंलाई आफ्नै मातृभाषामा भैया भन्दछौं।

यसको बारेमा नराम्रो महसुस गर्न केहि छैन। न त तपाईंलाई हेप्ने कुनै पनि प्रकारको मनसाय छ। केही तथाकथित राजनीतिज्ञहरूले जनकपुरको साँचो नरेन्द्र मोदीलाई दिएका थिए। तर के तपाईंले कहिल्यै सोच्नुभएको छ कि यदि भारतको भाग भएर गौरवान्वित हुने हो भने किन दार्जीलिङ स्वतन्त्रता खोज्दैछन्।

जम्मू र काश्मिर राज्यको हाल हेर्नुहोस। तपाईं यी कुरा भन्न सक्षम हुनुहुन्छ किनकि हाल तपाईं स्वतन्त्र राष्ट्रको गर्व नागरिक हुनुहुन्छ। एकचोटि तपाईं अरू कुनै देशको उपनिवेश बन्नुभयो भने, तपाईंले आफ्ना हातहरू, खुट्टाहरू र जिब्रो हथकडी मा बाँधेर बस्नु भनेको के हो भन्ने कुरा महसुस गर्नुहुनेछ।

यो समय एकताबद्ध हुन को लागी हो। म सबै नेपाली व्यापारीहरूलाई व्यावहारिक हुन र कालो बजारमा संलग्न हुन नदिन अनुरोध गर्दछु। हामी सबैलाई थाहा छ अब के हुन्छ हामीले फेरी नाकाबन्दी सामना गर्नुपर्ने हुनसक्छ। त्यसैले हामीले एक अर्कालाई सहयोग गर्न जरुरी छ न कि अर्को युवराज शर्मा र ओम्नी समूह बन्न। 

जय नेपाल जय नेपाली,

By Ankur Pradhan, Source: Onlinekhabar


Jitendra Sahayogee

I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.

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