Earthquake in Nepal 2015 – Oh My God … How Disaster…….
Earthquake, sudden shaking of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves through the rocks of the earth. Seismic waves arise when energy stored in the earth’s crust is released suddenly. As a general rule, the rock masses suddenly break and slide against each other.
Earthquakes are more likely to occur along geological faults, in narrow areas where rock masses move among themselves. The main disturbances of the world are on the edge of the enormous tectonic plates that form the earth’s crust.
Little was known about earthquakes until the arrival of seismology at the beginning of the 20th century. Seismology, in which all aspects of earthquakes have been studied scientifically, has provided answers to questions such as why and how earthquakes occur.
More than 50,000 earthquakes large enough to be noticed without the aid of instruments occur annually throughout the world. Of these, about 100 are large enough to cause significant damage if their centers are near residential areas. Very large earthquakes occur on average once a year. Over the centuries, they were responsible for millions of deaths and an immense amount of property damage.
The largest earthquakes on Earth occur mainly on belts that coincide with the edges of the tectonic plates. This has been evident for a long time in the first catalogs of earthquakes and is even more evident in modern seismicity maps that show instrumentally determined epicenters.
Nepal is located on the southern boundary of the diffuse collision boundary, where the Indian plate infiltrates the Eurasian plate and occupies the central part of the Himalayan arc, almost a third of the 2,400 km of Himalayas.
Geologically, the Himalayas of Nepal are divided into five tectonic zones, from north to south, from east to west and almost parallel to subparallel. These five distinct morphotectonic zones are:
(1) Terai Plain,
(2) Sub-Himalayas (Shivalik Range),
(3) Small Himalayas (Mahabharat Range and Middle Valleys),
(4) Himalayan Higher and
(5) Inner Himalayas (Tethys Tibetans).
Each of these zones is clearly characterized by its morphological, geological and tectonic characteristics. Nepalese people live in a country with the highest risk of earthquakes and are exposed to the consequences of many earthquakes, including large earthquakes. 45 million years ago, the Indian continent collided with the south of Tibet. The Indian continent is being expelled under Tibet,
Push up the light sediments to promote the formation of the Himalayas. Nepal lies beyond the border between India and southern Tibet, which are still separated by two meters per century. The rate of convergence between plates in central Nepal is approximately 45 mm per year.
The location, strength, and mechanism of the focus of the earthquake suggest that it was caused by a slide along with the frontal thrust. This movement creates pressure within the earth that accumulates and can only be released by earthquakes. This is the only way earthquakes can occur in Nepal.
Earthquake is the most prone disaster of Nepal. Till the date, Thousands of people were killed due to casualties of the earthquake. Based on the seismic record of the number of earthquakes since 1255, earthquakes with a magnitude of more than 8 occurred on average every 80 years. The last major earthquake of magnitude 8.3 occurred in 1934. The seismic records of Nepal are from 1255 AD in the nuclear reactor at scale 7.7 in the valley of Kathmandu.
Earthquakes in History of Nepal
Earthquake frequently occurs in Nepal. Every year more than 50 earthquakes happen in Nepal as reported by Nepal seismological Department, but most of them are of small magnitudes. The main ones are 1260, 1408, 1681, 1767, 1810, 1823, 1833, 1834, 1866, 1934, 1980, 1988 and 2015AD.
But others are medium and small seismic events frequently occur in another part of Nepal. According to Global Earthquake Initiatives, Kathmandu is the largest per capita earthquake risk in the world affected by 21 megacities worldwide, and most of the life is dead mainly due to the collapse of construction and poor provision and medical care.
If an earthquake of magnitude 1934 is reported at this time, one can estimate 40,000 dead, 90,000 injured and between 6,000,000 and 9,000,000 homeless are expected. Nepal is exposed to several recurring hazards.
The country is one of the 20 most threatened countries in the world. In terms of climate change, earthquakes and flood risk, the country rank fourth, 11th and 30th. Other major disasters in Nepal include landslides, fires, droughts, epidemics, storms, hail, avalanches, and GLOF.
Nepal loses more than 300 human lives each year due to a disaster caused by water. In the period from 1971 to 2007, more than 50,000 people were injured. There have been approximately 27,000 deaths, representing a continuing threat to the deaths of people due to natural disasters.
This means an average death of more than two people per day. The economic costs of natural disasters have increased enormously in each episode of the disaster.
The effects of the earthquake are generally combined in Kathmandu, as it is located in the Kathmandu Basin, which contains up to 600 m (2,000 ft) of sedimentary rock and is the filling of a lake. Every time an earthquake causes a great loss of life and wealth, this is the case of Kathmandu.
