Some Facts to Prove that Hinduism is a scientific religion: – Scientists and historians of religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists and others from different geographical regions and cultures have addressed different aspects of the relationship between religion and science.
Although the ancient and medieval world had no ideas that resembled modern interpretations of “science” or “religion,” certain elements of modern ideas on the subject are repeated throughout history. Peer-structured expressions “religion and science” and “science and religion” first appeared in the literature in the 20th century.
This coincided with the refinement of “science” (the study of “natural philosophy”) and “religion” as autonomous concepts in recent centuries, partly due to the professionalization of science, the Protestant Reformation, colonization and globalization.
Since then, the relationship between science and religion has been characterized as conflict, harmony, complexity or mutual independence.
Both science and religion are complex social and cultural aspirations that vary with culture and have changed over time. Most scientific (and technical) innovations before the scientific revolution were achieved by societies organized by religious traditions.
Former pagan, Islamic, and Christian scholars pioneered individual elements of the scientific method. Roger Bacon, who was often attributed the formalization of the scientific method, was a Franciscan monk. Hinduism has historically relied on reason and empiricism, arguing that science provides a legitimate but incomplete knowledge of the world and the universe.
Confucian thought, whether religious or non-religious, has over time retained differing views on science. Most 20th-century Buddhists view science as complementary to their beliefs.
While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks in the air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, the proto scientists like Anaxagoras ruthlessly questioned certain popular opinions of the Greek deities, the medieval scholars of the Middle East used practical and experimental observations to classify materials.
Events in Europe such as the Galileo affair of the early twentieth century, which was associated with the scientific revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, prompted scientists such as John William Draper, (c.) To postulate a conflict thesis based on religion and science They have been throughout history in methodological, factual and political conflicts.
Some contemporary scientists (such as Richard Dawkins, Lawrence Krauss, Peter Atkins and Donald Prothero) join this thesis. However, the thesis of the conflict has lost the favor of most contemporary historians of science.
Many scholars, philosophers and theologians throughout history, such as Francisco Ayala, Kenneth R. Miller and Francis Collins, have seen compatibility or interrelation between religion and science.
The acceptance of scientific facts in public can sometimes be influenced by religious beliefs, such as in the United States, where some reject the concept of evolution through natural selection, especially with regard to humans.
However, the United States National Academy of Sciences has written that “evolution proofs can be fully compatible with religious beliefs,” an opinion that is supported by many religious denominations.
Science and religion concepts behind the Hinduim
Originally, what is today known as “science” was a pioneer of “natural philosophy.” In addition, the term “religion and science” or “science and religion” emerged in the twentieth century, not earlier, because both concepts were redefined.
It was in the twentieth century when the term “science” received its modern form with new emerging titles such as “biology” and “biologist”, “physical” and “physical”, among other fields and technical titles; Institutions and communities were established and unprecedented applications and interactions with other aspects of society and culture were established.
The scientific term was first coined by the naturalist William Whewell and applied to those who sought knowledge and understanding of nature. From antiquity, beginning with Aristotle, to the twentieth century, the practice of studying nature was commonly known as “natural philosophy.”
The book of Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (), whose title is translated as “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy,” reflects the current use of the words “natural philosophy,” similar to the “systematic exploration of nature.”
As early as the twentieth century, a treatise by Lord Kelvin and Peter Guthrie Tait bore the title “Essay on Natural Philosophy,” which defines much of modern physics.
In the twentieth century, Max Müller pointed out that what is today referred to as the ancient religion was referred to as the “law” in antiquity. For example, there is no exact equivalent of “religion” in Hebrew, and Judaism does not make a clear distinction between religious, national, racial or ethnic identities.
In classical South Asia, law school consisted of terms such as repentance through piety and ceremonial and practical traditions. Medieval Japan initially had a similar union between the “imperial law” and the universal or “Buddhist law”, but then they became independent sources of power.
During its long history, Japan did not have the term “religion” because there was no equivalent Japanese word or the like, but when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan and forced the government to sign Japanese treaties that required, among other things, religious freedom the country with this Western idea.
Few examples of scientific evidence in Hindu Religion
Below are some examples of scientific evidence for some everyday life things that all Hindus do. There is much other evidence that our Hinduism is a great science in which we obtain all the knowledge in a field of science such as physics, chemistry, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, biology and so on.
Connect both palms to greet
In Hindu culture, people greet each other by connecting with their palms, which is called “Namaskar”. The general reason for this tradition is that greeting by connecting both palms means respect.
From a scientific point of view, however, connecting both hands ensure that all fingertips are joined together. which are designated at the pressure points of the eyes, ears and the mind. It is said that they are compressed to activate the pressure points, which helps us to remember this person for a long time. And no germs, because we have no physical contact!
Toe ring for Hindu women
Wearing rings on the fingers is not just the meaning of married women, but science is behind it. Usually finger rings are used on the second finger. A certain nerve of the second finger connects the uterus and passes to the heart.
The use of a ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It keeps you healthy by regulating blood flow and regulating the menstrual cycle. The toe ring (also known as Bicchiya) is often used by married Hindu women in Nepal.
Women use it as a symbol of marriage and are not eliminated throughout life. While toe rings are known to have incredible social and religious significance, not much is known about the health benefits of these silver rings.
The use of TOE RINGS is widespread in Nepal. Ankle rings (also known as Bichwa) are indispensable to married Hindu women. The tradition of wearing rings on toes has tremendous social significance for married women in India. Both Hindu and Muslim women wear these toe rings as a symbol of the married state. They are usually made of silver and are used in pairs on the second toe of both feet.
“Bichiya” cannot be gold because gold has a status of “respect” and cannot be worn below the waist.
Some men often use a ring on the big toe to heal or increase their male vitality.
The use of the toe ring on the second finger has a sexual / erotic effect.
Reflexology also mentions the treatment of gynecological problems with second toe massage.
There is also the belief that the use of rings on the toes puts pressure on certain nerves that belong to the reproductive system to keep it in balance and healthy.
In addition to the lateral acupressure, the old auxiliary medicine has been used for a long time.
Indians believe that your “prana” or “life force” must be in balance to keep you healthy. All the paths of his “Prana” extend to the toes, so that the idea that a marriage symbol could be doubled as a procreation promoter is not a great exaggeration.
If you apply this on both feet, it is assumed that your menstrual cycle is regulated at regular intervals. This gives a good scope for the conception of married women.
It is only said because this particular nerve in the second toe also connects the uterus and goes through the heart. For this reason, the constant friction that arises when walking and performing all kinds of tasks during the day, animates the organs of productivity.
Because silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs the energy of the Earth’s polar energies and passes them on to the body, which cools the entire body system.
Throw coins into a river
The general rationale for this act is that it brings good luck. Scientifically speaking, most of the currency in ancient times was copper, unlike today’s stainless-steel coins.
Throwing coins into the river was one way our forefathers made sure we consumed enough copper as part of the water because rivers were the only source of drinking water. By making it a habit, we make sure that we all follow the practice. Almost all of us throw coins at a sacred spring each time we visit a temple. While we’ve all done this at some point, few of us know the real reason.
The general reason for the act; Throwing coins into a river is good luck. Therefore, they must stay close to each other from water points such as lakes, rivers, etc. The way copper was used was to attract dirt to purify the water, and it was also used for commercial purposes, so that most of the used Currency in contrast to today’s stainless-steel coins made of copper.
As I said, copper is a very useful vital metal for the human body and is used to attract dirt, as it is mentioned in Ayurveda that it purifies water. Water was stored in copper pots that kill environmentally harmful diarrhea bacteria. Therefore, priests also use copper vessels in temples to obtain thirty sacred waters.
So, if the coins stay longer in the rivers, it’s an advantage for those who drink them. Doing this as a habit ensured that we all follow practice, but it is currently considered happiness.
Apply Tilak / Kumkum on the forehead
There is a point on the forehead between the two eyebrows that has been regarded as an important nerve center in the human body since antiquity. It is believed that the tilak prevents the loss of “energy”. It is said that the red “Kumkum” between the eyebrows stores the energy in the human body and controls the different levels of concentration.
During the use of Kumkum, the points in the middle part of the eyebrow and the Adnya chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the circulation of the facial muscles. To cure mental stress, fatigue and insomnia, there is a treatment called Ayurveda called Shirodhara, in which constant warm oil drips on the forehead between the eyebrows.
The basic principle of this treatment is to eliminate excess heat and relax the system. Likewise, the daily use of Tilak is a short massage, whether Sandalwood, Kumkum or Vibhuti, the effect is almost the same when they are pure.
Permanently heals headaches and ensures immediate stress relief. Sinusitis is a condition in which the breast is swollen, which makes breathing difficult. The mucus layer becomes cloudy and clogs the air passage. Pressing on this area stimulates the trigeminal nerve, increasing blood pressure in the nasal passage, reducing swelling, and relieving blockages.
The use of Tilak increases immunity as a GV. A point according to acupressure is stimulated. Regular use keeps infectious diseases away. During the Tilak Dharan (application) several nerves and muscles relax. Sandalwood is used by many in summer as a refreshing face pack. When applied to the forehead, where all the facial nerves collect, the system stays fresh.
In yoga, there are facial exercises that show how to exert pressure or massage certain areas of the face to remove fine lines, wrinkles and bags. Forget it all, touch some Kumkum or Tilak of your choice with your finger to get a younger and wrinkle-free skin.
The supratrochlear nerve, which is associated with various fibers and muscles of the eyes and skin, is stimulated by applying light pressure to the middle of the forehead. It reduces the darkness under the eyes by providing oxygen and increasing blood pressure, while improving vision and making the skin perfect.
The Hindu temples have bells
People attending the temple should ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or the uterine chamber) where the main idol is located. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to keep out evil forces, and the sound of the bell pleases God.
The scientific reason for the bells, however, is that their ring clears our minds and helps us to remain vigilant and to focus fully on the devotional purpose. These bells are made to create a unity in the left and right parts of our brain when they create a sound. The moment we ring the bell, a sharp and sustained sound is heard that lasts for at least seconds in Echo mode.
The duration of the echo is good enough to activate the seven healing centers in our body. This leads to our brain being freed from all negative thoughts. Hinduism is a great religion, and there is a special reason why every little thing, every ritual, is linked to it.
There is nothing better than what is done just because it has been so since antiquity. There are not only psychological but also scientific reasons for the realization of all traditions. Praying in temples is an important aspect of Hinduism.
It is believed that there is no other place as sacred as the temple. In temples one must surely have observed the bell at the entrance of the temple and in special places. The bell is also an important part of the temple in many houses. But do you know what religious and scientific significance it is to ring and ring? Have you ever wondered why this is done, why and why we play it?
The temple bell is not ordinary metal but a scientific bell. It consists of various metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium and manganese. The ratio of what each metal is mixed with is the most important and true science behind a bell. Each bell creates a distinctive sound that synchronizes your left and right brain.
When the person rings the bell, the loud sound produced by it lasts for at least seven seconds and plays the seven chakras of the human body. It is believed that when you ring the bell, your mind becomes empty of thought. And you enter the state where you are the most receptive and conscious.
It is even believed that this is the only way to awaken your thoughts and thoughts before entering the temple. Bell or Ghanta is an indispensable part of most Hindu pujas. The bell rings before the royal commandment and only then does the service begin.
There are types of bells of Garuda bell, Garuda bell is small, which can be played with one hand, doorbell: hangs on the door. It is big and small. Hand bell: It is round and a concrete brass plate played with a wooden instrument, Ghanta. It is very big, at least two meters long and wide. After playing the sound takes several kilometers.
A bell is played in a temple, mainly during the movement of the light before the deity, while bathing and eating. The devotees also struck the hanged ghanta in front of the sanctorum as they entered the temple. The most complete assumption is that the ringing of the bell asks God to accept the worship and prayers of the devotee.
Another belief is that evil spirits will not approach you. It is also believed that when the bell rings, there is a vibration in the atmosphere that goes far enough due to the atmosphere.
The benefit of this vibration is that it destroys all the bacteria, viruses, and microorganisms that enter your region, cleansing the environment. Therefore, the atmosphere in which the bell is played always remains pure and sacred. Eliminate negative forces and open doors to prosperity.
