Electrical Engineering in Nepal: – Electrical engineer is a specialized control that manages the investigation, plan and utilization of devices, frameworks that utilization power, hardware and electromagnetism.
It was recognized as an action in the second 50% of the nineteenth century after the commercialization of the electric broadcast, the phone and the age, circulation and utilization of electrical energy.
Today, electrical engineer is separated into the fields of PC innovation, vitality designing, broadcast communications, high recurrence innovation, signal preparing, instrumentation and gadgets.
A significant number of these orders cover with other specialized branches and incorporate an assortment of specializations, including equipment building, control hardware, electromagnetism and waves, microwave designing, nanotechnology, electrochemistry, sustainable power source, mechatronics and electrical materials science. See glossary of electrical and electronic building.
Electrical designers as a rule have a degree in electrical or electronic engineer. Practicing architects may have an expert endorsement and be individuals from an expert association or worldwide institutionalization body.
These incorporate the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (previously IEE). The IEC gets ready worldwide measures for electrical engineer that have been created by agreement, on account of crafted by 20,000 electrotechnical specialists from 172 nations around the globe.
Electrical specialists work in a wide scope of businesses and furthermore have various capabilities. These range from circuit hypothesis to the administration aptitudes of an undertaking supervisor. The tools and equipment that a single engineer may need are equally variable, from a simple voltmeter to a tip analyzer, to advanced design and manufacturing software.
History of Electrical Engineering
Electricity has been a topic of scientific interest since the early seventeenth century. William Gilbert was a well-known early scholar of electrical engineering and was the first to make a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity. He is credited with the term “electricity.” He also designed the verse: a device that detects the presence of objects with static charge.
In 1762, the Swedish professor Johan Wilcke invented a device called an electrophore, which generated a static electric charge. In 1800, Alessandro Volta had developed the Voltaic battery, a precursor to the electric battery.
In the 19th century, the study of the subject began to intensify. Notable developments in this century are the works of Hans Christian oersted, who discovered in 1820 that an electric current generates a magnetic field that deflects a needle from the compass.
William Sturgeon, who invented the electromagnet in 1825, and Joseph Henry and Edward Davy, who invented the Georg Ohm electric relay of 1835, which in 1827 quantified the relationship between electric current and the potential difference in a conductor, by Michael Faraday ( The Explorer, the electromagnetic induction of 1831) and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
In 1782, Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin, probably the first form of electrical telegraphy in the world, using 24 different cables for each letter of the alphabet. This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph that moved gold sheets by electric conduction.
Between 1803 and 1804 he worked in electrical telegraphy and in 1804 he presented his report to the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. water electrolysis by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle.
Electric telegraphy can be considered as a first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession at the end of the 19th century. Practitioners had built a worldwide network of electric telegraphs and the first professional electrical equipment was established in the United Kingdom and the United States to support the new discipline.
Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how electricity could change the world. More than 50 years later, he joined the new Society of Telegraphic Engineers (soon renamed the Institution of Electrical Engineers), where other members saw him as the first of his cohorts.
At the end of the 19th century, the world changed forever thanks to the rapid communication that was possible thanks to the technical development of landlines, submarine cables and since approximately 1890 wireless telegraphy.
Practical applications and advances in such areas have led to a growing need for standardized units of measurement. They led to the international standardization of the Volt, Ampere, Coulomb, Ohm, Farad and Henry units.
In these years, the study of electricity was largely considered as a branch of physics, since early electrical engineering was considered electromechanical. The Technical University of Darmstadt founded in 1882 the first faculty of electrical engineering in the world.
The first-degree program in Electrical Engineering began at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the Department of Physics of Professor Charles Cross, although it was Cornell University that became the world’s first electrical engineering graduate in 1885.
The first course of Electrical Engineering was taught at 1883 at the Cornells Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics. It was not until about 1885 that Cornell President Andrew Dickson White founded the first Department of Electrical Engineering in the United States.
In the same year, University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in the United Kingdom. Professor Mendell P. Weinbach of the University of Missouri founded the Department of Electrical Engineering in 1886. Subsequently, universities and technical institutes gradually offered electrical engineering programs to their students worldwide.