Based on a 2014 study on Main Frontal Impulse, a severe earthquake occurs on average in the eastern region of Nepal every 750 ± 140 and 870 ± 350 years. A 2015 study found a 700-year delay between earthquakes in the region. The study also suggests that the 1934 earthquake in Nepal and the earthquake of 2015 are linked by an accumulation of tectonic stress following a historical earthquake pattern.
The first recorded earthquake in the history of Nepal took place on June 7, 1255. According to records, one-third of the total population of Kathmandu was killed, including Abahya Malla, king of the Kathmandu Valley. Numerous buildings and temples of the valley were completely destroyed, while many of them suffered serious damage.
The force of the earthquake should be on the Richter scale at 7.7. A violent earthquake occurred on Monday 2 of the ascending moon of the month of Asadha in the year N.S. 375 when the asterism was Punarvasu and the yoga Dhruva. The earthquake destroyed many houses and temples.
He claimed a third of the life of the entire population and the king died eight days later. People left their homes and lived outdoors for fourteen days to a month after the earthquake, while the next four months were followed by aftershocks.
Our results at the Sir River site indicate that two surface fractures, each approximately 4 to 5 meters apart, occurred in the Patu shear splash during the Bihar-Nepal earthquake in 1934 and the catastrophic event 1255, 30% of deaths. The population of Kathmandu, including King Abhaya Malla.
Around 1316 BC BC / 1260 AD The next earthquake showed that it happened under King Jayadev Malla. Many buildings and temples collapsed and many more suffered serious damage. In 1408, Kathmandu was hit again in August / September by a strong earthquake.
The temple of Rato Matchendranath was completely destroyed, while many other temples and buildings collapsed and were damaged. In many places, cracks appeared on the earth.
The earthquake of 1681 AD was another great earthquake that occurred under Sri Niwas Malla, the king. In the months of June and July of 1767, another severe earthquake seemed to hit Nepal. It is said that there were twenty-one clashes and replicas of this particular earthquake in a span of twenty-four hours.
During the reign of King Girvan Yudha Bikram Shah, a total of 20 seismic shocks were recorded in Nepal in May or June 1810. In 1823, another earthquake hit the Kathmandu valley and caused great loss of life and property.
Similarly, the Kathmandu valley was affected by two major earthquakes in 1883. According to records, homes, temples and public shelters collapsed. The tower of Dharahara was also badly damaged. In the months of June and July of 1834 AD, four severe earthquakes were recorded. These earthquakes damaged many buildings and temples.
In January 1934, the Kingdom of Nepal and its surroundings was hit by a major earthquake, the Great Nepal-Bihar Earthquake. The magnitude of the earthquake was 8.3 Richter scale. The number of victims was the highest in Nepal’s history.
A total of 8,519 people lost their lives. A total of 126,355 homes were severely damaged. Around 80,893 buildings were completely destroyed. Since then, the population of the Kathmandu valley has increased. Urban development and inadequately planned construction practices have aggravated relatively insecure living conditions. In 1998, there was also an earthquake in Nepal. More than 721 people died, affecting life in 22 districts.
Kathmandu has a long history of destructive earthquakes: at least 10 major earthquakes are included in historical records of the thirteenth century. Event 1255, which destroyed Kathmandu with surface fractures in central and western Nepal, was followed by the 1344 event in Kathmandu, which broke the surface of Kumaon (Mugnier et al., 2013).
The largest earthquakes occurred in 1934 in Katmandu (Mw 8.1) and 1833 (Mw 7.6). The earthquake of 1934 caused serious disturbances in eastern Nepal and even in the Indian province of Bihar. It killed 20 percent of the population and damaged 40 percent of all buildings in the Kathmandu valley.
The event of 1833 was preceded by two precursors who alarmed the people and thus reduced the loss of life. The main earthquake of 1833 was recorded throughout the region, from Tibet to the Gangetic plain. It strongly affected the regions of Tibet north of Kathmandu.
The current structure of the Himalayas is the result of the progressive depression of the Indian tectonic plate along with the thrust of the Main Himalayas (MHT) below the Tibetan Plateau. Large earthquakes (with a magnitude greater than Mw 8) periodically exploded several hundred kilometers from the brittle top of the MHT.
An important question that remains unanswered is whether an earthquake of the magnitude of the 1934 earthquake triggers the full load that the Tibet-India Convergence has stored in the previous period between earthquakes, and only that load, or if it is energy storage. in the background it can be left unpublished by one or more previous earthquakes, possibly leading to a huge event or a relatively random sequence of events.
To answer this question, eminent geologists have explored the history of the great earthquake of the last millennium by combining data from the historical archives of Kathmandu, trenches created by surface fractures, isometric damage maps, smites and instrument records.
It is said that the epicenter position of the 1934 earthquake in the Kathmandu basin was determined by the arrival of high energy, which caused sediment dikes and fractures in the ground perpendicular to the azimuth of the epicenter.
