[ Education System of Agriculture in Nepal ] Nepal is a diverse kingdom, which includes the mountain. Everest, artistic monuments, exotic wildlife, and distinctive cultures. It covers an area of 147,181 square kilometers, enclosed between two giants, India and China, and dominated by the Himalayas. Nepal extends from the highest peak in the world to the plains of Terai (altitude between 66 m and 8848 m above sea level).
Therefore, there are a variety of climatic conditions ranging from the tropical heat of the Terai plains to the icy Himalayan plateau. With 28 million inhabitants (MHP, 2011), Nepal also consists of very different ethnic groups of people living together as their own languages and cultures.
Nepali, written in the Devanagari script, is the national language, but there are many other languages, such as Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang, etc., which are spoken by a large part of the population. English and Hindi are widespread in city centers and areas frequented by tourists.
Nepal’s economy is heavily influenced by agriculture. As agriculture represents 60% of the population and agriculture represents one third of the total national gross domestic product (GDP), agriculture is considered one of the priority sectors for the country’s economic development (ADS, 2012).
In addition to agriculture, tourism, carpets and clothing are important economic sectors. Several factors such as political turmoil, social unrest, inland geography, rugged terrain, lack of natural resources, poor infrastructure and lack of access to education have directly contributed to Nepal’s underdevelopment.
Educational history in Nepal for Agriculture
Education is one of the most developed social services in Nepal. Although there are many things that are far from perfect, the enormous expansion of the education system in recent decades has been very impressive. Modern education in Nepal began with the foundation of the first school in 1853, reserved for members of the ruling families and their courtiers.
Education for the general public began only after 1951, when a popular movement ended the autocratic regime of the Frog family and introduced a democratic system. Today, almost 7.4 million (CBS, 2012) are enrolled in schools and colleges.
Higher education in Nepal for agriculture began almost a hundred years ago. The Tri-Chandra campus was founded in 1918 as the first university in the country, affiliated with the Indian University of Patna. In 1959, Tribhuwan University (TU) was founded as the first university under the Nepalese government.
After its establishment, there were many universities in different parts of the country, which were founded under the umbrella of the TU. Another state university, the Sanskrit University of Mahendra (MSU), was founded in 1985 and was concerned with promoting Sanskrit education. In addition to TU and MSU, two other private universities were founded in the 1980s and 1990s: Kathmandu University and Pokhara University.
However, until 1990, the development of higher education was very restricted since the country’s gross enrollment rate was only around 5%. The inclusive development of all sectors of society, including disadvantaged groups (women, Dalits, etc.) in higher education, was an emerging problem since in 1990 only 23% of students enrolled were women (MES, 2004). In 1990, a great political uprising abolished absolute monarchism and introduced a multiparty system.
The development of a robust system of higher education that covers the majority of the population has been a priority for the country since then. In this context, the National Education Commission of Nepal emphasized the introduction of the Board of Higher Secondary Education (HSEB) as a first step towards specialization in higher education in 1992. In 1993, the University Grants Commission (UGC) was established at 7 years old.
Promote, facilitate and support the development of higher education in Nepal. There are currently 12 different universities that operate in different parts of the country under the UGC (UGC, 2010/11).
History of agricultural education
After the 1951 revolution, in an effort to create an educational system that suits individual and social needs, in 1957, under the Ministry of Agriculture, the “School of Agriculture” created a labor force for farmers, known as “Junior technical assistants”. (JTA) “. Later, in 1968, the school was updated to the Faculty of Agriculture and began a two-year program” Intermediate of Agricultural Science (I.Sc. Ag) “,
The program, known as Junior Technicians (JT), began producing mid-level technical workers in agriculture. These two schools and colleges were located in Kathmandu and depended on the Ministry of Agriculture of the Government of Nepal. In 1972, the university under the umbrella of the University of Tribhuwan for the “Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (IAAS)” was updated.
The institute was relocated from Kathmandu to its current location in Rampur, Chitwan District, covering 110 hectares. In 1978, 125 hectares of an animal farm under the Ministry of Agriculture were delivered to the IAAS. Currently, the institute has its central campus in Rampur and two other satellite campuses; a) The Lamjung campus at Sundar Bazaar in Lamjung District, founded in 1975, and b) Paklihawa Campus in Bhairahawa in Rupandehi District, founded in 1978.
Meanwhile, in 1947, the Forestry Institute of Nepal was established under the Department of Forestry to promote forest workers, including forest rangers and foresters. In July 1972, the Institute was subordinated to the TU and was renamed “Forestry Institute (IOF)”. Until the late 1970s, IOF trained only unprofessional or technically skilled workers with a B. Sc degree in forestry.