Modern developments in Electrical Engineering
Waves (later called “radio waves”). In his classic physics experiments of 1888, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated Maxwell’s theory by sending radio waves with a spark transmitter and discovering them with simple electrical devices. Other physicists experimented with these new waves, developing devices to transmit and detect them.
In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi began to transform the familiar methods of transmission and collection of these “hertzian waves” into a specially designed commercial wireless telegraphy system.
At first, he sent wireless signals at a distance of one and a half miles. In December 1901 he sent radio waves that were not affected by the curvature of the earth. Later, Marconi transmitted the radio signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu (Cornwall) and St. John’s (Newfoundland), a distance of 3,400 km.
In 1897, Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope, a key technology that allows electronic television. John Fleming invented the first radio tube in 1904, the Diode. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, the so-called triode.
In 1920, Albert Hull developed the magnetron, which eventually led to the development of the microwave oven by Percy Spencer in 1946. In 1934, the British army began under the direction of dr.
Wimperis advanced to the radar (which also uses the magnetron), which culminated in August 1936 with the operation of the first radar station in Bawdsey.
Subfields of electrical engineer in Nepal
There are many subdisciplines in electrical engineering, the most common are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these subdisciplines, many worries about a combination of these. Sometimes, certain areas, such as electrical engineering and computer engineering, are considered separate disciplines.
Energy engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, as well as the design of several associated devices. These include transformers, power generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics.
In many regions of the world, governments administer a power grid called a power grid that connects a variety of generators with consumers of their energy. Users get energy from the network, so they no longer need to generate power themselves.
Energy engineers can work on the planning and maintenance of the power grid and connected power systems. Such systems are called network power systems and can provide additional power to the network, disconnect the network from the network or both.
Energy engineers may also be working on systems that are not connected to the network, the so-called off-grid energy systems, which in some cases are preferable to systems outside the network. The future includes satellite-based energy systems with real-time feedback to avoid surges and power outages. Definitely a very good range.
The power plant is one of the main employers of electricians. Learn all you can. The technology used in power plants is endless. Students learn not only electricity but also chemical and mechanical instrumentation. You can combine different themes and see their practical use together.
The salary is good, you have medical benefits and extensive vacations away from other facilities. A special job at a power plant is not special for the government. If you have a chance, think carefully before leaving. You rarely face problems such as remote location, change times, plant environment, etc., but think about them if you have a better option.
Control technology focuses on modeling a variety of dynamic systems and designing controls so that these systems behave as desired. To implement such controls, electrical engineers can use electronic circuits, digital signal processors, microcontrollers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs).
The control technology has a wide range of applications, from airplanes to flight and propulsion systems and speed control, as is the case in many modern cars.
Regulatory engineers often use comments when designing control systems. For example, in a car with cruise control, the vehicle speed is continuously monitored and fed back into the system, which adjusts engine power accordingly. With regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system reacts to such feedback.
The tuned circuit that allows the user of a radio to filter all but one transmitter is just one example of that circuit. Another example of research is pneumatic signal conditioning.
Before the Second World War, the subject was widely known as radio technology and was mainly limited to aspects of communication and radar, commercial radio and early television.
Later, in the postwar years, when the development of consumer goods began, the field expanded to include modern televisions, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid and late 1950s, the term radio technology gradually gave way to the name of electrical engineering.
Before the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959, electronic circuits were constructed with discrete components that could be manipulated by humans.
These discrete circuits consumed a lot of space and energy and had limited speed, although they are still common in some applications. In contrast, integrated circuits package a large number, often millions, of small electrical components, mostly transistors, into a small coin-sized chip. This allowed the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today.
Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics.
The most common microelectronic devices are semiconductor transistors, although all major electronic devices (resistors, capacitors, etc.) can be manufactured microscopically.
Nanoelectronics is the extension of devices to nanometric levels. Modern devices are already in the nanometer range, because around 2002, a processing below the 100 nm standard takes place.
The field of microelectronics covers an important part of chemistry and materials science and requires that those skilled in the art understand very well the effects of quantum mechanics.
Signal processing deals with signal analysis and manipulation. The signals may be analog, with the signal varying continuously in accordance with the information, or digital, the signal varying according to a series of discrete values representing the information.
For digital signals, signal processing may include compression, error detection, and error correction of digitally sampled signals.