The epicenter of the earthquake Mw 7.6 1833 can be determined analogously from the orientation of the dike, and its location northeast of Kathmandu indicates overlap with the fraction Mw 8.1 1934. It seems that the earthquake of 1934 caused a load that it was not caused by the earthquake of 1833 and, therefore, it was a great earthquake of more than Mw 8.6.
The 1255 event that destroyed Kathmandu is confirmed by surface fractures in central and western Nepal and by subsidence in soft sediments towards Kumaon. The geometrical and rheological controls for the various types of cracks that occur during earthquakes of medium (Mw ~ 7), large (Mw ≥ 8) and giant (Mw ≥ 8.4) are shown in structural cross-sections.
The epicenters of the main Himalayan earthquakes are located in the basic push further north or near the exclusion zone, which is determined from geodetic measurements of regional deformation during the time between earthquakes. This fact indicates that large earthquakes in a large transition zone only trigger fragile and exclusively progressive conditions, whose extension depends on the slope of the MHT.
The succession of great earthquakes in the last millennium has released all the energy of the 20-millennial approach in the Himalayas. Even in the central seismic gap, which has closed since 1505, the seismic release rate of millennia is close to the convergence rate.
However, no evidence of a sequence of characteristic earthquakes was found: earthquakes in the eastern Himalayas of ~ 1100, 1833 and 1934 were not characterized by constant displacement or constant repetition.
In addition, some large earthquakes do not activate all the elastic charge stored by the Himalayas and the upper Tibetan bark: for example, after the event of 1255 there was still enough energy potential to cause a landslide of several meters as in the event Mw ~ 8, 1 1505, This suggests that the release of seismic energy is random: a large earthquake could occur at any time and in any part of the central Himalayas.
In addition, the probability of a future earthquake with an Mw ≥ 8.6 cannot be excluded. 16 Table 2.1: Earthquake events in Nepal Years Size Epicenter Time Personal injury injuries in dead buildings.
Detail About Earthquake history of Nepal
Being in the Himalayas country Nepal has experienced some of the great earthquakes in history. The current earthquake is the largest in Nepal in 80 years. The last major earthquake that hit Nepal on 25 April 2015 destroyed many buildings and damaged the infrastructure in Nepal.
The first earthquake recorded in the history of Nepal took place on 7 June 1255 AD
One third of the total population of Kathmandu was killed, including Abahya Malla, the king of the Kathmandu valley. Numerous buildings and temples in the valley have been completely destroyed, while many of them have been severely damaged, the magnitude of the earthquake is said to be about 7.7 on the Richter scale.
history of Nepal Earthquake in 1260 AD
The next major earthquake recorded after 1255 AD it was during the reign of King Jayadev Malla. Many buildings and temples have collapsed and many others have suffered serious damage. Although the exact number of deaths cannot be confirmed, it has been said that there has been a great loss of life due to the earthquake and the consequent epidemic and famine.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1408AD
In the month of August or September of this year there was another great earthquake in the Kathmandu valley and in the surrounding areas, during the reign of King Shyam Singh. The temple of Rato Matchendranath was completely destroyed, while many other temples and buildings collapsed and were damaged. Cracks in the earth have appeared in many places. There was a great loss of lives and livestock.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1681 AD
Whether in December or January, during the reign of King Sri Niwas Malla, another great earthquake struck Nepal and the Kathmandu valley. Although there is very little information available on this particular earthquake, there have been large losses and many buildings, including temples, have been damaged or destroyed.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1767 AD
In June and July another significant earthquake occurred in Nepal. It is said that twenty-one clashes and replicas of this particular earthquake occurred within twenty-four hours. No written or verbal documentation survives to indicate human victims or the extent of suffering and harm caused.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1810 AD
During the reign of King Girban Yudha Bikram Shah in the months of May or June, in Nepal there were a total of twenty earthquake shocks. Although the loss of lives and livestock was limited, many houses, buildings and some temples were destroyed or damaged.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1823 AD
Seventeen earthquakes of various sizes were felt in the Kathmandu valley region, but these shocks were probably smaller than in previous earthquakes, as there were no signs of loss of life or livestock.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1833 AD
During the reign of King Rajendra Bikram Shah in the months of August or September, two major earthquakes were experienced in the Kathmandu valley. The first one was heard around 6:00 pm and the second one around 11:00 pm.
Houses, temples, public shelters have collapsed. The Dharahara tower was also severely damaged. The cities of Thimi and Bhaktapur were the hardest hit by the disaster which severely damaged housing facilities, the road network and numerous temples. Many buildings and temples were completely destroyed.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1834 AD
Four major earthquakes were felt in June and July. These earthquakes have destroyed or damaged many buildings and temples. However, the extent of the damage was much lower than the previous one (ie, the 1833 event). Since there was a lot of rain that started and ended with earthquakes, search and rescue operations were severely hampered.
