Diagnostic of Cancer in Nepal
Cancer should be regularly checked by X-ray of Chest
Most cancers are initially recognized by either the onset or examination of signs or symptoms. None of these leads to a definitive diagnosis requiring a pathologist to examine a tissue sample. People suspected of cancer are examined by medical tests. They usually include blood tests, X-rays, a scanner (contrast) and an endoscopy.
The diagnosis of tissue from a biopsy shows the cell type, its histological grade, its genetic abnormalities, and other characteristics. Together, this information is useful for assessing prognosis and choosing the best treatment.
Isogenetics and immunohistochemistry are other types of tissue analysis. These tests provide information about molecular changes (such as mutations, fusion genes and changes in digital chromosomes) and can also predict and predict the best treatment.
Prevention of Cancer
Cancer prevention is defined as an active way to reduce the risk of cancer. The vast majority of cancer cases are caused by environmental risk factors. Many of these environmental factors are controlled by lifestyle choices.
So, cancer is usually preventative. Moderate and frequent cancers are due to environmental factors and therefore to possible prevention.
Not all environmental causes are controllable, such as natural radiation and cancers caused by hereditary genetic diseases, and therefore cannot be avoided by personal behavior.
Use diet Foods
Although many dietary recommendations have been suggested to reduce cancer risks, the evidence to support them is inconclusive. Obesity and alcohol consumption are the main dietary factors that increase your risk.
Low-fat diets for fruits and vegetables and red meat diets have been assumed, but clues and meta-analyses do not support a consistent conclusion. The meta-analysis finds no connection between vegetables and cancer.
In some circumstances, medications can be used to prevent cancer. However, due to cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, they are harmful for prevention. Aspirin has been shown to reduce the risk of cancer death approximately.
COX inhibitors can reduce the rate of polyp formation in people with familial adenomatous polyps. However, it is associated with the same side effects of NSAIDs. Daily use of tamoxifen or raloxifene reduces the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women. For an alpha-reductase injector, such as finasteride, the benefit/risk ratio is unclear.
Vitamin supplementation seems to be ineffective in preventing cancer. Although low blood levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of cancer, it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or not, and vitamin D supplementation is protective.
The review showed that the supplements had no significant effect on cancer risk. Another study concluded that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer deaths (fewer deaths per year for people treated), but data quality concerns have been raised. Beta-carotene supplementation raises lung cancer risk in high-risk individuals.
Vaccines have been developed to prevent certain cancerous viruses. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) Reduces Risk of Cervical Cancer the Hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with the hepatitis B virus and thereby reduces the risk of liver cancer. Management of human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccines is recommended when resources are allowed.
Unlike medical symptoms and diagnostic efforts, cancer screening involves efforts to detect cancer after training, but before any perceptible symptoms appear. This may include physical examination, blood or urine tests, or medical imaging.
Cancer is not available for many types of cancer. Even with tests, they may not be offered to everyone. Universal display or mass display includes everyone’s display.
Optional screening identifies people at higher risk, such as people with a family history. Several factors are taken into account to determine whether the benefits of screening outweigh the risks and costs of screening. These factors include:
- Possible Consequences of Screening Test: For example, x-rays imply an ionizing potential harmful radiation effect
- The probability that the test correctly identifies cancer
- Probability of cancer. Screening is usually not helpful for rare cancers.
- Potential damages arising from monitoring procedures
- If there is appropriate treatment
- If early detection improves treatment outcomes
- If cancer ever needs treatment
- If the test is acceptable to people: If the screening test is too restrictive (e.g., extremely painful), people will refuse to participate.
Suggestions to Cancer Patient
Nepal medical sector in Cancer makes recommendations against various cancers:
- It is strongly recommended to screen for cervical cancer in sexually active women and have cervical cancer at least until the age of one.
- Nepalese are advised to have colorectal cancer studies at an early age through fecal intestinal blood tests, sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
- Men under the age of 24 do not have sufficient evidence to suggest skin cancer, oral cancer, lung cancer, or prostate cancer.
- Normal screening is not recommended for bladder cancer, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, or prostate cancer.
- Offers mammography every two years after breast cancer screening, but does not offer self-examination or clinical breast examination. Cochrane suggested that mammography screening did not affect lower mortality rates due to cancer diagnosis and ovarian cancer.
