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Factors Affecting the Climate / Weather / Season Change of Nepal, India and Rest of the World
Our weather is always changing and now scientists are discovering that our climate does not stay the same either. Weather is the current atmospheric conditions including temperature, rainfall, wind and humidity, while climate is the general conditions. Climate change means a long-term change in the earth’s climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature.
Climate, the average weather over a period of many years, differs in regions of the world that receive different amounts of sunlight and have different geographic factors, such as proximity to oceans and altitude. Climates will change if the factors that influence them to fluctuate. To change the climate on a global scale, either the amount of heat that is let into the system changes, or the amount of heat that is let out of the system changes. For instance, warming climates are either due to increased heat let into the Earth or a decrease in the amount of heat that is let out of the atmosphere.
Most predict that future climate change could include:
- Higher maximum temperatures and more hot days in nearly all land areas More intense precipitation events over many Northern Hemisphere middle to high latitude land areas
- Higher minimum temperatures and fewer cold days and frost over virtually all
- land areas
- Reduced diurnal temperature ranges across most land areas
- Summer continental drying in some areas and associated drought risks
Elements of Climate Change
- Ice and Snow (Cryosphere)
- Sea Level Rise
How Climate Change Will Affect People Around the World
Climate change threatens the basic elements of life for people around the world. It impacts on access to water, food, health, and use of land and the environment including more frequent droughts and floods. On current trends, average global temperatures could rise by 2 – 3°C within the next fifty years or so.
- Melting glaciers will increase flood risk during the wet season and strongly reduce dry-season water supplies predominantly in the Indian sub-continent, parts of China, and the Andes in South America.
- Declining crop yields, especially in Africa, is likely to leave hundreds of millions without the ability to produce or purchase sufficient.
- Ocean acidification, a direct result of rising carbon dioxide levels, will have major effects on marine ecosystems, with possible adverse consequences on fish stocks.
- Rising sea levels will result in tens to hundreds of millions more people flooded each year with a warming of 3 or 4°C. The sea level rise will increase coastal flooding, raises costs of coastal protection, lead to loss of wetlands and coastal erosion. It will increase saltwater intrusion into surface and groundwater. population.
- Climate change will increase worldwide deaths from malnutrition and heat stress. Vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever could become more widespread. In higher latitudes, cold-related deaths will decrease.
- By the middle of the century, 200 million more people may become permanently displaced due to rising sea levels, heavier floods, and more intense droughts.
- Ecosystems will be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Strong drying over the Amazon would result in dieback of the forest with the highest biodiversity on the planet.
- Higher temperatures will increase the chance of triggering abrupt and large- scale changes that lead to regional disruption, migration, and conflict.
- Warming may induce sudden shifts in regional weather patterns like the monsoon. Such changes would have severe consequences for water availability and flooding in tropical regions.
- Melting or collapse of ice sheets would raise sea levels and eventually threaten at least 4 million Km2 of land, which today is home to 5% of the world’s population.
The most important factor that has influenced the climate in Nepal is the altitude. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features. It has a variety of climates ranging from tropical climate, subtropical, warm, temperate, subarctic or alpine to fully arctic or tundra climate. In the north, summers are cool and winters severe. In the same way, in south summers are tropical and winters are mild. The other factors that have influenced the climatic conditions are prevailing winds, distance from the ocean and the position of the mountains.
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- Distance from ocean
- Land features (Relief)
- Latitude (distance from the equator)
- Land and sea breeze