The Federal System of Government in Nepal

4 comments, 7 shares, 16 points

Get here a post about the Federal System of Government in Nepal. We have posted some information, facts about the Federal System of Government in Nepal. This system is new for South Asian country Nepal. There are many challenges and opportunities in the federal system of governance in Nepal. We can’t ignore federal system of governance in Nepal challenges and opportunities. Do You know why is federal system felt necessary in Nepal? This post may help you about my question “why is federal system felt necessary in Nepal?”

The Federal System of Government in Nepal

Nepal is a landlocked sovereign country located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the North by the People’s Republic of China, and to the South, East and West by the Republic of India. It occupies an area of 1,47,181 Sq. Km. It is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. Our country ranges from 60m above the sea level to the highest point on earth Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters.

There are broadly two concepts of the system of government: Unitary & Federal. Nepal practiced the unitary system of government throughout its recorded history. However, it has been felt that it was not effective for the development and unity of the country. This was visibly expressed by the people during the People’s Movement-II in 2062/63 BS.


The course of history got changed in 2063 BS. People raised voices for a federal system of government. Nepal was then declared as the Democratic Federal Republic by the Interim Constitution-2063 BS. Now, we are in the process of making a ‘New Nepal’ on the federal concept.

See: about 7 provinces of Nepal 

We elected a ‘Constituent Assembly’ to write a new constitution on this concept on 28th Chaitra 2064 BS. But it was failed due to various reasons in its mission and got dissolved after four years. The election for the Constituent Assembly-II was successfully conducted on 4th Marga 2070 BS. One hundred and twenty-two (122) political parties participated in this election, and 30 of them got representation in the Constituent Assembly-II. This Constituent Assembly has owned the fundamental concepts adopted by the Constituent Assembly-I and is working to promulgate a new constitution of Nepal.

There is a necessity of federal system in Nepal. The necessity of federal system in Nepal is clean and clear. The unitary system of government has been practiced in Nepal for a long time. Balance and proportional development through the concept of regional development have been a major effort under the unitary system. But we can’t ignore the importance of federal system in Nepal. But, this effort has been confined only in blue print. We will, of course, get advantages of federalism in Nepal. We must consider more about resource allocation in federalism in Nepal.

The Federal System of Government in Nepal importance neccessity advantages
photo source: of The Federal System of Government in Nepal

Poverty, regional imbalance and unemployment still remained a major problem in the country. Therefore, federalism was raised as a political agenda against unitary system after the success of people’s movement II, 2062/063. The second amendment of the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 endorsed the concern of Nepalese people through different political parties to make Nepal a federal country. The first meeting of the first Constituent Assembly, which was held on 15th Jestha 2065 declared Nepal as “Federal Democratic Republic Country”. However, the Constituent Assembly (Jestha 2065-2069) could not settle the various issues regarding the determination of federal units in Nepal. So, the federal system is not yet implemented in Nepal.

SEE Also: essay on federalism in Nepal and its future

What is the federal system?

The federal system is a political system where a country is divided into different autonomous states or provinces. Each state or province has a separate government along with its federal government in the center. Generally, there are three administrative units under the federal system. They are central government, state government, and local bodies.

Features of Federal (Central) Government

  • Foreign affairs
  • National monetary policy
  • National security and military management
  • National highway, railway, postal service
  • Big hydro power, multi-provincial project

Features of Provincial (State) Government

  • Formulate state policies and laws
  • Mobilize state security force and maintain public security
  • Carry out local development activities
  • Construct development infrastructures
  • Preserve language, art, culture and other heritage

In the USA, the state government is responsible for the affairs related to the state including education and health. The central or the federal government is responsible for the external defense, national monitor policies, foreign affairs and military mobilization.

In the federal system, when the state government is found to be ineffective and unsuccessful or when the national emergency is declared, the federal government controls and directs the respective states until another appropriate arrangement is made.

See: List of 7 States in Nepal

The concept of federalism in Nepal is born some years ago but now Nepal is on the way of the concept of federalism in Nepal. Although there are some challenges of the federal system in Nepal and Nepali is ready to face the challenges of the federal system in Nepal. But after facing the challenges of the federal system in Nepal, We will get benefits of the federal system in Nepal. pal. NeAt present about 28 countries of the world is having the federal system. This system is in practice in India, the USA, Canada, Belgium, Spain, Australia, Ethiopia, South Africa, etc. In this system, states are formed on the basis of geographical structure, race, and language, population, natural and human resources, etc.

Why is federal system felt necessary in Nepal?

The Federal System of Government in Nepal
2.5 (50%) 2 votes

Like it? Share with your friends!

4 comments, 7 shares, 16 points
I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a Writer of 12 Nepali Books, Director of Maithili films, Founder of Radio Stations, Designer of Websites and Editor of Some Nepali Blogs.


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  1. Would you please give detail information about the role of central,provincial and local government and the people for the successful implementation of federal system in the country.
    Hope you will get back to me soon.