Factors Affecting the Climate / Weather / Season Change of Nepal & India

Climate / Weather / Season of Nepal and India

Nepal has namely five major seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter. An average temperature drop of 6°C occurs for every 1,000 m gain in altitude. In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 40° C and higher in some areas. Winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai. In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can get under subzero. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively.

  • >Factors Affecting the Climate of Nepal
  • >Factors Affecting the Weather of Nepal
  • >Factors Affecting the Season of Nepal

On the basis of seasonal changes, the climatic conditions of Nepal can be broadly divided into three groups. They are Summer, Rainy and Winter Seasons.

  • >Factors Affecting the Climate of Nepal
  • >Factors Affecting the Weather of Nepal
  • >Factors Affecting the Season of Nepal
Summer Season

Factors affecting the summer season of Nepal. Summer season begins from March and continues until the end of May. As the sun moves to the Northern Hemisphere during this time, it becomes warm and hot in most parts of the country.

In summer, the temperature in the Terai exceeds 35° C. The temperature decreases as the altitude increases. It remains warm in mid hills and valleys with 20° to 25° C. The average temperature in this period of Kathmandu Valley remains between 19° C to 35°C. It is temperate in hill region and cools in the mountain region. Days become sunny, windy and dusty, and it gets hazy in some places. Most parts remain dry, however, there may be some rainfall due to great heat and storms. There maybe pre-monsoon rain towards the end of May.

Rainy Season

Factors affecting the rainy season of Nepal. Rainy or wet season starts in June and goes up to the end of September. Summer warmth over Inner Asia creates a low-pressure zone that draws in air from the Indian Ocean. During this time, the wind blowing from the South-East direction brings monsoon rain. The Bay of Bengal is the source of the summer monsoon. Eighty percent of the precipitation is received during this time. Precipitation generally decreases from east to west. Eastern Nepal gets about 2,500 mm annually, the Kathmandu area about 1,400 mm and Western Nepal about 1,000 mm rainfall.

The average annual rainfall is 1,600 mm. But it varies according to the eco-climatic zones, local topographic features, and oceanic distance. For example Pokhara receives average 3,345 mm and Mustang below 300 mm rainfall. In general, the rainfall gradually decreases from the Pokhara Valley towards the West and North. There is a large rain shadow area beyond the Himalayan ranges in the Western and Mid-Western Regions. In rain shadows beyond the high mountains, annual precipitation drops as low as 160 mm creating a cold semi-desert.

The monsoon complicates transportation with roads and trails washing out. Unpaved roads and airstrips may become unusable. Cloud cover reduces safety margins for aviation. Rains diminish in September and generally end by mid-October

Winter Season

Factors affecting the winter season of Nepal. Winter or dry season begins from the month of October and continues up to February. During this time, the sun moves to the southern hemisphere. In the beginning of winter, it is generally cool, clear, and dry weather, as well as the most relaxed and jovial period in Nepal. By this time, the harvest is completed and people are in a festive mood. The two biggest and most important Hindu festivals: Dashain and Tihar (Dipawali), arrive during this period, about

one month apart. The post monsoon season lasts until about December. The temperature gradually drops all over the country. It is about 15° C in the Terai and about 10° C in the Kathmandu Valley. It becomes colder and colder as the altitudes increases. The mountain region records temperature below freezing point. On the whole, winter is generally cold, windy and dry. The wind blows from the inner land to the sea during this season. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the cold winds blowing from Central Asia in winter. However, the Westerly winds cause some rainfall. Winter rains occur more in the western hills. Foggy, frosty and cold mornings, clear sky, warm afternoons, and cold and windy evenings and nights are the common features of the winter season.


Factors affecting the climate season of Nepal. Vegetations are dependent on the type of geographical features and climatic conditions. The dramatic changes in elevation result in a variety of vegetations in Nepal. Nepal is very rich in bio-diversity. It has tropical savannas and dense forests along the Indian border and subtropical broad-leaf and coniferous forests in the hills. Subtropical forests dominate the lower elevations of the Hill Region. They form a mosaic running east-west across Nepal. There are temperate broad-leaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalayas and mountain grasslands and scrublands. The native forests of the Mountain Region change from east to west as precipitation decreases.

View Detailed 10 Day Forecast for Kathmandu, webcams, maps & more at -Forecast.com

Jitendra Sahayogee

I am Jitendra Sahayogee, a writer of 12 Nepali literature books, film director of Maithili film & Nepali short movies, photographer, founder of the media house, designer of some websites and writer & editor of some blogs, has expert knowledge & experiences of Nepalese society, culture, tourist places, travels, business, literature, movies, festivals, celebrations.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *