Civil Engineering in Nepal: – Civil engineering is the professional engineering discipline that deals with the construction, planning and maintenance of natural and physical environment including public works such as road, building, bridge, airport, canal dam etc.
Civil engineering is traditionally divided into a series of subdisciplines. It is the second oldest engineering discipline after military engineering and distinguishes non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering is carried out in the public sector, from municipal governments to national governments, and in the private sector, from individual owners to international companies.
Throughout the history of antiquity and the Middle Ages, most architectural design and construction have been done by artisans such as bricklayers and carpenters who have assumed the role of architects.
Knowledge remained in the guilds and was rarely suppressed by advances. The structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repeated, and the expansion gradually increased.
One of the first examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems in civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the third century BC.
Including the Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as the Archimedes Screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used in the 7th century AD in Hindu-Arabic numerical arithmetic for excavation calculations.
Civil Engineering in Nepal
Nepal is a country where “civil engineering” seems to be the only industry that seems to have a good influence. People in Nepal still imagine a civil engineer when they hear “engineer.”
Qualified civil engineers have always had demand in Nepal. However, the current situation has led to a collapse. Faculty members of the various universities we visited and professionals expect a resurgence in the near future.
As a civil engineer, your field of work should include the following areas:
- In private practice: You must plan, build, build and operate physical works and facilities that are used by the public.
- In the academic world: They teach students the basics of civil engineering. They could also participate in research to advance the state of the art.
- In public practice: You can participate in urban and / or regional planning, in the planning and construction of highways and pipelines.
- In combination with other disciplines: A Civil Engineering degree combined with a degree as Engineering Geologist, Engineering Economist or Engineer / Lawyer
Civil engineer profession in Nepal
Technology has been an aspect of life since the dawn of human existence. The first civil engineering practice may have started between 4000 and 2000 a. C.
In ancient Egypt, in the Indus Valley civilization, and in Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq), when people began to renounce nomadic life, which required the construction of shelters. During this time, transport became more important, which led to the development of the bicycle and sailing.
The construction of pyramids in Egypt (around 2700-2500 BC) was one of the first examples of large-scale construction. Other structures of historic buildings are the Qanat water management system (the oldest one is more than 3000 years old and more than 71 km long), the Ictinus Parthenon in ancient Greece (447-438 BC) and the Route of the Roman engineers in Apia (c. 312 BC), the Great Wall of China by General Meng Tien on behalf of Emperor Ch’in Shih Huang Ti (circa 220 BC) and the stupas erected in ancient Sri Lanka, such as the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura.
The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, islands, ports, bridges, dams and roads.
In the eighteenth century, the term civil engineering was coined to cover all civil and non-military. In 1771, Smeaton and several of his colleagues founded the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of professional leaders who met informally at dinner.
Although there were indications of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society.
The institution received a royal letter in 1828, in which civil engineering was officially recognized as a profession. His letter defines civil engineering as:
The art of directing the great sources of force in nature for the use and convenience of man as a means of production and for traffic in the states for foreign and domestic trade, as in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts and channels.
River navigation and docks are used for internal traffic and exchange, as well as for the construction of ports, ports, docks, breakwaters and lighthouses, and for the art of artificial shipping for commercial purposes, as well as for construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and communities.
Founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge, Norwich University was the first private civil engineering university in the United States. The first civil engineering degree in the United States was awarded in 1835 by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
The first title, awarded to a woman, was awarded in 1905 by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blotch.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the separation of civil engineering and military engineering (operated by the Royal Woolwich Military Academy) in the United Kingdom, together with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, led to new initiatives in engineering education: the Civil Engineering and Mining class became King’s in 1838 College in London, mainly in response to the growth of the rail system and the need for qualified engineers.
The private university for civil engineers in Putney was founded in 1839 and the first engineering chair in the United Kingdom was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840.
Civil Education in Nepal
Civil engineers usually have a degree in civil engineering. The duration of the study is three to five years, and the completed study is called Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Engineering.
The curriculum generally includes courses in physics, mathematics, project management, design and specific subjects in civil engineering. After attending basic courses in most civil engineering subdisciplines, they specialize in one or more subdisciplines for advanced students.
While a bachelor’s degree (BEng / BSc) generally equips successful students with an industry-recognized qualification, some academic institutions offer graduate degrees (MEng / MSc) that allow students to advance in their specific area of interest to specialize
Engineers in practice
In most countries, an engineering degree is the first step towards vocational certification, and a professional organization certifies the degree program. When completing a certified course of study, the engineer must meet a number of requirements, including work experience and exam requirements, before obtaining certification.
After certification, the engineer will be employed as a professional engineer (in the US, Canada and South Africa), as a licensed engineer (in most Commonwealth countries), as a licensed professional engineer (in Australia and New Zeeland) or as a European engineer (in most European countries) Union).
There are international agreements between relevant professional associations that allow engineers to practice across borders.
The benefits of certification vary by location. In other countries, including the United Kingdom, such laws have not been enacted. This requirement is imposed by state laws, such as the Quebec Engineers Act.
In other countries, including the United Kingdom, such laws have not been enacted. In Australia, state approval of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Almost all certification bodies have a code of ethics that all members must comply with.
Engineers must follow contractual law in their contractual relationships with other parties. In cases where the work of an engineer fails, the negligence law can be applied and in extreme cases of criminal prosecution. An engineer’s job must also comply with many other rules and regulations, such as building codes and environmental laws.
There are a number of subdisciplines in the broad field of civil engineering. General civil engineers work closely with surveying engineers and specialized civil engineers to carry out planning, drainage, walkways, water supply, sewerage, dams, energy and communications.
General civil engineering is also known as site engineering, a branch of civil engineering that focuses primarily on converting land from one use to another. Civil engineers spend time visiting project locations, meeting with stakeholders and creating plans.
Coastal engineering deals with the management of coastal areas. In some jurisdictions, the terms sea protection and coastal protection mean protection against flooding or erosion.
Construction engineering includes planning and execution, transport of materials, development of the site based on water, the environment, construction and geotechnical engineering. Since construction companies tend to have a greater commercial risk than other types of civil engineering companies, civil engineers often carry out commercial transactions, such as commercial transactions.
For example, drafting and review of contracts, evaluation of logistics processes and monitoring of delivery prices. Civil Engineering is a professional discipline involved in the design, construction and management of infrastructure such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railways, facilities, buildings, dams, public services and other projects. Civil engineers know a number of design aspects similar to civil engineering, as well as aspects of project site management.
In the field of education, civil engineering students focus primarily on the most analytical design work, which focuses on a career as a design professional. This essentially requires that they complete a variety of sophisticated engineering and design courses as part of a 4-year accredited degree.
The training of civil engineers focuses on construction methods, methods, costs, schedules and personnel management. Your main concern is to deliver a project on time within the budget and with the desired quality.
Earthquake or seismic engineering
In seismic engineering, the structures are designed to resist dangerous exposure to earthquakes. Seismic engineering is a subdiscipline of civil engineering.
The main objective of seismic engineering is to understand the interaction of structures in the unstable terrain. anticipate the consequences of possible earthquakes; Design, build and maintain structures that work in earthquakes in accordance with building codes.
Seismic engineering is an interdisciplinary engineering field that designs and analyzes structures such as buildings and bridges, taking into account earthquakes. The general objective is to make such structures earthquake proof. A seismic engineer (or seismic engineer) aims to build structures that are not damaged by minor shocks and that prevent severe damage or collapse in a severe earthquake.
Traditionally, it has been defined as the study of the behavior of structures and geo structures exposed to seismic loads; It is considered a subset of civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, etc.
However, the huge costs incurred in recent earthquakes have led to a broader scope of application to civil engineering disciplines such as engineering, mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering and social sciences, in particular sociology, political science, economics and finance.
Seismic engineering has evolved from a series of regulations that indirectly point to life safety in performance-based approaches that directly address a range of performance objectives, such as minimizing equipment repair costs in a range of intensities. of seismic shocks.
Performance-based approaches offer several benefits. They provide a more effective way to design structural systems to achieve higher performance objectives and to more fully consider various performance metrics that allow stakeholders to make informed decisions based on risk.
While engineers are familiar with performance metrics, such as drift, acceleration and loading, many decision makers prefer performance metrics that are more directly related to business decisions, such as downtime or repair costs.
A technical challenge was to constantly consider earthquake risks, structural behavior, damage and consequences, so that a complete probability statement can be made about the expected performance of the structures. This chapter presents a consistent but practical approach to performance-based earthquake technology (PBEE).
The approach takes into account seismic risks, structural reactions, damage and repair costs associated with the restoration of the original condition of the building, using a completely consistent probabilistic analysis.
The approach could be generalized to take into account other performance metrics, such as losses and downtime. The process is organized to be consistent with the usual procedures for building design, construction and analysis, so that it can be easily integrated into a planning approach.
The main objectives of the seismic technique are:
- Anticipate the possible consequences of strong earthquakes in urban areas and civil infrastructure.
- Design, build and maintain structures that meet the expectations and earthquake construction codes.
A properly designed structure does not necessarily have to be extremely strong or expensive. It must be designed to resist the effects of earthquakes while maintaining an acceptable level of damage.
Environmental technology is the current term for sanitary engineering, although sanitary engineering traditionally did not cover a large part of the work of environmental technology in the management of hazardous waste and environmental remediation. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms that are used.
Environmental technology topics include pollutant transport, water purification, sewage treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and disposal of hazardous waste.
Environmental engineers are working on pollution reduction, environmental technology and industrial ecology. Environmental engineers also collect information on the environmental impact of the proposed measures.
Environmental technology is the application of scientific and technical principles to improve and maintain the environment in order to:
- protect human health,
- protect the beneficial ecosystems of nature,
- Improve the environmental improvement of people’s quality of life.
Environmental engineers develop solutions for wastewater management, water and air pollution control, recycling, waste management and public health.
They evaluate hazardous waste disposal systems to assess the severity of such risks, advise on treatment and containment, and develop accident prevention regulations. They implement the environmental engineering law, as well as the environmental impact assessment of the planned construction projects.
Environmental engineers are studying the impact of technological advances on the environment, addressing local and global environmental problems, such as acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from exhaust of cars and industrial sources.
In most countries, recording and registration requirements apply to qualified environmental engineers.
Forensic Engineering is the study of materials, products, structures or components that do not work or work properly and cause personal injury or property damage. The consequences of a failure are regulated by the Product Responsibility Law.
The area also deals with traceability processes and procedures that lead to accidents in the operation of vehicles or machines. The problem is most commonly used in civil matters, although it can be useful in criminal matters.
In general, the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to determine the cause or causes of a failure, improve the performance or life of a component, or help a court determine the nature of an accident. This may also include the examination of patent applications, particularly patents.
Geotechnics studies underground and rock civil engineering systems. Knowledge in the fields of soil science, materials science, mechanics and hydraulics is used for the safe and economical design of foundations, retaining walls and other structures.
Environmental efforts to protect groundwater and ensure a safe landfill have generated a new area of research called geo environmental technology.
The identification of soil properties presents challenges for geotechnical engineers. In other areas of civil engineering, boundary conditions are often well defined. However, in contrast to steel or concrete, the properties of the material and the behavior of the soil are difficult to predict due to its variability and the limited scope of the investigation.
In addition, the soil exhibits nonlinear resistance (dependent on tension), stiffness and expansion (change in volume associated with the application of shear stress), which makes the study of soil mechanics even more difficult. Geo technicians often work with professional geologists and soil scientists.
Materials science and engineering.
Materials science is closely linked to civil engineering. It examines the basic properties of the material and deals with ceramics, such as concrete and mixed asphalt concrete, strong metals, such as aluminum and steel, and thermosetting polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly known as materials science and materials engineering, is the development and discovery of new, particularly solid materials. Materials science still includes elements of physics, chemistry and engineering.
As such, the field of academic institutions has been considered as part of these related fields. Since the 1940s, materials science was increasingly recognized as a specific and distinct area of science and technology, and major technical universities around the world established special faculties for study, whether within the Faculty of science or technology, that’s why they were named.
Materials science is a syncretistic discipline that combines metallurgy, ceramics, physics and solid-state chemistry. It is the first example of a new academic discipline created by fusion rather than division.
Many of the most pressing scientific problems that people face today are due to the limitations of the available materials and their use. Therefore, advances in materials science should have a significant impact on the future of technology.
Materials scientists give importance to understanding how the history of a material (its processing) influences its structure and, therefore, the properties and performance of the material.
The understanding of the relationships between processing structures and properties is known as the § material paradigm. This paradigm is used to boost understanding in a variety of research areas, including nanotechnology, biomaterials and metallurgy.
Materials science is also an important part of forensic technique and damage analysis. Examines materials, products, structures or components that do not work or work as intended and cause personal injury or property damage. Such investigations are the key to understanding the causes of various accidents and incidents in aviation.
Materials technology includes protection and prevention (paints and varnishes). The alloy combines two types of metals to produce another metal with the desired properties.
It contains elements of physics and applied chemistry. With the recent media attention on nanoscience and nanotechnology, materials science has been at the forefront of academic research. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and error analysis.
This involves identifying the charges that act on a structure and the forces and tensions that occur in that structure due to these charges, and then designing the structure to successfully withstand and resist those loads.