Screening for gastric cancer by photofluorography because of its high incidence.
Genetic testing is recommended for people at high risk of certain cancers. Carriers of these mutations may then be subject to increased surveillance, prevention of chemotherapy or preventive surgeries to reduce risk.
There are many options for treating cancer. Priorities include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and palliative care. The treatments used depend on the type of cancer, its location and degree, and the health and preferences of the patient. The purpose of treatment can be curative or not.
The term contains several drugs, which are divided into broad categories such as alkylating agents and antimetabolites. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents work by killing cells, which divide rapidly to play an important role in most cells.
Targeted therapy is a form of chemotherapy that addresses the specific molecular differences between cancer and normal cells. The first targeted therapy blocked the estrogen receptor molecule, preventing the growth of breast cancer.
Another common example is the class of Bcr-Abl inhibitors used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). At present, there are targeted treatments for most of the most common types of cancer exist, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, collector cancer, kidney cancer, leukemia, liver cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, and thyroid gland. as well as other cancers.
The effectiveness of chemotherapy depends on the type and stage of cancer. In addition to surgery, chemotherapy is useful in cancers, including breast cancer, cancer of cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, cancer, and cancerous cancers.
Chemotherapy is curative for some cancers, such as leukemia, the inefficiency of some brain tumors and in others it is useless, like most skin cancers other than melanoma. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is often limited by its toxicity to other body tissues.
Even though chemotherapy does not provide permanent treatment, it may be helpful to reduce symptoms such as pain or inactive tumor size, hoping that surgery will be possible in the future.
Radiotherapy involves the use of ionizing radiation to try to treat or improve symptoms. It works by damaging the DNA of the cancerous tissue by killing it.
To maintain normal tissues (such as skin or organs whose radiation must cure the tumor), the irradiated bundles are directed at multiple angles of impact on the tumor incision, thereby providing a much higher dose than the surrounding healthy tissue. As in the case of chemotherapy, the cancer response to radiotherapy differs.
Radiation therapy is used in about half of the cases. Exposure may be from internal brachytherapy or external sources. Radiation is most often low-energy X-rays for the treatment of skin cancer, while high-energy X-rays are used for cancer inside the body.
Radiation is generally used in addition to surgery and/or chemotherapy. For some types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancers, it can be used alone. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in patients with painful bone loss.
Surgery is the main treatment for isolated and solid cancers and may play a role in palliation and prolongation of survival. This is usually an important part of the definitive diagnosis and staging of tumors, as a biopsy is usually required.
In the case of localized cancer, surgery usually attempts to remove the entire mass, in some cases the lymph nodes of the area. For some types of cancer, this is enough to eliminate cancer.
Palliative care for cancer patient
Palliative care is a treatment designed to help the patient feel better and can be associated with a cancer treatment experience. Palliative care includes actions to reduce physical, emotional, spiritual and psychosocial distress. Unlike treatments that kill cancer cells directly, the primary goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life.
At all stages of cancer treatment, people are usually given palliative care. In some cases, professional medical organizations advise patients and physicians to fight cancer only with palliative care. This applies to patients who:
- Poor performance, assuming limited personal care capacity
- Did not benefit from initial evidence-based treatments
- Are not eligible to participate in appropriate clinical trials
- No solid evidence suggests that treatment will be effective
Palliative care can be confused with hospitalization and is only indicated when people are nearing the end of their lives. Like hospital care, palliative care products try to help the patient meet their immediate needs and improve their comfort. Unlike hospital care, palliative care does not require people to stop cancer treatment.
Many national medical guidelines recommend that early palliative care be provided to patients whose cancer has caused disturbing symptoms or needs their help. Palliative care may be indicated immediately in patients for whom metastatic cancer is diagnosed for the first time. Palliative care is indicated for patients with a lower monthly life expectancy, even if they are aggressive.
A number of therapies using immunotherapy, strengthening or helping the immune system fight cancer, have been in place since the beginning. Approaches include antibodies, control point therapy and cell transplantation.
Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to heal cancer by reducing or destroying the growth of tumors or precancerous cancers. Lasers are most often used to treat superficial cancers located on the surface of the body or lining the internal organs.