In response to the growing demand for agricultural engineers and graduates in the country, several public and private universities were established at the beginning of the 20th century. The Himalayan College of Agricultural Science and Technology (HICAST) was founded in 2000 in Bhaktapur and offers bachelor’s and master’s degrees in agricultural and veterinary sciences. Similarly, in 2010, the Gokuleshwor campus was established under IAAS in the west of the country.
In view of the importance of skilled labor in agriculture and forestry as a catalyst for general development, the Cabinet decided to establish a new University of Agriculture and Forestry (AFU) in 2010. The idea was to establish the IAAS and its locations affiliates and bring together the Forestry Institute (IOF) to create a more robust agricultural education system in Nepal.
Also, with the objective of producing competent and technical professionals in the field of agriculture, the Polytechnic Institute of Nepal (NPI) within the Center for Technical Education and Vocational Training.
Nepal has three main types of agricultural schools:
- Community (totally or partially supported by the Government): these types of schools focus on primary (5), upper secondary (5 + 3) or upper secondary (5 + 3 + 2), depending on their level of education.
- Institutional (private) schools: Like municipal schools, institutional schools also focus on primary, lower secondary or upper secondary education.
- Upper secondary schools: these schools offer upper secondary schools (10 + 2) in the country.
Basic education lasts eight years, with a five-year elementary cycle and a three-year secondary cycle I. Students complete two more years of upper secondary education completed with the SLC exam required for admission to upper secondary education.
Secondary education takes another two years and is completed within the framework of the school system or a similar qualification program offered at universities. The new system also introduces vocational education at the secondary level (ninth grade and higher), which allows students in careers to enter tertiary education after completing an additional one-year course.
Both community schools and institutional schools are aimed at elementary and lower secondary students, while only upper secondary education offers higher education. The universities of the Technical Education and Training Council (CTEVT) also offer three-year diploma courses, equivalent to higher education.
Founded in 1989, CTEVT is a national autonomous organization for technical and vocational education and training (TVET) dedicated to the production of technical and qualified human resources that the nation needs. Universities also offer SLC certification programs for one to two years.
Upon completion of the SLC level, students will receive continuing education at the upper secondary level, also known as “10 + 2”. The Certificate of the Board of Higher Secondary Education (HSEB) is awarded in one of the 9 exams
There are the following four areas: science, management, humanities or education, and access to the university. The most popular are the areas of science and administration, and education is the educational program for secondary school teachers and the HSEB is the supervisory and hiring body.
The current state of agricultural education and training institutes in Nepal
Agricultural education in Nepal has changed rapidly. Agricultural sites / universities have passed through different names to meet the changing needs of the world. Agricultural programs currently under way in Nepal can be classified in two different ways: universities that offer agricultural study programs, and technical schools and colleges, which are a combination of related agricultural and educational programs in the short and long term. Zone offers. Currently, about 3,500 people work in Nepal.
Meanwhile, school education in agriculture is also prioritized. Recently, the government has made changes to the school’s curriculum, which require compulsory education for the ninth and tenth grades (previously optional). In order to increase the number of agricultural technical workers in the country, the latest amendments have prepared a ninth and tenth grade curriculum for those students who are motivated to obtain a higher education. Technical title, junior technical assistant (JTA).
In most districts (currently in 48 of 75 districts), state schools run JTA programs in which students in each class (ninth and tenth grade) teach five different agricultural subjects in combination with other subjects. The focus was more on practical application; 60:40 Practical: Theoretical relationship (Anil Babu Pokhrel, Personal Communication, July 24, 2013).
Higher education programs in agriculture.
Of 12 universities in Nepal, only 3 offer degrees in agriculture and related fields: University of Agriculture and Forestry (AFU), University of Tribhuvan (TU) and Purbanchal University (PU). These three consist of different institutes, locations and programs that are important for demarcation.
University of Agriculture and Forestry (AFU)
The AFU is the first university in Nepal that is based on a land grant model (similar to that of the US), which provides educational, research and expansion programs for agricultural and forestry development in the country.
It was founded in June 2010 in Rampur, Chitwan, and consists of two sites that previously belonged to Tribhuvan University: the campus of the Institute of Agricultural and Animal Sciences in Rampur, Chitwan and the campus of the Institute of Forestry in Hetauda, Makawanpur.
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As a second-generation university that responds to current needs, it has a specific and unified organizational structure, academic programs and curricula developed by highly qualified professionals.