The loads can be the structure’s own weight, other dead loads, payloads, mobile loads (wheels), wind loads, earthquake loads, loads due to temperature changes, etc. The structural engineer must design structures that are safe and successful for its users to perform the function for which they were designed (to be repaired).
Due to the nature of some loading conditions, subdisciplines have emerged within the construction of buildings, including wind and earthquake engineering. Civil engineering is a subdiscipline of civil engineering, where civil engineers are trained to build the “bones and muscles” that shape and shape man-made structures.
Structural designers must understand and calculate the stability, strength and stiffness of structures for buildings and non-structures. Structural designs are integrated with other planners, such as architects and construction engineers, and often oversee the execution of projects by contractors on site.
The theory of civil engineering is based on the applied physical laws and empirical findings on the structural behavior of different materials and geometries. The structural design uses several relatively simple structural designers to create complex structural systems.
Civil engineers are responsible for the creative and efficient use of resources, components and materials to achieve these goals.
Design considerations include strength, stiffness and structural stability under static loads such as furniture or dead weight or dynamic loads such as wind, earthquakes, mass or vehicle loads or transient loads such as transient loads. Other contemplations comprise price, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.
Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that occur at or near the surface of the earth. Topography devices such as Alcohol Levels and Theodolites are used to accurately measure angular deviations as well as horizontal, vertical and inclined distances.
With computerization, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS topography and laser scanning have largely displaced traditional instruments. The data collected by topographical measurements are transformed in the form of a map into a graphical representation of the earth’s surface.
Civil engineers, contractors, and estate agents use this information to design, build, or act. The elements of a structure must be dimensioned and placed relative to each other and to the boundaries of the site and adjacent structures.
Topography or topography is the technique, the profession, the art and the science to determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of the points and the distances and angles between them. A surveyor is called a surveyor.
These points are usually located on the surface of the earth and are commonly used to map and restrict property, places such as building corners or the surface position of underground objects or other purposes prescribed by the state or law. Civil, as the sale of real estate.
Topography has been an element in the evolution of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most designs requires this. It is also used for transporting, communicating, mapping and establishing legal boundaries for land ownership.
Although the topography is an independent profession with separate qualification and approval systems, civil engineers are trained in the basic concepts of topography and mapping as well as geographic information systems. The surveyors also built railroad tracks, tram tracks, roads, pipes and roads and set up other infrastructure such as ports prior to construction.
In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries, surveying is considered a separate profession. Surveyors are not considered engineers and have their own professional associations and approval requirements.
The services of a recognized surveyor are typically required for border surveying (to define the boundaries of a property through a legal description) and subdivision plans (a plot or a map based on a survey of a property with contour lines within the property) indicating the construction of new borderlines and roads), both commonly known as the Cadaster topography.
The topography of buildings is usually done by specialized technicians. Unlike land surveyors, the resulting plan has no legal status. Surveyors perform the following tasks:
- Examine the existing conditions of the future workplace, including the topography, the existing buildings and infrastructure and, if possible, the underground infrastructure.
- “Design” or “Staking”: Places landmarks and markers that guide the construction of new structures, such as streets or buildings.
- Check the position of the structures during construction.
- Inventory: A photograph taken at the end of the construction project to ensure that the approved work has been carried out in accordance with the specifications set out in the plans.
Transportation or traffic engineering ensures the efficient, safe and vibrant community of people and goods. Aspects of traffic planning relate to urban planning elements and include forecasting decisions and political factors.
Passenger transport technical forecasting generally includes a model of urban transport planning, including the generation of journeys (number of specific journeys), the distribution of journeys (choice of destination to which the traveler will travel) and the choice of mode (chosen mode). and the destination traffic requires a route assignment (the roads or routes used), place of residence or business (the so-called land use forecast).
Passenger transportation is at the heart of transport technology as it is often the peak of demand in any transport system.
A review of the scope of the different committees shows that the planning and design of the plant remains at the heart of transport engineering, but also topics such as operational planning, logistics, network analysis, financing and policy analysis, especially for those working on the highway and in city traffic.
The National Audit Council for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) lists online safety protocols, geometric design requirements and signal times. The traffic engineering essentially comprises the planning, construction, construction, maintenance and operation of traffic facilities.
The facilities allow air, road, rail, tube, water and even space transports. Design aspects of traffic engineering include the dimensioning of traffic facilities (how many lanes or how much capacity the facility has), the determination of materials and thicknesses used in the design of the road geometry (vertical orientation and horizontal orientation) (or lane).