It is used for the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and many other early stages, such as cervical, penile, vaginal, vulvar and small lung cells. It is often associated with other treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Laser interferon thermal thermotherapy (LITT) or interpretive laser photocoagulation uses lasers to treat certain cancers of hyperthermia, which use heat to reduce them by damaging or killing them.
Lasers are more accurate than surgery and cause less damage, pain, bleeding, swelling and scarring. The disadvantage is that surgeons must have specialized training. This may be more expensive than other treatments.
Alternative medicine for cancer in Nepal
Complementary and alternative cancer treatments are a diverse group of therapies, practices, and products that are not part of conventional medicine.
The term “alternative medicine” refers to the methods and materials used in conjunction with conventional medicine, and the term “alternative medicine” refers to compounds used in place of conventional medicine. Many complementary and alternative therapies for cancer have not been studied or tested using conventional techniques such as clinical trials.
Some alternative treatments have been studied and found to be ineffective, but they are still marketed and promoted. Cancer researcher Andrew V. Wickers said: “The” unsuccessful “label is inappropriate for such treatment, and it is time to say that many alternative cancers have been” rejected “.
Survival rates vary according to the type of cancer and the stage at which it is diagnosed, from the survival of the majority to mortality five years after diagnosis. Once cancer has changed, the prognosis usually deteriorates.
Approximately half of the patients receiving invasive cancer treatment (except infectious cancers and skin cancers other than melanoma) die of this cancer or its treatment. Survival in today’s world is deteriorating, in part because the most common types of cancer are more difficult to treat than in developed countries.
Those who survive cancer develop the second primary cancer, about twice as often as those who have not been diagnosed.
The increased risk is thought to be due to the random risk of developing cancer, the likelihood of surviving first cancer, the same risk factors that caused first cancer, and the undesirable side effects of the first cancer treatment (especially, radiation exposure) and better compliance.
The prediction of survival in the short or long term depends on many factors. The most important is the type of cancer and the age and overall health of the patient. Those who suffer from other health problems have lower survival rates than those in good health.
Millennials are unlikely to survive for five years, even if the treatment is effective. People who report a higher quality of life tend to live longer. People with a lower quality of life may suffer from the effects of depression and other complications and/or illnesses that affect the quality and quantity of life. Also, patients whose prognosis is worse may be depressed or have a poorer quality of life because they realize that their condition may be fatal.
People with cancer are at high risk of life-threatening blood clots. The use of blood thinners, such as heparin, reduces the risk of blood clots but does not appear to increase survival in people with cancer. People taking blood thinners also have a higher risk of bleeding.
Actual Fact about Cancer in Nepal
The age-standardized death rate for each cancer, persons. The calculations are as follows: Millions of new cases of cancer and. there are millions of deaths in the world. Men and women will get cancer for a while, while men and women will die.
Approximately, it has been diagnosed with millions of cancers (except skin cancer without melanoma and other non-invasive cancers) and almost all. millions are dead. Cancellations are deaths. The most common is lung cancer.
Million deaths, colon cancer gastric cancer, liver cancer, and breast cancer. This makes invasive cancer the leading cause of death in developed countries and the second cause in the developing world. More than half of all cases occur in developing countries.
The deaths were due to cancer. inside a million. Mortality increases mainly because of longer life expectancy and lifestyle changes in developing countries. Age is the most important factor in the development of cancer. Although cancer can be reached at any age, most patients with invasive cancer have completed it.
According to cancer researcher Robert A. Weinberg. “If we lived long enough, sooner or later we would all be cancerous.” Part of the association between aging and cancer has been attributed to immunosuppression, lifetime DNA accumulation errors, and age-related changes in the endocrine system.
The effect of aging on cancer is exacerbated by factors such as DNA damage and inflammation that contribute to it, as well as factors such as vascular aging and endocrine system changes. Some slow-growing cancers are particularly common, but they are often not fatal.
Post-mortem studies in Europe and Asia have shown that at the time of death, cancers under 14 years of age were undiagnosed and that men developed prostate cancer year after year. Since these cancers do not lead to the death of the patient, their identification was more likely to be a diagnosis of overeating than useful medical care.
The three most common cancers in children are leukemia, brain tumors, and lymph nodes. In Nepal, cancer affects children. Cancer prices in children have increased. less than a year between Nepal and other countries. every year and in Europe.
