Industries Affecting Environment in Nepal: – Industry is the construction of bulk goods or equipment in a particular area, widely providing service is called the industry. Due to industries, quality products are cheaply available to the consumers, thereby improving their lifestyle. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, new industries started in Europe and North America.
After this, modern industrialization started its journey. The advent of new technologies and new tools of energy in this period gave a tremendous boost to the industries. The industry plays an important role in the economic situation of the country.
The impact of the industrial revolution in the world can also be seen in Nepal. Many industries were constructed in Nepal during the reign of monarchy, but during the transitional phase, most of the industries were closed. After the political revolution today and after the implementation of the new constitution, the reopening of the closed industries and their operation have taken a turn again.
But the industrial development has another effect also. Besides the economic development of the nation, industrialization has also played the major role in the negative impact on the environment. The time when the environment of Nepal used to be the example of the safe and pure one has become the history now. Nepal has also become the victim of global warming and environmental pollution which are causing the harmful effects on the health of the citizens as well.
The industries in Nepal and their effect can be categorized accordingly:
Top 10 Industries Affecting Environment in Nepal
Agriculture is the main occupation of Nepal. The school curriculum has always taught me that 90% of the total population of Nepal has been engaged in agriculture. But the modernization of the society has declined this population. Nepalese youth prefer to work in foreign lands rather than in their own nation. But part of the reason for this declining is the year’s long Maoist war.
Anyways most of the population still engaged in agriculture. Agricultural Industry provides the employment, self-employment, and help in the economic Uplift of the nation. But the new technology used in agriculture nowadays have a negative impact on the environment.
The fertilizers that are used in agriculture, if not kept in mind according to crop, soil and seed varieties then it will have adverse effects on the soil’s physical properties. Foods and fodder produced by the use of chemical fertilizers are less nutritious less vitamin is developed duty to tell the use of chemical fertilizers. After more use of fertilizer, the land becomes alkaline or acidic after a long time. The pesticides that are used are harmful to the herbivores animals.
The resistance power of the pests is also increasing by the excessive use of these pesticides. For the success of in the use of advanced varieties of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, in agricultural works, the fields require frequent irrigation, for which tubewells and canals are built. These are the reason for the landslides and dry lands. Agriculture has also been the major cause of deforestation in the country. The increasing population increases the demands for the products. Thus the forests are destroyed and transformed into agricultural land for the farming.
Tourism is the largest industry in Nepal and the largest source of foreign currency and revenue. In Nepal, the Hotspot destination of eight mountains amongst the ten highest mountains, Nepal mountaineering, rock climbing and adventure, Hindu and Nepal Buddhist heritage and its beautiful weather are the strong attractions. Sagarmatha, the world’s highest mountain peak, is located in Nepal.
Mountaineering and adventure tours and other types of tourist tours are important attractions for visitors. World Heritage Site Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, and other important religious pilgrim sites across the country are the important attractions for the religious tourists. Jungle tourism like cycling, bungee jumping, mountaineering and mountain climbing, trekking, hiking, adventure activities, watching the birds, flights, paragliding and hot air balloons in the Himalayas, and the jungle Safari doing waterways exploration are other aspects of tourism in Nepal.
Though the Tourism industry is lessening the poverty and achieving large social equity in the country, it is also one of the major cause of the environmental pollution. Mount Everest and the base camp is so much filled by the human wastes and dumps, that it has been listed among the polluted places in the world. The aircraft that are used are causing the air and noise pollution. Humans are the dirtiest people who can pollute the space, then imagine what they can do to the earth. It’s the weakness of the Nepal government as well.
The accurate measures should be taken to manage the correct disposal of the wastes like placing the containers or building adequate sanitary public toilets.
The garment production industry is the oldest and most technically complex of all industries. The fundamental strength of the industry is the fiber/ fiber from natural fibers such as cotton, jute, silk, and wool such as polyester and nylons. The chemicals that are used as a dye for the color and the waste products if the industry is disposed of in the water.
These byproducts of the industry are not only causingthewater pollution by releasing the harmful chemicals. They are also degrading and destroying the water creatures like fish, turtles, and alligators. The chlorine which is used in the industry is also released into the air which is breathed by animals and humans resulting in high incidents of cancer. So as far as possible, the natural dye if possible to use should be introduced in the industry.
Food and Beverage Industry:
Food and beverage industry is another large production company in Nepal which is exporting the packaged and processed food and beverages like noodles, beer, coffee, tea etc to the foreign countries. But the processing, packaging, distributing all these activities are highly impacting the environment. The plastics and the plastic bottles that are used are not biodegradable. The machinery used in the industry consumes fuel resulting in an excessive level of carbon dioxide in the air. All these are not only polluting air, soil, and water but also affecting the human health in a hazardous way. Relevant measures shouldbe takenin order to control these hazard of the Industry.