Before planning, an engineer must create a so-called inventory of the area or, if applicable, the previous system. The inventories help the engineer create business models to make accurate predictions about future system conditions.
Operation and management are designed so that vehicles can easily drive on the road or on the track. Older techniques include signs, signs, labels and tolls. Human factors are an aspect of traffic engineering, particularly in relation to the driver and vehicle interface and the user interface of traffic signs, signs and markers.
This includes the definition, planning, construction and maintenance of transport infrastructures, including roads, canals, roads, rail systems, airports, ports and local public transport.
It covers areas such as traffic planning, traffic planning, traffic engineering, some aspects of urban planning, queuing theory, road construction engineering, Intelligent Transport System (ITS) and traffic management.
Urban or municipal construction
The municipal engineering deals with the municipal infrastructure. These include the definition, planning, construction and maintenance of roads, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, the disposal and disposal of municipal waste and the deposition of various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc..), public parks and bicycle infrastructure.
This can also include the optimization of waste collection and bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other areas of civil engineering. Municipal engineers can also plan the construction of large buildings, industrial facilities or campuses (eg access roads, parking lots, drinking water supply, wastewater treatment or pre-treatment, site drainage, etc.).
Over the years, I realized that there is a common misconception about the role of a civil engineer in working with communities. Airport projects; It is expected that other community improvement projects will only be needed if large infrastructure projects are needed. Because of this perception, civil engineers are usually only used when a project is required.
On the other hand, a community has a team of other professionals who are consulted on various topics related to community activities. As a rule, the municipality has a city administrator and / or a secretary, a treasurer, a public prosecutor and a public construction manager.
For larger communities, different department heads can be responsible for specific community tasks. Each of these people has their experience and is considered a leader in their field. When questions arise about a specific function of the community, the individual is consulted with the respective experiences in order to form an opinion.
This team approach across all community topics leads to better planning, fewer problems and better functioning of the community in general. Thanks to good teamwork with the knowledge of different employees, the community is improving.
The civil engineer, however, is usually addressed only if a serious infrastructure problem occurs, an infrastructure improvement project must be carried out, an infrastructure problem must be solved or a compliance problem due to a federal mandate must be resolved / state. ,
A civil engineer adds another element of experience to the team by helping the community make routine decisions at community operations. Making good and good decisions about how the church works and how it will work will affect the future growth of the church in the long term.
Acting on the basis of a made decision could lead a community to a path that currently makes financial sense, but in the future could lead to an expensive solution.
I have seen a church decide that it was beneficial for community citizens to keep water prices low for a long period of time. After years of this culture, the community was experiencing a poorly maintained water system and improvements in pipes with pipe sizes that are inappropriate for the future growth of their land.
The conclusion was that years later, there was a significant increase in the rate to bring the infrastructure to a good point of operation without significant improvements in the rate increase.
In consultation with the external civil engineer on his team, the impact of the various decisions made and the expected results of several alternatives could have been discussed. This is just an example of how involving a civil engineer in the local government team leads to profitable long-term decision making.
The mission of EBH engineers is to help communities prosper and grow. This is done by making good decisions in all areas of a community’s work. Community leaders must seriously consider who should be on the team in order to make important decisions.
EBH engineers have the experience, experience and knowledge to help their community make decisions so they can thrive, grow and have the desired community!
Water Resource management
The water industry deals with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a subject, it combines elements of hydrology, environmental sciences, meteorology, nature conservation and resource management., the actual design of the system can be left to other engineers.
Hydraulic engineering deals with the flow and transport of liquids, mainly water. This civil engineering area is closely related to pipe planning, water supply networks, drainage systems (including bridges, dams, canals, sewers, dams, storm sewers) and canals.
Hydraulic engineers build these systems according to the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid static, fluid dynamics and hydraulics. Water Resources Engineering is the quantitative study of the water cycle: the distribution and circulation of water that connects the Earth’s atmosphere, earth and oceans.
Surface runoff is measured as the difference between precipitation and abstraction. Civil engineers are primarily concerned with the flow of open channels, which depends on the interaction between water and the canal. More recently, the concern to preserve our natural environment and meet the needs of developing countries has increased the importance of water resources technology.
Civil engineers play an important role in the optimal planning, design and operation of water resources systems. The employment opportunities in hydrology and water resources are very diverse.
Jobs are available in large and small consulting firms, as well as at all levels of government (municipal, provincial and federal). Especially in Quebec, hydrology has played an important role in the social and economic development of the province due to its abundant water resources.
By Shishir Acharya