Symbolically, the bell-body represents the time: Ananta. The tongue of the bell symbolizes the goddess Saraswati. The bell handle is considered the principle of life (Prana Shakti) and symbolizes Hanuman, Garuda, Nandi or Chakra.
Even if we perform rituals like Aarti, we ring the bell and the auspicious sound of the shell and other musical instruments are played along. It also has a special meaning because it keeps people’s attention from other sounds.
We start with spices and end with sweets:
Our ancestors have emphasized that our meals should start with something spicy and the sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The importance of this feeding practice is that although spicy foods activate juices and digestive acids and make the digestive process develop smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates reduce the digestive process.
Therefore, it was always recommended to take sweets as the last element. The reason for eating spicy foods is that our body secretes juices and digestive acids that improve the digestive process. Eating spicy foods also ensures that your digestion goes smoothly.
Sweets contain many carbohydrates that cause poor digestion, so they should not be taken at first. At the same time, sugar intake improves the uptake of the amino acid tryptophan.
Tryptophan is associated with elevated levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with a sense of well-being. That’s the feeling we have to experience at the end of a complete meal. So, this is the main reason to prove it that Hindu is one of the scientific religions.
We put mehendi on hand and feet
Not only does Mehendi color your hands, it’s also a very effective herb. Weddings are stressful and stress often causes headaches and fever. As the wedding day approaches, a mix of emotions and nervous anticipation can strike the bride and groom.
Using Mehndi can prevent too much stress as it cools the body and prevents the nerves from becoming tense. This is why Mehndi is applied to the hands and feet that hold the nerve endings of the body. While the main event takes place in the place of the bride, the groom also receives a piece of Mehndi with a good mind.
As a sign of a good sign, a sample of henna is applied to your palm. We believe that this deepens and strengthens the bond between bride and groom. When it comes to faith, the darker the henna’s color, the greater the man’s love for the woman.
It is said that henna is a marriage bond. It is a promise that both the bride and the groom will follow throughout their married life. People also regard it as a good luck charm between newlyweds and their families. There are many deep-rooted beliefs regarding the use of Mehndi.
One is that the color represents the love and understanding that exists between the bride and her mother-in-law. If the Mehndi retains its color for a long time, it is more suitable for honeymooners. In addition, Indian culture sees henna as a symbol of fertility. Usually, the Mehndi ceremony is an independent event. However, there are families who celebrate the evening with a sangeet ceremony to make it more cheerful.
At modern weddings, the groom and the bride’s family attend the ceremony, making it a great family event. Mehndi is a body art form based in ancient India, where the dried, powdered leaves of the henna plant (Lawsonia inermis) are used to make decorative patterns on a person’s body with the help of a paste. , Mehndi comes from ancient India and is still a popular form of body art among women in the Indian subcontinent, Africa and the Middle East.
Mehndi derives from the Sanskrit word Mendhika. In Tamil it is known as “Maruthani”. The use of mehndi and turmeric is described in the first Vedic Hindu ritual books. It was originally used only for women’s hands and sometimes for men.
Over time, however, it was used more frequently by men. Turmeric coloring and Mehndi are Vedic customs that symbolize the outer sun and the inner sun.
The Vedic customs focus on the idea of ”bringing the inner light”. Traditional Indian designs are representations of the sun in the palm, which in this context aims to represent the hands and feet. Mehendi is very important in the performance of classical dance like Bharatnatyam.
There are many variations and designs. Women typically wear Mehndi motifs on their hands and feet, although some, including cancer patients and women with alopecia, sometimes decorate the scalp. Henna’s default color is brown, but sometimes other design colors such as white, red, black and gold are also used.
Sit on the floor and eat
This tradition is not just about sitting and eating on the floor, but sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we usually use for yoga asanas. When sitting on the floor, you usually sit with your legs crossed: in Sukhasana or half padmasana (half lotus).
These are postures that instantly convey a sense of calmness and support digestion. It is believed that they automatically trigger the signals to your brain to prepare the stomach for digestion. If you sit and eat on the floor, sit in the sukhasana or cross-legged.
So, it’s like sitting, eating and doing yoga at the same time. This is a yoga post that is known to cause better digestion. It is believed that a person sitting in this position to eat sends a signal to his brain that prepares the body for digestion. If you sit in this position, lean in to eat and then return to the starting position to swallow your food.
The constant back and forth movement activate the abdominal muscles and prepares them for better digestion. Weight gain is usually triggered by overeating. If you do not realize that you are full, you end up eating too much.
This is due to the inability of the vagus nerve to perform its functions. This nerve sends signals to the brain saying that you are saturated or not. If you’re sitting at a table and chair now, that nerve is not working properly. Sitting on the floor while eating ensures a better function of this nerve. As a result, he does not eat too much.
Stretches the knees, hips, spine, chest and ankle, making them more flexible. In this way, many diseases are prevented. The power and flexibility you receive in this position prevents you from kneeling down and not injuring your back while sitting down.
Sitting too long on a chair causes pain in the back, in the hips and makes them stiff and weak. Can you stand up without support from the position with crossed legs? If yes, you are happy; Research has shown that you are more likely to live longer!
According to a study published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, people who sit cross-legged and can stand up without support are more likely to live longer. Getting up without support requires a lot of strength and flexibility.
You should not sleep with your head north
The myth says it invites the mind or death, but science says it’s because the human body has its own magnetic field (also known as the magnetic field of the heart because of the blood flow) and the earth is a huge magnet , When we head north, the magnetic field of our body becomes totally asymmetrical to the Earth’s magnetic field.
This causes problems related to blood pressure and our heart has to work harder to overcome this asymmetry of the magnetic fields. Apart from that, another reason is that our body has a significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, the iron of the whole body starts to collect in the brain.
This can lead to headaches, Alzheimer’s, cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s and degeneration of the brain. On average, we sleep for hours a day. This means that for about a third of our lives, we allow the body to take advantage of our sleep patterns.
Therefore, we need to pay the necessary attention to how we sleep and what probably results from our sleeping positions. Hinduism is the lifestyle that has been experienced and developed over hundreds of generations. Therefore, the background of wisdom acquired by the practitioners has been passed down through several generations.