Metal Manufacturing Industry:
Metal Manufacturing Industry mostly include steel production in Nepal. These industries are not only uplifting the economic status of the country but it is also making the country more self-reliable. However, the waste products from these industries are disposed of in the water. The poisonous gases are emission in the air which mainly constitutes carbon dioxide. The fuel consumption is decreasing the resources of the enrgy day by day. Thus the industry has to think of the ways to reduce these environmental hazards.
Nepal forests are rich in herbs and medicinal plants. Thank Ram Dev Baba and Patanjali, the advantages of the usage of herbal products are widely known in the recent times. Thus the herbs industry is flourishing in Nepal. For the purpose, natural forests are explored for the extraction of the herbs. In the process, the forests are destroyed.
Wild.plants and trees are declining, wild animals are loosing their habitated. People are also attracted towards herbal farming. They said to be using chemical and organic pesticides for the safety of the herbs. These pesticides are releasing the harmful chemicals into the air. The industry also includes the packaging and distribution for which plastic products are used. All these are contributing to the environmental pollution of Nepal.
The mining industry is new in Nepal and slowly flourishing its development. Since our government has only taken the recent steps to study the resources of the minerals in different parts of the country. The tenders have been opened and the national and the international companies are permitted to work in joint cooperation.
The country is rich in minerals and petroleum resources, there’s no doubt about it. But the mining industry as it develops can cause the definite negative impact on the environment. Like the waste products will be disposed of in the water, the lands will.be erosed, the sinking Hole’s will be formed. The dust and the noise pollution can have harmful effects on the health of the local people. The animals and plants can loose their natural habitat. So the government has to consider the measures to prevent the negative impact of these industries on the environment when there is still time.
Cottage industries are operated by limited members of the familyand community with a little investment and training provided by the governmental and nongovernmental sectors. It requires a limited amount of labor and capital. Leather products, brick kiln work, paper bags, bamboo baskets, etc. are examples of a cottage industry.
The work of traditional profession such as carpenter, blacksmith, etc. also falls under this category. Food items such as jaggery, pickle, papad, jam, and spices are also the products of this industry. Most of the raw materials used in cottage industries come from agriculture. Employment can be provided to unskilled unemployed people and a large income can be generated with little input. Due to the ignorance of the labors and people working, the waste products without any treatment are just disposed of openly or in the water.
Some of the products also require the use of toxic chemicals which are released into the air in the form of harmful gases. Raw materials that are used are mostly natural products obtained from the forests. Another reason for deforestation. Thus the community should be trained not only in skill development but also in the ways to prevent the environmental pollution.
Small Scale Industry:
Small-scale industry is also operated in large quantities in Nepal. In fact, the number of these industries beat the number of the large industries in the country. Small-scale Industry is different from cottage industry. The capital invested is larger and the employees appointed are also high in numbers and outside of the locality. Small-scale industry is providing the employment to a larger number of population. But the problems of the environmental pollution are same. The disposition of the wastes and byproducts of the industry, use of the chemicals and the fuels, packaging, and distribution all are causing the hazardous effect on the environment.
Medium and Large Scale Industry:
Medium and Large Scale Industries are the ones with a larger amount of capital investment and employment of larger manpower and usage of larger resources. These industries are helping in making the nation self-reliable and self-dependent, there’s no doubt. These industries are helping in eliminating the problems of unemployment.
They are increasing the production values and increase in the production of the export goods. But the impact on the environment is negative like in any other Industry but in larger degrees. The water disposal is huge, the machinery used are large in number and so is the fuel consumption. The use of the nonbiodegradable products for the packaging and distribution and deforestation for the availability of raw materials are arising as the major concern for the destruction of the natural habitat of the animals and plants. The release of the chemicals and emission of toxicogenic gases in the air are causing the carcinoma in people. and animals.
It is important to operate more and more industries in The country for the self-dependent and economic development but it is also important to preserve the environment and the health of nearby people. Thus the planning for the industrial operation should.be done in consideration of both these factors.
The disposal of the waste should be managed properly such that they can be recycled and reused as the raw material for some other manufacturer. Not only government and people should be aware but the industrialists should also be aware and concerned regarding the preservation of the environment and the promotion of health of the nearby people. Certain acts have been passed by the government in order to control the hazardous effect on the environment.
Author: Ankur Pradhan