The Bagmati river was flooded and a bridge over the river was also dragged. Even the crops planted near the river banks were wiped out. There are no records of human or livestock victims. In total, more than 18,000 homes have collapsed across the country.
History of Nepal Earthquake in 1934 AD
The earthquake occurred in magh month (January-February), also known as the great Nepal-Bihar earthquake, shivered the Kingdom of Nepal and some of its near places around 2 pm on 16 January. The earthquake’s magnitude was noted to be 8.4 on the Richter scale.
Victim figures were higher for any earthquake recorded in the history of Nepal. In total, almost more that 9000 people lost their lives in Nepal. A total of 126,355 houses have suffered serious damage and around 80,893 buildings have been completely destroyed.
The total money spent by the earthquake relief fund was 20650 NR only in the Kathmandu valley. The king established the earthquake aid fund, the loans were granted for those affected by the earthquake and groups of volunteers were formed for the earthquake.
The recent incident Nepal Earthquake in 2015 detailed history
An earthquake of magnitude 7.8 hit Nepal on April 25, 2015, demolishing multi-storey buildings in Kathmandu, the capital, and creating landslides and avalanches in the Himalayan mountains. Nearly 9,000 people were killed and more than 22,000 injured. It was the most terrible earthquake in the seismically active region in 81 years.
The earthquake was followed by hundreds of aftershocks, and only 17 days later, there was another major earthquake, a tremor of magnitude 7.3. Thirty-nine of the 75 districts of the nation with a population of 8 million, about a third of the national population, were affected. Hundreds of thousands of people have lost everything and faced extreme poverty. More than 600,000 homes have been destroyed and more than 288,000 have been damaged in the 14 most affected districts.
The major impact of earthquakes was in remote rural areas, which made the response extremely challenging. Humanitarian organizations responded quickly to the disaster with search and rescue teams and immediate delivery of aid. Work is still ongoing to rebuild schools, clinics, homes, livelihoods and to help families and communities achieve greater resistance to environmental crises.
Nepal was one of the poorest countries in the world at the time of the 2015 earthquake; its economy is still behind. As often happens, the poorest and most vulnerable among their citizens, rural farmers, have been the most affected by the disaster. Plagued by government instability and social instability, Nepal is one of the most fragile states in the world.
April 25, 2015: an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 hits. Nearly 100 international search and rescue teams and doctors arrive in 24 hours. The Everest climbing season is canceled.
12 May: a magnitude 7.3 replica is produced, which causes the massive destruction of schools, health centers, water and energy systems, roads and bridges, along with homes.
From June to September: the monsoon season rains cause landslides, making mountain regions inaccessible to foot traffic. Low clouds prevent air operations.
September 20: a new national constitution is approved after a decade of political unrest and delays; protests occur.
From October to February 2016: a border blockade prevents land journeys between India and Nepal, creating a shortage of fuel, drugs and other objects necessary for rescue operations. Assistance groups compete to supply supplies to mountain villages before winter.
December: the government of Nepal sets up the National Reconstruction Authority to oversee reconstruction. 2016 Government Reconstruction Authority focuses on housing improvement and disaster risk reduction. 70% of people displaced by earthquakes still live in temporary shelters of lower quality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to monsoon floods and cold winters.
1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake
The Nepal – Bihar earthquake of 1934 or the Bihar earthquake – Nepal of 1934, known locally as Nepal Sambat 1049 (Nepal Bhasa), 90 saal ko bhukampa (Nepal), was one among the worst earthquakes in the history of Nepal and Bihar of India. This earthquake of magnitude 8.0 occurred at 2:28 pm NST (08:43 UTC) on January 15, causing widespread damage in North Bihar and Nepal.
The epicenter of this event was located in eastern Nepal, about 9.5 km south of Mount Everest. The areas of the greatest damage to life and property extended from Purnea in the east to Champaran in the west (almost 320 km) and from Kathmandu in the north to Munger in the south (about 200 km) almost 465 km.
It was reported that the effects were felt in Lhasa to Bombay and from Assam to Punjab. The earthquake was so intense that in Calcutta, some 650 km from the epicenter, many buildings were damaged and the tower of St. Paul’s Cathedral collapsed.
A notable phenomenon of this earthquake was that holes of sand and water appeared in the central openings of the earthquake zone. The soil around these cracks has diminished and caused more damage. During the earthquake, a length of 300 km led to considerable liquefaction of the soil (the so-called settlement belt), in which many structures passed over the water.
In Nepal, including parts of India, sand cracks erupted in various parts of the city. The wells were clogged with sand, while the water level in the tanks became more superficial due to sand deposits in the tank beds. Most of the buildings in the Kathmandu valley were damaged. All the buildings collapsed, while other buildings were damaged by sinking and breaking the floor.