It is very interesting and useful to observe what religion says about sleeping in the north. Being in the north-south position means that our head is in the north and our feet are in the south. As a rule, several statements against this attitude speak about the strong magnetic forces of the earth, which are given to influence the human body in this attitude.
For example, it is said that the magnetic forces of the North Pole, which cause the compass to be deflected to the north, are the same that can also affect blood flow to the brain. Due to the increase in blood pressure allowed by this position, it is said that people have altered sleep and will also have some circulatory problems, especially in the brain.
But there is more, as Hinduism adds. The atmosphere around us is characterized by multiple frequencies of the universe. Its river dominates over certain directions. If our body needs to align with its flow, it is very likely that our body will also be under its influence.
One of these negative frequencies flows into hell (Patala region). The other type of negative frequency is called Tiryak. The word Tyjak means biased. Such biased frequencies can cause stress in humans. Since the two frequency types mentioned here move south, the south direction is burdened with negative frequencies.
It is therefore recommended not to sleep south with your foot. The human body is exposed to the frequencies of Tiryak and finds the greatest activity of the subtle and basic components of Raja-Tama. Excessive vibration of these components can help demons, demons, and evil forces affect us. Therefore, it is said that we have a greater risk of being possessed by demonic forces.
The southern direction is connected to the death region (Yamalok). When we head north, our feet are facing south, and so the vibrations that come from the region of hell and the region of death come together. Therefore, we are more likely to suffer from the combined effects that lead to nightmares, wake up in anxiety, feel anxiety, and cause sleep disturbances.
Given that we spend a lot of time in bed, we need to make sure that we avoid such a bad posture and are in the right sleeping position so that we can make the most of our sleep and avoid the damaging effects of the North. South facing. The best way to position your head is the East and the second best the West. Our rooms must be built considering this fact.
Hindu people Piercing in the ear
The piercing of the ears is of great importance in the Indian mind. Indian doctors and philosophers believe that the piercing of the ears contributes to the development of the intellect, thinking power and decision-making powers. Loquacity wastes vital energy.
Ear piercing helps moderation of the language. It helps to reduce outrageous behavior, and the ear canals are free of interference. This idea also attracts the western world, so that the ears are pierced to wear elegant earrings as a fashion brand. It is said that early ear piercing in children guarantees adequate brain development.
The earlobes have the meridian point connecting the right hemisphere with the left hemisphere of the brain. The perforating of this point helps to activate these parts of the brain. The principles of acupressure therapy also state that stimulation of these meridian points contributes to a healthy and rapid development of the brain.
In addition to the healthy development of the brain, the ear piercing keeps diseases such as hysteria in check. This area is also the seat of the brain master, who regulates the functioning of the brain, according to the theory of acupressure.
It is said that exerting pressure at these sites helps to control mental illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and nervousness. It is said that the stimulation of this point receives the digestive system. This is also the starvation point and its stimulation reduce the likelihood of obesity. In men, it is believed that ear piercing aids sperm production.
For this reason, ear piercing is a compulsory tradition in children in several communities in order to maintain reproductive health. When the ears of a girl are pierced, the left ear is pierced first.
On the other hand, when a child’s ear is punctured, the right ear is pierced first. This is because these specific points coincide with the male and female halves of a person. It is assumed that the right side of the body is the male side, while the left half is the female side.
Choti in the male head
Sushrut Rishi, the main surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the most sensitive point in the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a connection of all nerves. The Shikha protects this place.
Brahmarandhra appears at the bottom of the brain, where the sushumna (nerve) comes from the lower part of the body. In the yogi Brahmarandhra is the seventh highest chakra with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the center of wisdom. The knotted Shikha strengthens this center and retains its subtle energy known as Ojas.
Hinduism fasting with the name of God
The underlying principle of fasting is found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the main cause of many diseases, such as the accumulation of toxic substances in the digestive system. Regular cleaning of toxic substances keeps you healthy.
During fasting, the digestive organs rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. Full fasting is good for your health and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during Lent prevents bloating. Since the human body, as Ayurveda explains, consists of the% liquid and% solid matter, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid content of the body.
Fasting works as an antidote because it lowers the acidity in the body and helps people to maintain their mental health. Research suggests that calorie reduction has important health benefits, such as: For example, reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, immune diseases, etc.
Fasting is a very essential part of the Hindu religion. People observe different types of fasting, based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below:
Some Hindus fast on certain days of the month like Ekadasi, Pradosha or Purnima.
Certain days of the week are also reserved for fasting, according to personal faith and favorite deity. For example, followers of Shiva fast on Mondays, while followers of Vishnu fast on Thursdays and followers of Ayyappa on Saturdays.
Fasting on Tuesday is common in South India and Northwest India. In the south, Tuesday will be dedicated to the goddess Mariamman, a form of goddess Shakti. The devotees eat before sunrise and only drink liquids between sunrise and sunset. Only liquids between a prescribed period, such. As water fasting, are half fast. In the north, Tuesday is dedicated to Lord Hanuman, and devotees can only consume milk and fruit between sunrise and sunset.
Fasting on Thursday is common among Hindus in northern India. On Thursdays, the devotees hear a story before they open their fast. On Thursday Vrihaspati Mahadeva will also be fasted. They wear yellow clothes and yellow foods are preferred. Women love bananas and water them. The foods are made with yellow butter. Thursday is also dedicated to the guru and many Hindus following a guru will fast on that day.
Fasting during the religious holidays is also very common. Common examples are Maha Shivaratri (most people perform strict fasting in Maha Shivratri without even drinking a drop of water) or the nine days of Navratri (held twice a year in April and October / November) during Vijayadashami before Diwali, according to the Hindu calendar). Fasting is broken after the woman sees the moon through a sieve. In the fifth month (Shravan Maas) of the Hindu calendar many Shraavana celebrate. During this time, some fast on the day of the week reserved for the worship of their chosen gods while others fast throughout the month.