Currently, every year (as of 2012), 110 students are enrolled in agriculture and 40 in forestry. The university has 195 faculty members and the current university infrastructure has about 800 students, 200 PhD students and about 50 PhD students. Scientists in various disciplines of agriculture and forestry.
Sharing between AFU and Tribhuvan University (TU)
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences (IAAS)
The IAAS is the oldest institution for formal education in agriculture in Nepal. Founded in 1972 under the name of Tribhuvan University, the institute was recently divided between TU and AFU. He currently offers four years of B.Sc. Agriculture (Bachelor of Science in Agriculture), B.V.Sc. And A.H. (Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Livestock), M.Sc. Agriculture, M.Sc. Animal Sciences, M.V.Sc., M.Sc. Programs for aquaculture and doctor of philosophy. With more than 150 teachers trained and dedicated in the central offices and branches, the IAAS offers teaching, research and extension programs.
The four years of B.Sc. The main objective of the agricultural program is to develop technically competent agricultural students who can apply their knowledge and skills to the established and emerging needs of the agricultural sector in Nepal. In the first three years, students acquire knowledge in several basic subjects, offering elective subjects in their areas of interest.
A wide range of courses is offered, from biochemistry, plant physiology, agricultural microbiology, environmental sciences, agroecology, ichthyology, agronomy, horticulture, and zoology, to production-oriented courses in crop production, crop production, vegetable and plant production of spices Fruit, and plantation cultivation, pig and poultry management and management and nature conservation courses such as farm management, social mobilization, and community development.
In addition, the IAAS offers a two-year Master in Agricultural Sciences (M.Sc. Agriculture) with a focus on agricultural economics, agricultural expansion, entomology, horticulture, plant breeding, plant pathology, conservation ecology and soil sciences.
In addition to some of the main special subjects of the subject, students must take courses in statistical methods, plant physiology, general biochemistry, and technical writing. Master of Science in Animal Science, Master of Veterinary Science (Medicine / Pharmacology / Microbiology / Pathology / Theriogenology / Parasitology), and Master of Science in Aquaculture. In addition, three-year doctoral programs are offered in several departments.
Students who aspire to a degree in Ag and B.V. Sc & A.H should have passed 10 + 2 in natural sciences with English, physics, chemistry and biology / mathematics as major subjects. Only those who achieve a minimum score of 50% of the TU or any other accredited university and accredited board are eligible to take the entrance exam. To take the M.Sc. entrance exam, he / she must have a B.Sc. Ag. Or B.Sc. Animal Science or an equivalent degree.
Similarly, for M.Sc. Aquaculture, you have a B.Sc. Ag, B.Sc. Animal Science, B.V.Sc. & A.H., B.Sc. Aquaculture, M.Sc. Zoology or an equivalent title. To enroll in the MVSc, applicants must have a BVSc and AH degree or equivalent with English as a means of instruction and at least the second league qualification (45% to 59.99%) during their studies.,
Each year (as of 2012) 110 seats will be offered as part of the IAAS in Rampur. Previously, a total of 150 were offered between Paklihawa and Lamjung. The recent restructuring has changed the system since the Paklihawa and Lamjung campuses are now under TU and Rampur under AFU. This year, the TU offered 220 seats at the Paklihawa and Lamjung locations. Student selection is based primarily on the results of their exams. They receive full scholarships (including accommodation in the hostel), but about 20% of eligible students have to pay Rs. 100,000 ($ 1,200) to register.
Forestry Institute (IOF)
The Forestry Institute (IOF) is the only well-established national academic and training institute in Nepal that has been educating graduates in forest management and natural resource management since 1947. Until the late 1970s, the IOF focused exclusively in the production of forestry workers with technical or unprofessional qualities.
In 1981, he extended his academic program to a two-year technical forestry certificate and a three-year BSc in forestry. Later, with the support of the International Development Agency (IDA) of the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
The bachelor’s degree program has moved to the new campus in Pokhara. In 1995, the degree program was extended to a four-year program. Currently, IOF operations operate in different locations, one in Pokhara (under TU) and the other in Hetauda (under AFU). Several academic programs are offered, including a two-year forest technical certificate, a four-year forest science degree and a master’s degree in forestry.
Recently, he has further expanded his study program with an M.Phil. And Ph.D. in community forestry in Pokhara. Each year, 80 students (Pokhara + Hetauda) are admitted to the aptitude test due to their merit. 44 of the 80 students (including multiple fees) study with a full scholarship (based on income) and the rest have to pay Rs. 200,000 for registration.
Writer: Shishir Acharya