The three capitals of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan were severely affected and almost all the buildings collapsed. In Kathmandu, huge cracks and several roads were damaged. However, the temple of Pashupatinath, the patron god of Nepal, remained unharmed.
Also in India, there were several damages. There was not a single house in Sitamarhi. Many buildings collapsed in Bhagalpur. In Patna, only one castle remained, the rest of the city was in ruins. In Rajnagar, near Madhubani, all the Kutcha buildings collapsed. The buildings of Darbhanga Raj, including the famous Naulakha Palace, were badly damaged.
In Jharia, the earthquake caused a further spread of underground fire. The city of Birgunj was destroyed along with the telephone line to Kathmandu. The death toll was 10,700 to 12,000, with 7,253 registered in Bihar. Work is done in 1935 by Major General Brahma Shamsher documenting the event, Nepalko Maha Bhukampa of 1990, described it as the most destructive earthquake in Nepal of living memory and praised the Nepalese army for its relief work.
Gurkha Earthquake 2015
Now let’s talk about the earthquake in Nepal in 2015, also known as the Gorkha earthquake, which caused a major earthquake near the city of Kathmandu in central Nepal on April 25, 2015. Around 9,000 people died, many thousands resulted in wounds and more than 600,000 buildings in Nepal.
Kathmandu and other nearby cities were damaged or destroyed. The earthquake was felt throughout central and eastern Nepal, much of the Gangética plain in northern India and northwestern Bangladesh, and in the southern highlands of Tibet and western Bhutan.
The initial shock, which registered an impulse of 7.8, arrived just before the local noon time (around 6:11 am Greenwich Mean Time). The epicenter was located about 34 km southeast of Lamjung and 77 km northwest of Kathmandu. The center of gravity was about 15 km underground from the Baarpak village.
Two large aftershocks of 6.6 and 6.7 magnitudes shook the region within an hour of the main earthquake, and in the following days, several dozen minor aftershocks occurred in the region. On May 12, a magnitude 7.3 replica affected approximately 76 km (47 miles) east-northeast of Kathmandu. More than 100 people died and almost 1,900 were injured.
The earthquake was originally reported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to 7.5MW before it was rapidly updated to 7.8MW. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) said the earthquake has a magnitude of 8.1. The Indian Meteorological Agency (IMD) said that two major earthquakes in Nepal were recorded at 06:11 UTC and 06:45 UTC.
The first earthquake was 7.8 Mw and its epicenter was identified 80 km northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Bharatpur was the main city closest to the main earthquake, 53 km from the epicenter. The second earthquake was slightly weaker with 6.6 Mw. It was 65 km east of Kathmandu and its seismic focus was at a depth of 10 km below the earth’s surface. More than eighty-eight replicas of magnitude 4.5 Mw or more occurred the day after the first earthquake, including one of magnitude 6.8 Mw.
According to the USGS, the earthquake was caused by a sudden surge or release of stress accumulated along the main fault, where the Indian plate that leads to India slowly sinks below the Eurasian plate and transports much of Europe and Asia Kathmandu, located in a block of bark about 120 km wide and 60 km long, moved quickly southward within 3 miles in just 30 seconds.
The risk of a great earthquake was known in advance. In 2013, the Indian quoted him in an interview with seismologist Vinod Kumar Gaur, saying: “The calculations show that there is enough accumulated energy to produce an earthquake of magnitude 8. When it may not happen tomorrow, but it could happen sometime in this century or wait longer to produce a bigger one”.
According to Brian Tucker who is the founder of a non-profit organization that works to reduce the victims of natural disasters, some government officials expressed confidence that such an earthquake would not happen again. Tucker spoke of a conversation with a government official in the 1990s, in which he said: “We do not have to worry about earthquakes because we already had an earthquake while the previous earthquake occurred in 1934.
The earthquake and its aftershocks were the results of shear errors (ie, pressure-induced fractures) in the Indus-Yarlung seam zone, a thin region from east to west that extended approximately throughout the regions of the region. The Himalayas. The earthquake eased the pressure between the Eurasian tectonic plate and the Indian part of the Indo-Australian plate, which subtracted the Eurasian plate.
Subduction in the Himalayas is on average 4 to 5 cm per year. This tectonic activity increases the height of the Himalayas by more than 1 cm each year. The Himalayan region is one of the regions with the highest seismic activity in the world, but large earthquakes have rarely occurred. Before the chill of 2015, the most recent earthquake occurred in 1988 (magnitude 6.0 or higher). This event of the magnitude of 6.9 killed 1,500 people. However, an earthquake of 8.0 in 1934 killed some 10,600 people.
From 2017 to 2019 Reconstruction continues
Where did the earthquake in Nepal in 2015 happen?