In the state of Andhra Pradesh, the month of kartik (month), which begins the day after Deepavali, is often (but not always) fasted for some people, especially for women. Common occasions for fasting this month are Monday for Lord Shiva, the full moon day of Karthika, and the occasion for Naagula Chaviti.
The fasting methods also vary widely and cover a wide range. If this is strictly followed, the person who is fasting will not be eating or drinking water from the previous day’s sunset until minutes after dawn the next day.
Fasting can also mean that you confine yourself to a meal during the day, do not eat certain types of food or eat only certain types of food. In any case, it is assumed that the person who is fasting should not eat or touch any animal products (ie meat, eggs) other than dairy products.
Hindus use starchy products such as potatoes, sago and sweet potatoes during fasting. The other foods allowed include dairy products, peanuts and fruits. The above-mentioned peanuts and starch products come from abroad.
“If you have never fasted, remember that you may feel dizzy in the early stages and get a headache as part of the body cleansing process, and it will pass over time, and break the fast gradually with fresh fruit and vegetables. After fasting do not eat too much.
Chili and pizza may sound fine after several days without food, but please exercise a little moderation and say no! “- What Christians Should Know About Fasting Sam Storms Consider possible dietary restrictions at the beginning of your fasting.
For example, if you are diabetic or have a different physical condition that requires a strict diet, be especially careful not to put yourself in an impaired position by fasting. “I also discourage the idea of fasting for those struggling with eating disorders that make eating a challenge and a problem in their daily lives.
The goal of fasting is to do it with a more intense and concentrated prayer time that brings greater fellowship with God, greater power of the Spirit and greater sincerity in your soul. ”
The Scientific Explanation of the Foot Touch (Charan Sparsh)
Usually, the person whose feet touch you is old or pious. When they accept their respect, derived from their reduced ego (called Shraddha), their hearts radiate positive thoughts and energy (called Karuna) that goes through their hands and feet.
In essence, the full cycle allows the energy flow and increases the cosmic energy, thereby activating a quick connection between two heads and hearts. To some extent, it is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that emanate from our brain run through your body.
These nerves or wires end at the tips of the fingers and toes. When you connect your fingertips with those of the opposite feet, a cycle is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the “receiver” of energy and the feet of another person the “donor” of energy.
Married women use Sindoor or Vermillion
It is interesting to note that the use of Sindoor by married women has a physiological significance. This is because Sindoor is made by mixing turmeric lime and metallic mercury. Because of its intrinsic properties, mercury not only activates blood pressure but also sexual desire.
This also explains why Sindoor is forbidden to widows. For the best results, Sindoor should be applied directly to the pituitary where all our emotions are centered. It is also known that mercury eliminates stress and tension. Sindooor or Vermilion is very important in Indian society.
The tradition of using Sindoor in hair removal by married Hindu women is considered very promising and has been going on for centuries. Not only scientific proof it has a lot of significance behind it that sindoor helps to keep the sign of marriage to Hindu women.
In traditional Hindu society, the use of Sindoor is considered essential for married Hindu women. It is a visible expression of her desire for the longevity of her husbands. Therefore, widows traditionally did not use vermilion. Both are signs of Saubhagya (luck).
Sindoor is also considered a symbol of the feminine energy of Parvati and Sati. A woman is treated as an object. The father gives it at the wedding to the husband, who must take over all his duties from now on. He takes her life and she carry signs of marriage in agreement.
No matter how “independent” it is, the tortuous door of hair separation screams that it is only sexually accessible to a man. However, this customary obligation is not imposed on the husband, who can only confirm his marital status on request.
This uneven arrangement is deeply problematic. The monogamy duty applies exclusively to women. On the other hand, man has no ritual obligation to confess his faithfulness. This leads to the suspicion that because men are not monogamous by nature, men have room for maneuver, since they do not have to wear marriage signs.
But the same courtesy does not apply to women whose libido was and remains a fearful and shameful reality that is best kept secret. Since a married woman is considered the legitimate property of her husband, she must provide proof of her authority. But the teacher has no such obligation.
It points to a very unequal power dynamic between the sexes, which persists in a marriage between them. What should ideally have been a relationship based on equality is literally colored in favor of the men.
There are many arguments that confirm this superficially harmless understanding through the use of gender-specific marriages, which, however, often have little foundation.
The apparent “security” that supposedly opens the door without sin is a myth, as newspapers report almost daily on incidents of married women who are sexually harassed. The Sindoor cannot provide security for women.
Even if that were the case, the reason for it being made would be deeply offensive to women. Those who defend Sindoor for the obvious sense of ease do not realize the dangerous effects of their defense. His argument stinks of patriarchal arrogance.
A woman can only hope that she voluntarily prioritizes her identity as a wife before she can speak as a person whose marital status is so unimportant that it becomes unusable. His argument is part of the more general social expectation that causes a woman to identify with a man who uses the door of sin.
Since women are seen as inferior units in family and society without respecting their own identity, patriarchy has forced women to yield to normative values. Get protection of your identity. Husbands to successfully avoid unwanted suggestions. It is common knowledge that women are unable to protect themselves.
Therefore, they should ask this of their husband. Even though the husband does not fulfill the obligations of marriage, he is represented by the door of sin and considered invincible. The only way women can taste freedom is to close the deadlock, otherwise men walking the streets can hamper their mobility.
No matter how ridiculous or unreasonable, so are the arguments for Sindoor. If only Sindoor provides security, this luxury is not granted to single, divorced or widowed women.
What we need to understand is that it is difficult to take into account the separate identities of women for patriarchal structures, and therefore they should be given a less frightening form in the shadow of the legal partners.
What is surprising today is that although women find employment in large numbers and are more economically independent, their submission is still ordered by the male authority for their own benefit.
Being able to use Sindoor distinguishes married women from women who do not have the same “privilege” and offers them a higher status in society. It is a great achievement for a woman to die with the door of sin on her forehead and say goodbye to her happiness in some parts of the country today.
In the last century, it could have been a godsend for a woman. Job or educational opportunities were not available to women and were entirely dependent on their husbands for their livelihood.
However, times have changed, but the small changes made to old ways and practices are worrying. They remind us of a moment we do not want to remember. These stubborn customs and habits often shame the dignity that feminism has given to women.
