History of Bikram Sambat (Vikram Samvat) Calendar

Bikram Sambat is a Hindu calendar utilized in Nepal and in some of the Indian States. In Nepal, it has been regularly occurring because of the professional calendar. Alike to Hindu calendars, it makes use of lunar months and sidereal years for punctuality.

The Bikram Sambat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the sun Gregorian calendar. For instance, the year 2078 BS started out in 2021 advert and will result in 2021 advert.

The brand new 12 months starts with the foremost day of month Baishakh, which in well-known falls in April–can also in the Gregorian calendar. The beginning day of the brand new year is well known energetically in a past party that takes place each 12 months in Bhaktapur, referred to as Bisket Jatra.

history of bikram sambat
history of Bikram sambat

The Bikram Sambat is supposed to have been originated through the well-known Indian emperor Bikramaditya, Variously considered to be a partially chronological determine or a merely mythical man or woman. The Rana rulers of Nepal organized it their professional calendar.

In India, the reformulated Saka Calendar is officially used, although in the Hindi edition of the opening of the constitution of India, the date of implementation of the constitution, 26 November 1949, is obtained in Bikram Sambat.

There have been calls for the Bikram Sambat to replace Saka as India’s legitimate calendar.

Separation of a year

The traditional Bikram Sambat makes use of lunar months and solar sidereal year. Due to the fact, one year does not fit a sidereal year precisely, correctional months including extra or once in a while subtracted.

Lunar metrics

  • A Tithi or lunar day is defined because the time it takes to the longitudinal function among the moon and the sun to elevate by using 12°. Tithis begin at unreliable instances of day and range in length from about 19 to approximately 26 hours.
  • A lunar fortnight includes 15 Tithis.
  • A lunar month (around 29.5 days) is separated into 2 Pakṣas
  • A Ṛitu (or season) is two Māsa
  • An Ayana is 3 Ṛitus
  • A year is two Ayanas

Bikramaditya legends

According to well-known way of life, the mythical king Bikramaditya of Ujjain established the Bikram Sambat age after defeating the Śakas.

Kalakacharya Kathanaka (“An account of the monk Kathanaka”) by using the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following rationalization: Gandharvasena, the then-effective king of Ujjain, abducted a clergyman referred to as Saraswati, who became the sister of the monk.

The furious monk required the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. No matter heavy odds but added via miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and ended him an imprisoned. Saraswati changed into repatriated, despite the fact that Gandharvasena himself changed into forgiven.

The crushed king retired to the jungle, in which he became killed with a tiger. His son, Bikramaditya, was being delivered up inside the woods, needed to rule from Pratishthana. later on, Bikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas.

To memorialize this occasion, he started out a new age referred to as the “Bikram age”. The Ujjain calendar started approximately 56-58 BCE and the subsequent Shaka age calendar was ongoing in seventy-eight CE on Pratishthana.

Historicity of the legends about Vikram Sambat Calendar

The alliance of the age beginning in fifty-seven BCE with Bikramaditya isn’t always originating in any source earlier than the ninth century CE. The preceding resources call this age with the aid of a spread of names, as well as Kṛṭa (343 CE and 371 CE), Kritaa (404 CE), the age of the Malava tribe (424 CE), or just, Sambat.

The number one acknowledged message that calls the age “Bikram” is from 842 CE. This message of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena become found at Dholpur and is dated Bikram Sambat 898, Baishakh Shukla 2, Chanda (16 April 842 CE).

The earliest recognized message that links this age with a king called Bikramaditya is dated 971 CE. The earliest mythical work that connects the age to Bikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha (993-994 CE) via the Jain novelist Amitagati.

For this cause, a couple of novelists informed that the Bikram Sambat turned into not started with the aid of Bikramaditya, who might be an entirely famous king or the name widespread by a later king who named the age after himself. B. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II common the call Bikramaditya, and modified the call of the age to “Bikram Sambat”.

In keeping with Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this later changed into Yashodharman: Hoernlé also concept that he occupied Kashmir, and is same man or woman as the “Harsha Bikramaditya” stated in Kalhana’s Rajatarangini.

Previously, some of the scholars assumed that the Bikram Sambat corresponded to the Adzes age of the Indo-Scythian (Śaka) king King Azes. Then again, this was unsure by way of Robert Bracey following finding of a message of Bijayamitra that is dated in two ages.

The theory appears to be now thoroughly discredited through Falk and Bennett, who place the beginning of the Azes generation in forty seven/6 BCE.

Bikram Sambat Calendar In Nepal

After the upward thrust of the Rana rule in Nepal, Bikram Sambat got here into unofficial make use of in conjunction with the legit Śaka age for moderately a while. They discontinued the Śaka age in its 1823rd yr and changed it by using the Bikram Sambat for authentic make use of after that. Bikram Sambat came into reputable use in 1958th 12 months.

See Also: Happy New Year Wishes in Nepali Language

Months of the Nepali Bikram Sambat:

bikram samvat calendar Nepali hindu new year
Bikram samvat calendar

The correct time-span of each month is the time taken with the aid of the solar to travel via complete zodiac signal.

Question: Which is the last month of Nepali national calendar?
Answer: The Last month of Nepali national calendar is Chaitra.

Question: Which is the first month of Nepali national calendar?
Answer: The First month of Nepali national calendar is Baishakh.



The conventional New Year of Bikram Sambat is one of the numerous fairs of Nepal, marked by using parties, relative’s gatherings, the exchange of superior greetings, and involvement in rituals to make sure suitable fortune within the pending year.

It occurs in mid-April each year and coincides with the traditional New Year in Assam, Bengal, Burma, Cambodia, Kashmir, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand.

Adding together, the Bikram Sambat calendar is also familiar in North and East India, and in Gujarat along with Hindus. In Buddhist human beings, the month of Baishakh is connected with Buddha’s Birthday.

It commemorates the delivery, illumination, and fly with the aid of night of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May additionally, besides in a soar 12 months while the festival is held in June.

See Also: Happy new Year wishing messages sms collection in Nepali

The holidays generally plunge in the equal month (Baishakh) of the Bengali, Hindu, and Buddhist calendars, and are linked traditionally with the increase of Hinduism and Buddhism in South Asia.

In Gujarat, a day after today of Diwali is dealt with because the beginning day of the Bikram Sambat calendar that’s the beginning day of the month Kartik.

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Writer: Saugat Thapa


Jitendra Sahayogee

I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.

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