The epicenter of the 7.8 magnitude earthquake was near Lamjung, about 50 miles northwest of Kathmandu. The earthquake was felt throughout central and eastern Nepal, as well as in parts of India, Bangladesh and southern Tibet.
The magnitude 7.3 replica of 12 May affected approximately 47 miles east-northeast of Kathmandu in an area that had been severely affected by the first earthquake. The earthquake of 12 May killed over 100 people and injured nearly 1,900.
Why was the earthquake in Nepal so destructive in 2015?
At nine miles deep, the initial superficial tremor caused many tremors near the surface. The multi-storey brick buildings and poorly constructed temples in and around Kathmandu have been reduced to rubble. Brick is the main building material there because the Kathmandu valley has many bricks.
However, bad construction practices have often meant that older buildings did not have adequate steel reinforcements and bases. Heavy bricks made buildings mortal when they fell. Rural mountain areas with poor infrastructure have suffered even worse.
Entire cities have collapsed; their houses made of stacked stones or wood and mud could not compete with the destructive force of landslides, avalanches and shakes. The woman brings winter supplies.
What difficulties did survivors of the earthquake in Nepal experience?
Many survivors of the 2015 Nepal earthquake have lost not only their families, but their home and all their possessions. They fought to support their families and to rebuild their livelihoods, their homes and their communities.
Farmers have lost their livestock, crops, tools and irrigation works. More than half of the country’s schools suffered damage and were destroyed, so almost 1 million children did not attend school. Health centers and hospitals have been damaged, as have water and sanitation systems.
Social unrest and poor living conditions due to the earthquake have made women and children more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Child marriage and human trafficking have increased.
Earle explains that “this is what the Himalayas build.” It is this “push failure” that caused the last devastating earthquake. The risk now is that there will be deadly landslides, given the steep slopes throughout the region.
The most recent earthquake is considered significant enough to warrant a “red alert”, which means that major damage is likely to occur and the disaster is widespread. Scientists have estimated that more than 105 million people experienced a moderate tremor during the earthquake. The largest earthquake in the world since 1900 was an event of magnitude 9.5 on May 22, 1960 in southern Chile, which caused a tsunami that killed at least 1,716 people.
After the Earthquake disaster
On April 25, Nepal was hit by a magnitude 7.8 earthquake that caused severe damage in 14 of the country’s 75 districts. Two weeks later, on May 12, another earthquake struck 7.3 and the humanitarian situation worsened. In total, 8,891 people were declared dead, 605,254 houses destroyed and 288,255 houses damaged.
During the height of the emergency, around 188,900 people were temporarily expelled. Immediately after the catastrophe, the Nepali government, with the support of humanitarian partners, launched a large-scale relief operation. More than 24 international search and rescue teams and medical teams arrived in Nepal in 24 hours. Local communities, volunteers, youth groups, the private sector, and neighboring countries participated in the effort.
As the earthquakes were predominantly remote mountain villages, humanitarian and rescue operations were carried out on extremely difficult terrain. More than 450 aid organizations responded to the emergency. On April 29, the Humanitarian Country Team launched an appeal to provide rescue services to millions of people affected by the earthquake. A month later, Nepal’s appeal against the earthquake was redesigned.
$ 422 million to cover the protection and humanitarian needs of 2.8 million people. The duration of an appeal was extended until next September 30 to reflect the effects of the monsoon season and to align with the reconstruction plans of the national authorities. The analysis and planning of the priority information were based on available claim reports and secondary data.
A total of $ 241 million was paid against the appointment (57 percent funded), including $ 18 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund of the United Nations as of September 30. Nepal was one of the best equipped financial resources in the world that year. Outside the appeal, another $ 232 million was provided for the response.
Most of the donations were delivered by individuals and organizations. In addition to the contributions, the aid organizations also mobilized resources from their own internal financing systems.
On June 25, the Nepalese government hosted the International Conference on the Reconstruction of Nepal, where international partners pledged $ 4.4 billion in grants and loans to rebuild the affected areas. The implementation of large-scale restoration projects should begin in the fourth quarter of the year.
Initial reports of victims after the morning earthquake have raised the death toll to hundreds, but more than 1,000 people died during the day, and almost 1,900 by the end of the day. Two weeks after the main earthquake, rescue teams arrived in all the remote villages in the earthquake zone and created a more accurate picture of the human cost of the earthquake.
The deaths of approximately 9,000 people (including deaths in nearby areas of India, China, and Bangladesh) were confirmed. About 16,800 people were injured and about 2.8 million people were displaced by the earthquake. A United Nations (UN) report mentioned that more than eight million people (more than a quarter of the Nepali population) were affected by the incident and its consequences.