Hindu people worship the peepal tree
The “Peepal” tree is almost unusable for a normal human, except for its shadow. Why do a villager or an ordinary person adore or even cultivate it? Our ancestors knew that Peepal is one of the few trees (or probably the only tree) that produces oxygen even at night. To save this tree due to its unique characteristic, it has been linked to God / religion.
The peepal tree does not grow a blade of grass. Therefore, the Peepal Tree does not allow rebirth and renewal. While Peepal offers shade from the sun, it does not provide food. That is why it is not part of fertility ceremonies, such as marriage and childbirth, which include plants that provide food and are renewed quickly, with a short shelf life such as banana, mango, coconut, betel, rice and even grass.
Therefore, it turns out that there are two types of holiness in Indian thought: one associated with impermanent material reality and another related to permanent spiritual reality. Banana and coconut belong to the previous category; Peepal goes with the latter.
Banana is the symbol of meat that constantly dies and is renewed. Peepal is the soul: he never dies, he never renews. Mahabharata tells the story of a woman named Savitri, who lost her husband as planned a year after getting married near a fig tree.
She followed Yama to the land of the dead and, through determination and intelligence, managed to restore her husband’s life. In memory of this event, Hindu women walk around the fig tree and tie seven ropes. This is imitation magic: by symbolically orbiting the immortal tree, women associate immortality with their married life.
They assure the life of her husband, the pillar of her house. They protect themselves from widowhood, which most Hindus consider a woman’s worst goal. The opportunity is mentioned in Vat Savitri Vrat, in English Vat vruksh is known as Banyan Tree.
In the Hindu religion, the peep is very astonished and important to the people. People love the tree and offer. But nobody really knows anything about their history and their background. The tree is known for its heart-shaped leaves with long, narrow peaks.
The origin of the Peepal tree dates back to the time of the Industal civilization in the city of Mohenjodaro. Excavations indicate that even in those times; The peep was worshiped by the Hindus. Read on for more information on the origin of the Peepal tree.
During the Vedic period, the wood obtained by felling the peep was used to produce fire. In the ancient Puranas, an incident was described in which the demons defeated the deities and Lord Vishnu hid in the peephole. Since then, the Lord lived in the tree for some time; The tree has great meaning for humans. Therefore, people began to worship the tree and considered it as a means to offer prayers to Lord Vishnu.
There are some legends that indicate that Lord Vishnu was born under the Guckbaum. There are some stories that say that the tree is the home of the gods’ trinity, the root is Brahma, the trunk is Vishnu and the leaves are Lord Shiva.
The Peepal or Pipal (Ficus religiosa) tree, also known as Ashvattha in Sanskrit, is a tall tree and the first tree in India. A seal discovered in Mohenjodaro, one of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization, represents the revered Peepal.
The Upanishads also mentioned the peepal tree. To clearly define the difference between body and soul, Peepalfrucht is used as a classic example. According to Skanda purana, a person who does not have a child should consider the peepal tree as their own child.
He says the family will thrive and have a good name until the peepal tree survives. Felling a peep tree is considered a great sin, which is almost equivalent to killing a Brahmin. Skanda Puranas says that a person cutting the tree is sure to go to hell.
Hindu people worship the Tulsi plant
The Hindu religion has awarded “Tulsi” with the status of a mother. Tulsi, also known as the “holy or holy basil”, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual follower in many parts of the world.
Vedic scholars knew the virtues of Tulsi, and that is why they embodied him as a goddess and gave the entire community a clear message that he should be visited by educated or uneducated people. We try to protect it, because it is for humanity like Sanjeevani.
Tulsi has excellent medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. If you leave the Tulsi plant at home, no insects or mosquitoes can invade. It is said that snakes do not dare to approach a Tulsi plant. Maybe that’s why old people bred many Tulsi near their homes.
Every part of the Tulsi plant is worshiped and considered sacred. Even the soil around the plant is sacred. Padma Purana explains that a person incinerated in their pyre with tulsi branches earns moksha and a place in the residence of Vishnu, Vaikuntha.
Using a tulsi rod to burn a lamp for Vishnu is like sacrificing the lakh gods to the lamps. If you make a dry wood pulp from Tulsi (from a naturally dead plant), spread it on your body and worship Vishnu, it is worth several pujas and ordinary lakhs of Godan (donation of cows). Water mixed with Tulsi leaves is given to the dying to awaken their souls coming to heaven.
As Tulsi’s respect is pleasing, his contempt attracts Vishnu’s anger. Provision is made to avoid this. It is taboo to urinate, excrete or dispose of sewage in the vicinity of the plant. It is forbidden to uproot and cut branches of the plant.
When the plant withers, the dried plant is dipped into a body of water with the right religious rites, as is common in broken divine images that are not worth worshiping. Although Tulsi leaves are necessary for Hindu worship, there are strict rules for doing so.
You can also tell Tulsi a prayer of forgiveness before the act. While tree worship is not uncommon in Hinduism, the tulsi plant is considered the holiest of plants. The Tulsi plant is considered as the border point between heaven and earth.
Deities in its tribe and its leaves and the Hindu scriptures – the Vedas at the head of its branches is considered the god of the house, especially as “female deity” called. It is called “the central sectarian symbol of Hinduism,” and the Vaishavas consider it “the manifestation of God in the vegetable kingdom.”
The Tulsi plant is grown in or near almost all Hindu houses, especially Brahmins and Vaishnavas. The sacred places where they are grown are also known as Vrindavan (Tulsi Forest).
Vrindavan is a rectangular brick or stone construction that often rises in the middle of the courtyard or in front of the house. It is believed that a person who waters and cares for the Tulsi daily deserves moksha (salvation) and Vishnu’s divine grace, even if he does not worship them.
Traditionally, daily worship and plant care are the responsibility of women at home. Although daily worship is required, Tuesdays and Fridays are considered especially sacred to Tulsi worship. The rituals consist of watering the plant, cleaning (near sacred) the area near the plant with water and cow dung, and bringing food, flowers, incense, water from the Ganges, and so on.
Rangoli (decorative designs) of deities and saints are drawn near their feet. The devotees pray to Tulsi and spread it with mantras. The Tulsi plant is often worshiped twice a day: in the morning and in the evening, when a lamp or candle is lit near the plant.
