11 Factors Influencing Health in Nepal


Find here some factors affecting health in Nepal. We are here with the some 11 factors that are influencing health sector in Nepal. Be updated tips, facts, and information about health.

Factors Influencing Health in Nepal

Health is multifactorial. The factors which influence health lie both within the individual and externally in the society in which he/she lives. Different factors act together for health and these interactions may be health promoting or deleterious.

There are major 11 factors influencing health in Nepal. The main factors influencing health are as follows:

  • Human biology (Biological determinants)
  • Behavioral and socio-cultural conditions or ways of living.
  • Environment
  • economic status
  • Education
  • Occupation
  • Political system
  • Health services
  • Aging population
  • Gender
  • Other factors

1. Human Biology:

Human biology is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. The physical and mental location of an individual in some extent is determined by the nature of gene present at the time of conception.

The genetic make-up is unique in that it cannot be altered after conception e.g. chromosomal anomalies, error of metabolism, mental retardation, some kinds of diabetes etc. The person’s health therefore, partly depends upon the genetic constitution of an individual. image source: theroyakitejrfoundation.org

2. Behavioral and socio-cultural conditions or ways of living:

Behavioral and socio-cultural conditions or ways of living is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Ways of living or life styles reflect a whole range of social value, attitude, and behavior.

It is composed of cultural and behavioral pattern and life long personal habits (e.g. smoking, alcoholism) that have developed through the process of socialization. Lifestyles are learnt through social interaction with parents, peer groups, friends and siblings and through schools and mass media.


It is known that developed countries have coronary artery disease, lung cancer, drug addiction etc. which are mainly due to change in life style as sedentary life, lack of exercise, excess use of fat etc.

On the other hand, developing countries where old traditions are still followed are suffering from illness and death which occur due to poor sanitation, poor personal hygiene, bad custom and cultural patterns.

All lifestyles have their own good and harmful points e.g. adequate sleep, enough nutrition, regular exercise are good habit as per health point of view. To fulfill (achieve) the optimum health of an individual, we should handle healthy lifestyle. Health is both a consequence of an individual’s lifestyle and a factor in determining it.

(3)     Environment:

Environment is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Environment can be defined as any factor in which human being comes in contact either directly or indirectly. According to ecological concept, health is a positive interaction between man and his environment.

Environment can be classified as external and internal environment. External environment means all that which is external to human hosts and where they are exposed after conception.

Internal environment includes each and every component, part, tissue, organ and system and their harmonious functioning within the system.

The external environment can be divided into physical, biological and psycho-social components. These components have a direct impact on the physical, mental and social well being of those living in it.

For good condition of all these states, environment should be well balanced so that they can make the full use of their mental and physical capabilities. Rough, dirty and unhygienic environment causes bad influence on health of individuals.

(4)      Economic status:

Economic status is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Now, in developing countries, the rate of morbidity is decreasing and their life expectancy is increasing due to the slow increasing pattern of socio-economic status.

The economic status determines the purchasing power, standard of living, quality of life, family size and the pattern of illness. It is also an important factor in seeking health care. But people with higher economic status are also suffering from many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease etc.


If a person has low income, his nutrition will also be poor. He will get poor education, which leads to poor hygiene practice. It causes a problem of diminished body resistance, diminished body resistance causes illness and illness decreases the work capacity, which ultimately reduces the productivity, which is shown in figure 1.2 as vicious cycle of poverty illness.

(5) Education:

Education of the individual is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Studies show that higher the education, lower the morbidity and increase life expectancy of an individual. It shows that education has direct relation with health status of an individual.

(6) Occupation:

Occupation of the individual is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. The employed in productive works promotes health. The unemployed usually shows a higher incidence of ill health and death. Loss of work may mean loss of income and status. It can cause psychological and social damage.

(7) Political system:

Political system is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Health and its service is directly related to political system and policy of the country. Decision concerning resource allocation, manpower, choice of technology, availability and accessibility of service is always determined by political system.

(8) Health Service :

Health service is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. Health service means all those personal and community services including medical care which are directed towards the promotion and protection of health of the community.

The population and health of the community are influenced not only by its physical and social environment but also by the health services provided to people. The medical care and health services help to protect different kinds of illnesses.

But people also make the full and intelligent use of medical care and health services. So health services are also one of the media to promote and protect health of people. To be effective, the health services must reach the social periphery, they should be equitably distributed, accessible at a cost the country and the community can afford and socially acceptable.

9. Aging population :

Ageing population is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. World is striving to control communicable illnesses and other infectious diseases that leads to increasement of the life expectancy of people.


When the life expectancy is increase, the number of aged people is also increase. The elder people are at risk to develop chronic diseases, heart diseases and other degenerative problems as dementia, alzhemer’s disease that effect the health care system of the country.

The old age dependency is also increase and the countries huge amount need to be invest to combact these problems so that the other sectors may become in shadow.

10. Gender:

Gender is one of the major factors influencing health in Nepal. The World Commission on Women’s Health was established in 1993 and similarly ICPD1994 and Beizing conference 1995 were held to address the reproductive health and reproductive right which is the major component of gender.

The commission and conference highlighted on female health education, nutrition, rights, health care etc. now the issues arise on gender friendly health services, gender based violence, gender based division of labour, power and decision making, gender mainstreaming etc. that directly and indirectly influence the health of individual and health system of the community.

11. Other factors:

There are many other things that influence health in Nepal. The advancing technology in information and communication has developed various opportunities in providing an easy and instant access to medical care. It also helps for physicians, nurses, patients and other care provider.

Other contributing factors for improving health status are food and agriculture, education, industry, social welfare, rural development etc. These factors also have direct and indirect impact upon health of individual.

Medicine is not the sole contributor to the health and well being of population. The potential of inter-sectoral contribution to the health of communities is increasingly recognized.

This is guest post by Sharmila Shrestha, A Nurse in KMC


Jitendra Sahayogee

I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.

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