Signal processing is an intensive and highly mathematical field that forms the core of digital signal processing and is rapidly expanding with new applications in all areas of electrical engineering such as communications, control, radar, audio, broadcasting, power electronics and biomedicine.
It replaced many existing analog systems with their digital equivalents. Analogue signal processing continues to play an important role in the development of many control systems.
Integrated circuits with DSP processor are found in many types of modern electronic devices, eg. In digital televisions, radios, hi-fi audio equipment, cell phones, media players, camcorders and digital cameras, automotive control systems, noise suppressed headphones and digital spectrum analyzers.
Missile guidance systems, radar systems and telematic systems. In such products, the DSP may be responsible for noise reduction, speech recognition or synthesis, digital media encoding or decoding, wireless transmission or reception of data, position triangulation using GPS and other types of image processing, image processing, video and audio processing, and Be speech processing
Telecommunications technology focuses on the transmission of information over a communication channel such as a coaxial cable, a fiber optic or a free space.
Free space transfers require the information in a carrier signal to be encoded to change the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission; This is called modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system, and the engineer must carefully consider these two factors.
These two together sometimes form a two-way communication device called a transceiver. An important aspect in the development of the transmitter is the energy consumption, as this is closely related to the signal strength.
If the power of the transmitted signal is insufficient when the signal reaches the antennas of the receiver, the noise will corrupt the information contained in the signal.
Metrology deals with the design of devices for measuring physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. The design of such instruments requires a good understanding of physics that often goes beyond electromagnetic theory.
For example, flight instruments measure variables such as wind speed and altitude so that pilots can analytically control aircraft.
Often the instrumentation is not used alone, but as a sensor for larger electrical systems. For example, it can be ensured with a thermocouple that the furnace temperature remains constant. For this reason, the measurement technique is often regarded as a control counterpart.
This includes designing new hardware, designing PDAs, tablets, supercomputers or using computers to control industrial plants. Computer engineers can also work on system software.
However, the design of complex software systems is often an area of software engineering and is generally considered an independent field. Desktop computers are just some of the devices that computer engineers can work with.
This is because an architecture similar to that of computers is now seen on some devices, such as video game consoles and DVD players.
Mechatronics is an engineering field that deals with the convergence of electrical and mechanical systems. Such complex systems are known as electromechanical systems and are widely used.
Examples include automated manufacturing, heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems and various aircraft and automobile subsystems. The design of electronic systems is an electrical engineering issue that addresses the problem of interdisciplinary design of complex electrical and mechanical systems.
Although the term mechatronics is commonly used for macroscopic systems, futurists predict the appearance of very small electromechanical devices.
Today, these small devices, called microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), are used in cars to inform airbags when mounted, produce sharper images with digital projectors and are used with inkjet printers for high nozzles. Be. Generate resolution pressure.
This device is expected to help build small implantable medical devices and improve future optical communications. Biomedical engineering is another related area that deals with the design of medical devices.
Aerospace engineering and robotics are the latest electric and ion engines.
Training and Study
Electrical engineers usually have a degree in electrical engineering, electronics, electrical engineering or electrical engineering. All programs teach the same basic principles, with different approaches by title.
The duration of this degree is usually 4 or 5 years, and depending on the university, the full degree must be called Bachelor of Science in Electrical / Electronic Engineering, Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Applied Science.
You can the titles generally include units in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, project management and various electrical engineering topics. First, these topics cover most, if not all, areas of electrical engineering. In some schools, students may choose to emphasize one or more areas towards the end of learning.
In many schools, electrical engineering is included as part of the Electrical Prize, sometimes explicitly as a Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical and Electronic Engineering), but in other schools electrical and electrical engineering are sufficient. It is considered broad and complex, with separate titles. It will be provided
Some electrical engineers choose a Master of Engineering / Master of Science (M.Eng./M.Sc.), Master of Engineering Management, PhD in Engineering (as an engineering degree). Doctorate (Eng.) or engineering degree. Master’s and engineering degrees consist of research, academic achievement or a combination of both.
The PhD in philosophy and engineering is an important research element and is often considered as an entrance to science. In the United Kingdom and several other European countries, the engineering master is often considered a bachelor’s degree with a longer duration than an engineering degree and is not a graduate degree.