The earthquake caused landslides that devastated rural villages and some of the most densely populated parts of the city of Kathmandu. Initial estimates of damages were between $ 5 and $ 10 billion. The earthquake also caused an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing at least 19 climbers and trapping hundreds more in Everest Base Camp and in the higher fields.
Those who were in the high camps were quickly moved to the base camp, and all the climbers either walked off the mountain or were taken elsewhere.
Immediately after the earthquake, the Nepalese government declared a state of emergency and soon almost the entire Nepalese army helped with the rescue and rescue operations. Nepal has also asked for help from the international community.
The United Nations quickly established the fund for the emergency appeal for the 2015 Nepal earthquake, which was intended to raise approximately 415 million dollars in aid for the earthquake in Nepal. Approximately two weeks after the earthquake, more than $ 330 million had been provided directly or promised. India, China, and some other countries responded quickly with the deployment of relief and rescue teams.
However, the provision of relief services to the needy in the first days after the earthquake has been complicated by the removal of many villages from the existing transport network, the congestion of the Kathmandu International Airport and the shortage of heavy trucks. and helicopters and other vehicles that can transport supplies.
In addition, the earthquake debris and “tent cities” built by Kathmandu residents in the streets and other open areas, fearing to return to their homes, made many of the city’s streets virtually impassable and made efforts of rescuers Still reach people trapped in the rubble. The remains were gradually eliminated.
The response to the earthquake took place in a harsh and largely inaccessible geographical operating environment. Hundreds of towns destroyed by the earthquake could only be reached by helicopter or by walking, often a few days from the nearest road. The monsoon rains from June to September made most of the mountain passages inaccessible due to several landslides, while the low cloud cover prevented almost all flight operations.
This left only two windows for full humanitarian relief operations, from early May to mid-June and from mid-May. From September to the beginning of December, the latter is outside the term of the Flash Appeal. Despite these extremely difficult conditions, humanitarian partners work closely with nationals.
The authorities were able to achieve the most immediate and vital objectives and priorities in their vocation. The most important successes include the following
• More than 3 million people received refuge and 1.3 million received early recovery assistance and 2 million people received food.
• All the health facilities damaged by the earthquake were put back into operation.
• Around 189,000 people identified in distribution sites.
• Three hundred thousand children had access to safe temporary classrooms.
• Five hundred and twenty-six thousand children were examined and pregnant women were advised.
• 2.6 million people benefited from the water emergency.
• 396,400 people arrived directly with protective services.
• 2.8 million people received food aid through the general distribution of food, money for work and conditional cash transfers.
• 700,000 homes receive first shelters (tarpaulins and tents)
• Basic health services, medicines, and supplies for 3.4 million people (including indirect beneficiaries) affected by communicable diseases have been alleviated and all damaged health facilities have been reintegrated
• Nutritional status of 373,550 children receiving treatment in cases of severe and moderate malnutrition.
• 105 reproductive health camps provided preventive care, safe labor, family planning and essential drugs to meet the needs of 66,000 women, including pregnant and nursing mothers.
• It reached 2.6 million people with the help of the water emergency and 2 million people received hygiene kits and hygiene education.
• Protect the rights of those most affected and promote inclusive humanitarian access, paying special attention to the most disadvantaged groups.
• 300,000 children had access to safe temporary classrooms, which include specific latrines and sinks for each gender, and more than 395,000 children received basic hygiene and safety care for 258,846 people, which was provided to 43,000 women and psychosocial services.
• Thirty-nine unaccompanied or separated children were identified and reunited with their families (353) or placed in an alternative care center (26). Prevention of trafficking in 455 women and 338 children. 3.7 million people were contacted with protection messages.
• Support the recovery and resistance of the most affected people through the protection, restoration, and promotion of their livelihoods and well-being.
• 93,000 households benefited from the demolition and safe disposal of deposits
• 105,000 households benefited from the restoration of critical public services, such as the establishment of temporary municipal offices and other public infrastructure
• In the 14 most affected districts, 31 partners distributed $ 28 million in cash.
• The Early Recovery Group and its partners reached 1,289,000 of the 2 million target people:
• It is estimated that 93,000 households benefited from the safe demolition and disposal of deposits. The change of the implementation strategy to priority public buildings versus private buildings helped achieve 250 percent of the original objective of the cluster. Restoration of community infrastructure and livelihoods Approximately 81,000 households benefited from road cleaning and rehabilitation of community infrastructure and assets, and 16,950 women and men were helped to restore market and community assets. means of life. Partners move into long-term livelihoods and community infrastructure programs to fill the remaining gaps.
• Restoration of critical local services Support for the restoration of critical public services, such as the creation of temporary municipal offices and other public buildings, is estimated to benefit 105,000 households. Nearly 21,000 women and men benefited from the cash-for-work programs. This is way below the clustering objective because of the modification of the waste management strategy and the availability of workers whose own seasonal (agricultural) work has priority.