In the twentieth century, some families in Bengal considered the plant to be their guardian or family deity. In a census of British Indians, the northwestern provinces were registered as Tulsi worshipers who belonged neither Hindus nor Muslims or Sikhs.
We do worship the idol
Hinduism spreads idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say this has begun with the goal of increasing concentration during penalties. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts according to what he sees.
If you have different objects in front of you, you’re thinking changes depending on the object you see. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was introduced so that people, when they see idols, can easily concentrate to maintain spiritual energy and meditate without mental distraction. In Hinduism, an icon, picture or statue is called Murti or Pratima.
The most important Hindu traditions like Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartaism favor the use of Murti (Idol). These traditions suggest that it is easier to spend time and focus on spirituality through anthropomorphic or non-anthropomorphic icons.
In the Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, it is said in verses that few have the time and the mind to reflect and determine the Unmanifested Absolute (Brahman without abstract form), and it is much easier to relate to qualities, virtues and Aspects of focus on a manifestation of God through the senses, emotions and the heart, because the way people are natural.
A Murti in Hinduism, says Jeaneane Fowler, a professor of religious studies specializing in Indian religions, is not in itself God, an “image of God” and therefore a symbol and a representation.
A Murti is a form and manifestation of the formless Absolute, says Fowler. Therefore, a literal translation of Murti as an idol is wrong when idol is understood as a superstitious end in itself. Just as a person’s photo is not the real person, a Murti is an image in Hinduism, but it is not real, but in both cases the image reminds the viewer of something of emotional and real value.
When a person worships a Murti, it should be a manifestation of the nature or spirit of the Deity. The spiritual ideas and needs of the worshiper are meditated by him, but the idea of the ultimate reality, called Brahman in Hinduism is not limited to this.
Devotional exercises (Bhakti movement) focused on cultivating a deep and personal bond of love for God, often expressed and facilitated with one or more Murti. These include single or collective hymns, Japa or songs (Bhajan, Kirtan or Aarti).
The devotional acts, especially in the main temples, are structured in such a way that the Murti are treated as a manifestation of a revered guest. The daily routine may be to wake the Murti in the morning and make sure she is “washed, dressed, and adorned.”,
In Vaisnavism, the construction of a temple for the Murti is considered an act of devotion, but non-Murti symbolism is also prevalent where the aromatic plant of Tulsi or Saligrama is an anonymous reminder of the spiritualism in Vishnu.
In the Shaivist tradition of Hinduism, Shiva can be portrayed as a male idol or as Ardhanarishvara, half man, half woman, in a Lingon-Yoni-Anicon form. The worship rituals associated with the Murti are in accordance with old cultural customs for a dear guest, and the Murti are welcome, visited and then invited to retire.
Christopher John Fuller states that an image in Hinduism cannot be equated with a deity, and the object of worship is the Divine, whose power is in the image, and the image is not the object of worship itself, the Hindus believe that Everything It is worth the worship.
Contains divine energy the idols are not random or pretend to be superstitious objects, but are embellished with embedded symbols and iconographic rules that carry the style, proportions, colors and nature of the elements, the images, their mudra and legends, set with the deity. Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad explains that the purpose of Murti art is to inspire a devotee to think about the Supreme Principle (Brahman).
This text adds (abbreviated): Idolatry does not find Vedic support. In the chapter of Yajurveda, it was said that the Supreme God or Supreme Spirit has no “Pratima” or material form. It cannot be seen directly by anyone. His name is so big that only the name is enough to call him.
He permeates all beings and all directions. Since God has no form and his name is sufficient, the syllables that make up the words can be considered adequate representation. What is god? The answer is: It is like the word “God” that contains the syllables G, O, D.
The most striking example of this is the word “Om,” which mentally and materially means God. According to the Vedas, God has no image or dwells in a particular idol or statue.
However, we find that Hindu temples are full of images or idols of gods and goddesses. This phenomenon can be easily understood when we try to know the need for assumptions.
If we teach a child in kindergarten that “A” means “apple,” we assume that it’s easy to learn a letter of the alphabet. During the geometry lesson, the teacher draws a triangle and says, “Let ABC be a triangle.” The word “let” is used here because the lines that make up the triangle are not really lines, as they are defined by a line.
By definition, a line has a length but no width. How to draw this line on a board? The width always equals the length when you try to draw a line. So, you have to use the word “let”. You have to assume that this is a line. Similarly, geometry asks us to accept a point as well.
A point has no length, width or thickness. It is without dimension; We are still trying to paint it on a blackboard. What we draw is practically a circle, but it should be a point. A true triangle and a true point exist only in the definitions. But we have to assume that they actually exist.
Since the mind cannot concentrate on a formless being or a spiritual form of the Supreme Being, one must accept God in a visible object or image. During the Vedic period there were no temples, pictures or idols of deities. Then God was called by the burning fire to receive material from Havana.
The visionaries of the Upanishads rejected the practice of cigars and focused on imperishable “om”. When Buddhism and Jainism flourished in India, the idols or statues of Gautam Buddha and Vardhaman Mahavir gained great popularity.
In order to rejuvenate Hinduism, various images of God appeared that corresponded to the different names of God. It can be said that in Hinduism there was a proliferation of superstition.
However, it is a fact that all temples, mosques, churches and other religious buildings are also idols and images in which God does not dwell. It is the weakness of the man who likes the human form. Therefore, the majares (graves) of the Sufi saints among the Muslims and the crucified figure of Jesus Christ in the churches demand much reverence.
In the same way, the personification of various names of God and the use of various forms has helped the sculptors to create statues or idols that find a place in temples that worshipers can worship.
We can say that idolatry, in whatever form, is based on the assumption that God comes to a holy place (buildings) or resides in a statue. There is nothing wrong with going to temples or other places of worship. It does not hurt to greet the image or the images of God.
However, it should be clear to anyone that no temple or idol kept there has supernatural powers. Since the spiritual form of the Supreme Being cannot be grasped by the sense organs and the material form of the Supreme Being (Virat), this is the cosmos that cannot be understood by the mind so that a devotee can focus on the syllables or any Picture of your taste.