In most countries, an engineering degree is the first step towards professional accreditation, and the program itself is accredited by professional organizations. At the end of a certified training course, engineers must meet a set of requirements, including professional experience requirements.
The benefits of a license vary from place to place. For example, in the United States and Canada, “only licensed engineers can seal engineering work for authorized and private clients.” This requirement is imposed by state and state laws, such as the Quebec Engineers Act.
There is no such law in other countries. Virtually all certification bodies maintain an ethical policy that expects all members to be banned or at risk of prohibition. As such, these organizations play an important role in maintaining professional ethical standards.
Engineers are subject to contract law, even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal impact on the job. If an engineer’s job fails, he or she may be subject to liability for negligence and, in extreme cases, may be charged with criminal negligence.
Engineers’ work must also comply with many other standards and regulations, such as those related to environmental and construction laws.
Special institutions for electrical engineers include the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the Institute of Engineering Technology (IET). The IEEE states that it produces 30% of the world’s electrical engineering literature, has more than 360,000 members worldwide and organizes more than 3,000 meetings each year. IET publishes 21 journals, has more than 150,000 members worldwide and claims to be the largest professional engineering association in Europe.
The obsolescence of technical skills is a serious concern for electrical engineers. Therefore, membership and participation in the technical community, periodic reviews of periodic publications in the field and continuous learning habits are essential to maintain competence. The Institute of Engineering and Technology (MIET) is recognized as an electrical and computer engineer (technology) in Europe.
In Australia, Canada and the United States, electrical engineers represent approximately 0.25% of the workforce.
Tools and work
From global positioning systems to power generation, electrical engineers have contributed to the development of a wide range of technologies
The science of physics and mathematics is fundamental in this area because it helps to obtain qualitative and quantitative explanations of how these systems work.
Today, most engineering work involves the use of computers, and it is common to use computer-aided design programs when designing electrical systems. However, the ability to sketch ideas is still very valuable to quickly communicate with others.
Most electricians understand the basic theory of the circuit (that is, the interaction of elements such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, inductors, etc. in the circuit), but the theory they use is usually their job.
It depends on for example, quantum mechanics and solid-state physics may be relevant to engineers working in VLSI (integrated circuit design), but they have little to do with engineers working with macroscopic electrical systems.
Even circuit theory may not be relevant to anyone who designs a communication system that uses ready-to-use components.
For simple control circuits and alarms, a basic multimeter that measures voltage, current and resistance is sufficient. If you need to study signals that vary over time, an oscilloscope is an omnipresent instrument.
In RF engineering and radio frequency communication, spectrum analyzers and network analyzers are used. In some areas, security may be particularly relevant for instrumentation.
For example, medical electronics designers should consider that a much lower voltage than usual can be dangerous if the electrodes are in direct contact with the body’s body fluids. Power transmission technology also has important safety concerns due to the high voltage used.
Voltmeters may in principle resemble equivalent low voltage, but voltmeters vary greatly due to safety and calibration issues. Many electrical engineering areas use tests specific to that area.
Audio electronics engineers use an audio test set consisting of a signal generator and a meter to measure levels primarily, but also measure other parameters such as harmonic distortion and noise. Similarly, information technology has its own set of tests, often specific to a particular data format, and the same applies to television broadcasting.
For many engineers, technical work is only part of the work they do. Tasks such as discussing proposals with clients, preparing budgets and determining project schedules can take a long time.
Project management skills are important because many senior engineers manage a team of technicians or other engineers. Because most engineering projects include some type of documentation, written communication skills are very important.
The workplaces of engineers are as diverse as the types of work they do. Electricians can be found in the pristine laboratory environment of the manufacturing plant, on the naval warship, in the consulting firm’s office or on the mine site.
Electricians may discover that they supervise a wide range of people, including scientists, electricians, computer programmers and other engineers, throughout their work period.
Electrical engineering is closely related to physical science. For example, physicist Kelvin Lord played an important role in the engineering of the first transatlantic telegraph cable.
On the contrary, the engineer Oliver Snakeside has carried out an important study on the mathematics of telegraphic cable transmission. In many cases, large scientific projects require an electrician.
