Source of Coronavirus: – The current epidemic, as in 2002-2003, began in China, and more precisely in Wuhan. It was there that the first cases of new infection were diagnosed. The new coronavirus was called SARS-CoV-2 for its similarity to the virus that caused the outbreak of SARS in 2002-2003.
Here you have to know that Covid-19 is the name of the disease that is caused by the Coronavirus and not the virus itself. When the disease progresses in severe form, it also affects the lungs, and the patient begins viral pneumonia.
The Coronavirus belongs to the family of so-called coronaviruses that previously caused outbreaks of several diseases.
For example, the epidemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome also known as SARS in 2003. As well as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers) in 2012. In the case of the first virus occurrence, 9% of all infected people died, and during the second epidemic, 35% of those had died.
Causes of the virus
The carriers of the viruses that caused the outbreak of Sars, Mers, and the 2019-nCoV coronavirus are believed to be not humans, but animals. They are carriers of many viruses that are dangerous to human body.
However, cases of human infection directly from animals, fortunately, are quite uncommon. Most often there is a so-called species barrier, and it is usually insurmountable for a virus according to the scientists conducting the research.
Presumably, the new coronavirus also originally spread among animals. The Chinese authorities, in particular, called the seafood market in Wuhan, with which the first cases were connected, the initial source of infection.
In addition to seafood, sheep, rabbits, and snakes were also sold there. Since many of the previous viruses came from bats (for example, Ebola virus), scientists suggested that one of the animals sold on the Wuhan market became an intermediate step for a coronavirus between a bat and a human.
As such a possible carrier, a group of Chinese scientists called snakes. However, other researchers insist that the carriers from which the first patients were directly infected were bats, not snakes or any other animals.
However, in the end, the virus learned to be transmitted from person to person. Transmission occurs by airborne droplets and airborne dust. That is if someone’s immune system is weakened or there is some other factor that allows the virus to move from animal to human, this rare case of infection can occur.
The danger is commonly associated with an unusual mutation of the virus itself. As a rule, the virus must modify itself in a certain way so that it has the opportunity to live and grow in a new, unusual environment or host body.
In rare cases, when the coronavirus is transmitted to humans, things can take an extremely serious turn. It is worth remembering that not all coronaviruses are very dangerous as they are most certainly the cause for common cold as well. A person constantly encounters their less aggressive varieties. But those that are passed from one species to another can be a big threat.
The fact is that when a virus unexpectedly passes from an animal to a person, the human immune system is not ready to deal with this particular virus since it has never encountered it before. And a person is very vulnerable to such viruses.
A similar problem occurs when different types of influenza viruses begin to be transmitted from one species to another.
Sources of the disease
The causes of coronavirus are mutations that result in the origin of new type of virus. The source of coronavirus Disease is usually a sick person suffering from the same. At the same time, the period of contagiousness can be long.
The source of coronavirus maybe some animals (monkeys, birds, snakes, and others). The source of a new type of pathogen (2019-nCov) was, presumably, bats. However, there is currently no evidence that pets (such as dogs or cats) can carry the 2019-nCov coronavirus.
The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets, airborne dust, and fecal-oral routes. Transmission factors include discharge of the nasopharynx, vomit, feces of birds, animals, and sick people.
In humans, susceptibility to coronavirus is very high, all age groups are susceptible to the disease. Antigenic heterogeneity of viruses causes a significant frequency of reinfection with pathogens of other serological types.
To date, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of coronavirus infection have not been sufficiently studied. The entrance gate to the virus is the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. When affected by the 2019-nCov pathogen, infection rapidly spreads to the bronchi and lungs.
With the fecal-oral transmission mechanism, the disease manifests itself in the form of a lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is accompanied by the synthesis of antibodies that do not guarantee protection against reinfestation.
For most coronavirus infections, the incubation period is limited to 2-3 days. However, for the 2019-nCov coronavirus, this period can be from 1 to 14 days (an average of 10 days).
Throughout this period, a person can infect others. The disease proceeds, most often, like ordinary flu, parainfluenza, or any other acute respiratory infection with all their characteristic symptoms.
How can a person get the virus?
A person can get COVID-19 through a variety of ways, namely:
Accidentally inhale saliva splashes from sneezing or coughing sufferers of COVID-19
Touch the mouth or nose without washing hands first after touching an object affected by saliva splashes of COVID-19 sufferers
Close contact with people with COVID-19, such as touching or shaking hands that’s why people are preferring Namaste now a day’s to greet each other.
Diarrhea may be a secondary route of transmission of the new Wuhan coronavirus. Only 14 out of 138 patients (10%) mentioned in the article from Wuhan Hospital complained of diarrhea and nausea one to two days before the onset of fever and shortness of breath. In addition, the first patient infected with the new coronavirus in the United States also had bowel problems for two days. The virus was subsequently found in his feces. There have also been other similar documented cases in China, albeit infrequent. Therefore, scientists have concluded that there is a new possible route of transmission of the virus from person to person.
The disease can be transmitted even during the incubation period when its carrier does not suspect that it is infected.
Coronavirus can infect anyone, but the effect will be more dangerous. Or even fatal if it occurs in elderly people, pregnant women, people who are sick, or people whose immune systems are weak.
Ankur Pradhan, a registered and practitioner staff nurse in Kanti Bal Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal and worked in Abudhabi medical center as a staff nurse. She has written some health-related books as well.