• Despite the speed of recovery, the magnitude of the destruction left approximately 1.2 million cubic meters of debris from 3,000 damaged public buildings in 11 rural areas that need to be managed. As part of their reconstruction efforts, partners will continue their waste disposal and management activities in cooperation with relevant ministries.
Critical public services have been resumed. However, many district authorities continue to use temporary buildings and structures. The group’s partners will work closely with the relevant ministries to support their efforts for long-term reconstruction and capacity expansion.
Measures have been taken to strengthen the capacity of local authorities to continue coordination in the districts. Damage to municipal infrastructure and loss of livelihoods will take more time to fully recover from the medium and long-term plans of the cluster partners. The joint analysis of needs in terms of food security, livelihoods and early recovery will ensure a detailed understanding and analysis of the need for recovery.
• About 1.5 million children were directly affected by the disaster. One million children did not have permanent classrooms and another half million needed support to return to learning.
• To ensure that the educational needs of children are met, more than 130 partners, including government agencies, teachers, national and internal NGOs, and donors, have responded. Around 300,000 children had access to safe temporary classrooms, that include gender-specific latrines and hand-washing facilities, and more than 395,000 children were provided with school, development and recovery kits to recover from stress and disturbances.
By earthquakes. Nearly 13,000 teachers also received training in psychosocial support, life-saving messages and information on school safety. The education group coordinated the structural evaluation of 6,300 schools and some 55,000 classrooms that are safe or unsafe for children. As part of a “Back to School” media campaign, 1 million parents, teachers, and children were reached through guidance and communication materials.
• In support of the government, the Food Safety Group (FSC) conducted an assessment after the earthquake in April and May, which found that 1.4 million people depend on food aid. From April to September, the group’s partners reached 2.8 million people in the affected districts.
• The help was provided by several modalities: 123,000 beneficiaries in cash. 146,000 beneficiaries with conditional cash transfers. 2.6 million people achieved distributions with food.
• Since the outbreak of the emergency, the FSC has actively supported the government in the management of operational information.
• A multi-agency needs assessment is being conducted for 11 seismic districts. The results Under the direction of the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP), which has the support of partners, services resumed in 100% of damaged health care facilities in the 14 most affected districts. The group members provided health services in 741 VDC (99 percent) of the 749 village development committees (VDCs) in the 14 districts.
Rapid response teams were used to investigate suspected cases of communicable diseases. There was no significant outbreak throughout the reaction. 3,385,867 people received essential medicines and supplies, and 40 primary health care centers were established. For the 22,302 injured, the subgroup “Rehabilitation of injuries” developed short and medium-term plans to address acute needs.
In a total of 105 reproductive health care camps, prenatal and postnatal care, safe work, family planning, and key medicines have been carried out to meet the reproductive health needs of 66,000 women, including pregnant and nursing mothers.
In addition, training was provided to a group of psychiatrists and physicians in the affected districts to identify people with mental health problems and establish a referral mechanism for patients who need additional assistance.
• Establishment of 406 rooms for children for 45,209 children and 97 rooms for women for 28,000 women and girls with intersectoral services
• Basic hygiene and security services for 43,000 women and psychosocial services for 258,846 people.
• 379 unaccompanied or separated children (UASC) identified or reunited with their families (353) or referred to alternative care (26);
• Direct prevention of trafficking in 455 women and 338 children. Protection messages reach 3.7 million people.
• The protection environment has been strengthened through training, standard operating procedures (for example, in UASC and the clinical management of rape) and the development of a directory of protective services for the 14 most affected districts.
The group promoted the incorporation of protection in all areas of humanitarian aid. He led the promotion and developed evacuation guidelines for the Humanitarian Country Team, as well as the response and evaluation among the groups. The CCCM has received sector-specific protection guidelines.
• For food security, early recovery, shelter and washing clusters. In the first week of the emergency, the group was activated with more than 100 partners mobilized to respond to the WASH needs of the communities affected by the earthquake. Five months after the disaster, all affected districts were covered with help.
• Cluster partners reached 2.6 million people with immediate water supply, including transporting water for storage, providing drinking water treatment options and water reserves for a large amount of water chlorination. Intensive hygiene activities and the distribution of hygiene kits were essential to mitigate the onset of the disease.
• When reporting waterborne diseases, such as watery diarrhea or suspected cholera, immediate steps have been taken to intensify treatment and raise awareness about the water supply. There were no diseases transmitted by water in the reaction.
• As of September 30, 2 million people benefited from hygiene kits and hygiene training. In areas where domestic toilets were badly damaged, community toilets were built. Around 516,000 people received emergency latrines in crowded areas, shared bathrooms and repairs of domestic latrines with emergency services and sustainable sanitation.
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