For example, large particle accelerators such as CERN require electricians to deal with many aspects of the project, from power distribution to instrumentation and manufacturing and installation of superconducting electromagnets.
Electrical engineering jobs and salary
According to BLS, electrical and electronic engineers work primarily in the research and development industry, engineering services companies, manufacturing and the federal government.
They usually work indoors or in the office, but BLS says they may need to visit the site to observe complex problems and equipment. Government agencies that employ electrical engineers include the transportation sector, national laboratories and the military.
Many employers, especially those who provide engineering consulting services, also require state certification as professional engineers. In addition, many employers require certification from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) or the Institute of Engineering (IET).
Promotion to management often requires a master’s degree, and continuing education and training is required to keep up with advances in technology, test equipment, computer hardware and software, and government regulations.
Electrical Engineer in solar company
Solar energy is the translation of sunlight into electricity, either directly with photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly with focused solar energy (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracing systems to focus a large percentage of the sunlight onto a small beam. Photovoltaic converts light into electricity through the photoelectric effect.
Solar energy is expected to be the world’s largest energy source by 2050. Photovoltaic solar energy and concentrated solar energy contribute 16 to 11 percent of total global consumption. After another year of rapid growth, in 2016 Solar generated 1.3% of global electricity.
Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s: the 392 MW Ivanpah power plant in the Californian Mojave Desert is the largest solar power plant in the world. Other large solar power plants include the Solnova solar power plant with 150 MW and the Andasol solar power plant with 100 MW in Spain.
The 250 MW Agua Caliente solar project in the USA UU. And the 221 MW Charanka Solar Park in India is the largest photovoltaic system in the world. Solar projects of more than 1 GW are being developed, but most of the photovoltaic energy used is used in small roof systems with less than 5 kW, which are connected to the grid via network and / or energy data measurements.
Electrical Engineer in Wind Energy farm
Wind is one of the unused energy sources in Nepal. Its national potential has not yet been evaluated. Several studies have shown that wind power generation is likely in Tansen, Palpa, Romantic Gun, Mustang Nepal and Khumbu.
However, wind monitoring and mapping data are not available in many places. Several studies conducted so far show the potential of wind energy in Nepal. However, it is difficult to generalize wind conditions in Nepal due to differences and terrain variability as a result of climatic conditions. However, specific areas that are beneficial for viable wind energy have been identified.
Nepal plans to finalize a draft national wind energy policy in the coming months to harness the potential of wind energy as a solution to the current energy crisis. NWTF member Manoj Kumar Mishra will finalize the policy created by the National Wind Task Force (NWTF) in Nepal this week (January 31) at a national wind energy workshop within three months, he said.
Invite foreign investment in the production of commercial wind turbines, protect the interests of local manufacturers of small wind turbines of up to 10 kilowatts and build projects of wind power models that can produce and use more than 500 kilowatts of energy. As a pilot research project for a greater investment in wind energy.
Nepal, with an average daily blackout of 11 hours in Kathmandu, is 3,000 megawatts, as shown in a preliminary study conducted by the Alternative Energy Promotion Center (APEC).
Michela said Nepal expects wind power to emerge as a cheaper and renewable option for small homes, as it can build wind turbines with local raw materials, unlike solar panels that must be imported. In Nepal, it is easier to use than the sun, which averages 18 hours a day and winds only average 7 hours.
This means that you can play during the winter when there is less sun after noon. Wind power capacity is particularly high in river corridors and mountain valleys scattered throughout the country. However, the current public and private investment is less than 40 kilowatts and there are no individual turbines with capacities greater than 10 kilowatts.
Tri Ratna Bajracharya, director of the Energy Research Center of Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu, the country must begin a systematic and extensive mapping of wind resources.
According to Mangal Das Maharjan, Director of the National APEC Project, other issues that have not been addressed include tax regulations, land ownership, license distribution, government funds and wind energy subsidies, and wind electricity charges.
On the other hand, some non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local businesses are making small-scale efforts. For example, Practical Action has built 18 small wind farms with capacities of 100 and 200 watts across the country.
In 2009, Kathmandu Engineering College students installed an off-grid wind farm system. We installed a wind turbine in the university facilities and a 1.5-kilowatt turbine in a private complex in the Kathmandu Valley.
By Shishir Acharya