History of Nepal- Facts & Information About Nepal’s Political History
Nepal has had its ups and downs over the past few decades. The history of Nepal has been divided into two – ancient period and the modern. The ancient period can be distinguished from Gopal dynasty, Mahispal dynasty, Lichhavi dynasty and Malla dynasty. Ancient period history starts from the early Gopal dynasty who were called to be the nomads. They were the cow herds and to be established in areas like Kietipur, Palung, Tistung and Balambu areas. The first king is called Bhuktaman who was made king by the saint called Ne. It is a myth that the name of the country was named after him. After that, Mahispal Dynasty ruled Nepal. They were the buffalo herds. There were three kings of the dynasty. The last king from the Mahispal was powerless so Yalamber, the first Kirati King took over the throne. Kirati Dynasty were systemized.
They hold strong historical backgrounds. During the seventh king called Jitedasti, Lord GautamBudhha had visited Nepal and during the fourteenth kingSthunko, the emperor of Delhi, Ashoka visited Nepal and built Ashoka pillar. He had come to Nepal with his daughter Charumati. Charumati was married to the Devpal who established the settlement of Charumati Bihar. The rules and regulations were systematic and organized. There was tax system for all different units. The society was moving patriarchal. The household activities, agriculture and animal husbandry were more fostered. Trade and commerce flourished under Kirants.
Nepal had a trade relation with China, Tibet, and India. The export mainly consisted of wools, woolen goods, woods and also the herbs. They followed Hinduism as their religion and worshiped Lord Shiva in the form of KorateshworMahed. They also worshiped tree, rivers, rocks and lightning. The flags of Kirants consisted of a lion which symbolized bravery. They had established the democratic politic system in ancient Nepal which later turned to a monarchy. There was religion harmony among all the groups of people.
Lichhavis is also called a golden period in the history of Nepal. They were believed to be from northward to Nepal from Vaishali during the time of Lord Buddha. They came and settled in a west part of Nepal and captured Kathmandu valley. Jay dev I am a founder of Lichhavi Dynasty and the second had inscribed the chronology of his dynasty. Mandev is the famous king of this dynasty. From his period, an inscription was noted as a proof. He extended and maintained the kingdom. He renovated Changu Narayan Temple and made a coin which is considered as the first coin of Nepal. It is called Mananka. It was said that on one side there was a picture of his queen, Bhogadevi which emphasized on the power of women.The golden period as said, because there were many developmental works in the society and among the people.
Another important person of this dynasty was Amshuvarma who was an able administrator. He waa assumed to be the nephew of Shiva Dev. Shiva Dev had a son named Uday Dev who was a small child when Shiva Dev was abdicated. Due to whichAmshuverma was considered as the de facto king of Nepal. Making him a part of the kingship helped Nepal in trading with countries like Tibet.
Bhrikuti who is also known as Light of Asia is the daughter of Amshuverma who was married to the king of Tibet, Gampo.With this, there was no rivalry among them. The trading route to Tibet was opened. Even though the kings were the head of the administration, suggestions were taken from the people as well to strengthened the relation of the people and kings. The country was divided into various departments and taxes were drawn from them which helped in the development of the society.
The power was decentralized and justice was given to everybody. The Lichhavis had very good diplomatic relations with India, Tibet, and China. The marriage of the princess Bhrikuti was a good step. During this period culture, religion, society and are influenced the lifestyle of the people. Uday Dev’s son Narendra Dev who was given the throne after he was at his right age, dethroned by the Guptas.Narendra Dev later flew to Tibet to seek help from the king of Tibet. He again dethroned the Gupta and got into the throne and ruled for thirty-one years.
The last one from the ancient history were the Mallas. They existed before 600BC near the border of Nepal and India. It was believed that Mallas existed during the last days of the Buddha. They defeated Lichhavis and took over Kathmandu valley. They used to be ruling the Karnali Basin of far western Nepal. It was said that Mallas became so strong that they took over every place. The famous kings that were related to Mallas are JayasthitiMalla, YakshaMalla, Jaya Prakash Malla.
They were so into politics and it took them each other lives to get on the throne. There was bloodshed to get on the throne due to which the Mallas created petty states. This was caused due to the alternative ruling of Dev and the Mallas. Despite all the dark history of the pre-medieval period, Mallas created many monuments and architecture progress and constructed many temples and shrines. There were unification and unity among all the religions. Despite the stratification of castes and lands, people were living peaceful lives. They had systematized laws and criminals were given the dead penalty as per the crime.
Thus, this is about how the ancient history of Nepal started which gave a path to the modern history. This is the base for what Nepal is today and we should all be proud of it. The modern history then starts from the unification campaign of Prithivi Narayan Shah.The unification campaign can be viewed on another article at this website : imnepal.com
Writer: Susaan Basel