If you bend your hands or touch your feet to worship the Father and Mother, you really reach them. Therefore, any greeting or worship shown in a picture that thinks salutation or worship for God is really God.
Hindu women wear Bangles
Normally, the wrist is in constant activation with each person. In addition, the pulse rate in this area is mainly checked for all types of diseases. The bracelets used by women are usually on the wrist and their constant friction increases blood circulation.
Moreover, the electricity flowing through the outer skin, through the annular bracelets having no ends, becomes the body itself to conduct the energy to the outside, but to send it back to the body. Bangles are an important jewel worn by maids and married women in India.
The bracelets have a long history and consist of different materials such as glass, shell, various metals, gold and ivory. The traditional Punjab bracelets are made of ivory and those of Bengal from shell.
The popular tradition in Uttar Pradesh forces birds to wear red glass bracelets and red saris while weddings wear green glass bracelets and green saris in states such as Maharashtra ad Karnataka. Because of this, the bracelets have been linked to the tradition of India, which has led to various popular beliefs and practices.
Bracelets are a symbol of prosperity and prosperity. Although people also make gold bracelets with diamonds, ivory, glass and shell bracelets are still very popular today. In particular, it is said that the sound produced by the glass wristbands drives out the negative energies.
Of course, people feel comfortable when they look at glass bracelets. Although fashion has marked a new trend with the arrival of plastic bracelets in various colors and designs, they can never compete with the look, feel and vibration of glass bracelets.
Therefore, it is also said that the true benefit of wearing bracelets is lost when people choose materials other than those traditionally approved.
It is also believed that the subtle weapons that emerge from the sound of glass bracelets protect the motor organs of women. The melodious sound creates an aura around the physical body of women, protecting them from all danger and evil spells.
This fact is very subtly explained in some Hindu scriptures. It is said that while the bracelets gently collide with each other, the Kriya Shakti (action waves) appear and activate the women’s Surya Nadi (solar channel).
It is also believed that depending on the number of bracelets worn on each of the hands, the specific type of energy is generated. Young girls are instructed to choose the smallest number, ie three in each hand.
It is also recommended to reflect bright bracelets in positive radiation without absorbing much of it. Therefore, light bracelets should not be worn if the benefits of bracelets are to be better utilized. In addition, the bracelets must be free of any patterns. Because the designs would cause negative vibrations in them, they would eventually ruin the very purpose of wearing bracelets.
Therefore, the use of traditional bracelets has several advantages. However, it is important to note that the rules of the tradition are followed in letter and in the spirit to truly accomplish the purpose of wearing bracelets.
We visit the temple
The temples are strategically located in a location where positive energy is available in abundance through the distribution of the magnetic and electrical waves of the north / south pole. We know that there are some copper plates inscribed with Vedic scriptures buried under the main idol. What is that, actually?
No, they are not index cards of God / priests if they forget the * shlokas *. The copper plate absorbs the magnetic waves of the earth and radiates them to the environment. Therefore, a person who regularly visits a temple and goes clockwise around the main idol receives the magnetic waves with rays and their body absorbs them.
This is a very slow process and a regular visit will allow you to absorb more of this positive energy. Scientifically, it is the positive energy that we all need to live a healthy life. Someone has rightly said, “Hinduism is not a religion, it’s a way of life.”
Here nature is of the utmost importance and the gods of Hinduism are fundamentally different forms of nature. It is surprising what scientific benefits different practices of Hinduism have. Let’s look at the Hindu rituals to see how scientific this ancient religion.
Some other facts behind the Hinduism is a scientific religion
People are advised to worship the Neem and Banyan tree in the morning. Inhaling the air near these trees is good for your health.
If you are trying to find ways to control stress, there can be nothing but Hindu Yoga Aasan Pranayama (inhale slowly with one of the nostrils in and out).
Hindu temples are scientifically constructed. The place where an idol stands in the temple is called “Moolasthanam”. In this “Moolasthanam” the magnetic waves of the earth are maximal, which benefits the worshiper.
Every Hindu home has a Tulsi plant. When Tulsi or Basil is consumed, our immune system remains strong to prevent HN disease.
Hindus keep holy ashes on their foreheads after bathing. This will remove excess water from the head.
Women hold Kumkum Bindi on the forehead, which protects against hypnotization.
Food with hands may be degraded in the west, but it combines body, mind and soul when it comes to food.
Hindu customs require you to eat leaves on a plate. This is the most ecological way as cleaning does not require any chemical soap and the environment does not need to be damaged.
The perforation of the baby’s ears is part of the acupuncture treatment. The site where the ear is pierced helps to cure asthma.
Spray turmeric around the house before and after the prayer with mixed water. Turmeric is known to have antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
The ancient practice of sticking cow dung on the walls and outside of your home prevents multiple diseases / viruses, as this cow dung is rich in antibiotics and minerals.
Hindus Consider Drinking Kuhurin to Cure Various Diseases. It apparently compensates for bile, mucous membranes and air, eliminating heart disease and the effects of poison.
The old punishment of squatting your ears sharpens your mind and is useful for people with autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, learning difficulties and behavioral problems.
Lighting “Diyas” or oil or gheel lamps in temples and houses will fill the environment with determination and enliven your senses.
“Janoyi” or the rope in the body of a Brahmin is also part of the acupressure “Janoyi” and protects the user from various diseases.
If you decorate the front door with “Toran”, the atmosphere is actually cleaned by a series of mango leaves.
When you touch your older person’s feet, your backbone stays in good shape.
Cremation or burning of the dead is one of the cleanest methods of getting rid of the body.
Singing the “Om” mantras results in a significant reduction in heart rate, resulting in a deep form of relaxation with increased alertness.
According to NASA, Hanuman Chalisa has the exact calculation of the distance between the sun and the earth.
“Shankh Dhwani” creates the sound waves that destroy many harmful germs and insects. Mosquito breeding is also influenced by the blowing of Shankh and slows the spread of malaria.
It is believed that the rhythm of Vedic mantras, an ancient Hindu practice, heals many physical disorders, such as blood pressure, when pronounced and heard.
I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.