Infant cancer deaths have halved in Nepal. Although many diseases (such as heart failure) may have a worse prediction than most cases of cancer, cancer is a subject of widespread fear and taboo.
The euphemisms of “long illness” that describe cancer that causes death is still commonly used in dishonesty, rather than simply referring to the disease as a manifest stigma. In Nigeria, a local name for cancer is translated into English as “a disease that cannot be cured”.
This deep conviction that cancer is certainly a difficult and generally fatal disease is reflected in the systems chosen by the public to compile statistics on cancer; The most common form of cancer is skin cancer without melanoma, which accounts for one-third of all cancers worldwide, but very few deaths. cancer statistics are excluded because they are easy to heal and almost always treated, often in one short, ambulatory procedure.
Western conceptions of the rights of cancer patients include the obligation to fully disclose a person’s state of health and the right to make joint decisions in a manner that respects one’s values. In other cultures, other rights and values are preferable.
For example, most African cultures value whole families as individuals. In some parts of Africa, the diagnosis is usually made in such a way that treatment is impossible and treatment, if any, can quickly bankrupt the family.
Because of these factors, African health care providers are inclined to decide when, how, and how to diagnose a family member, and they tend to do so slowly and circularly when the person shows interest and can resist the bad news.
People in Asian and South American countries also prefer a slower and more sincere screening approach than the one idealized in the US and Western Europe and think it is sometimes better not to talk about the diagnosis of cancer.
In general, detection of the diagnosis is more common than in the X century, but full disclosure is not recommended to many patients around the world.
In Nepal and many other cultures, cancer is a disease that must be “combated” to end the “civil uprising”. A war against cancer has been declared in Nepal.
Military metaphors are particularly prevalent in descriptions of the impact of cancer in humans and emphasize both the patient’s state of health and the urgency of taking decisive action alone, rather than delaying, ignoring or to rely entirely on others. Military metaphors also help to rationalize destructive attitudes.
In Nepal, alternative cancer treatment in CC was a specialized form of conversation therapy based on the notion that cancer was caused by abuse. People with “cancer”, overwhelmed, depressed, confident and fearful of expressing their fears thought that cancer was manifested by a subconscious desire.
Some psychotherapists have stated that treatment to change the vision of a patient’s life would cure cancer. Among other consequences, this belief has allowed the public to accuse the victim of having caused cancer (“the wishing”) or of preventing treatment (lack of happiness, fear, and love).
It also exacerbated patients’ anxiety because they mistakenly thought that the natural emotions of sadness, anger or fear had shortened their lives. Susan Sontag mocked this idea, she published Illness as a metaphor as she was recovering from treatment for breast cancer.
Although the original idea is now generally considered nonsense, it survives in part in a diminished form, with the widespread but mistaken belief that intentionally developing a habit of positive thinking will increase survival. This idea is particularly strong in breast cancer culture.
One of the ideas about why people with cancer are accused or stigmatized, called the Just World Version, is that attributing cancer to the actions or attitudes of the patient allows the perpetrator to regain a sense of control.
This is based on the authors that the world is fundamentally right, so any dangerous disease, such as cancer, must be punished for bad choices because the wrong things in the fair world will not happen to the right people.
Economic effect For Cancer in Nepal
In Nepal, the total cost of maintaining cancer-related health is estimated at 50 lakhs to 1 crore. In recent decades, the cost of cancer-related health care has increased, but the share of health care costs associated with cancer has remained close to that of these countries.
A similar example has been observed in Europe, where all health care costs are spent on cancer treatment. In addition to the costs of health care, cancer has indirect costs for lost productivity and premature death, as well as for informal care. Indirect costs are generally estimated to outweigh the costs of maintaining cancer health.
Workplace of Cancer in Nepal
In Nepal, cancer is considered a disease protected by the NCO, mainly because of the likelihood of workers exerting a differentiating influence. Discrimination in the workplace can occur if the employer has the misconception that the person with cancer is unable to perform their job properly and may require more time off than other employees.
Employers can also make decisions on dismissal or dismissal based on their misconceptions about disability. The NCO provides employers with interview guides, as well as lists of possible solutions for assessing and accommodating cancer workers.
Research by Nepal cancer Organization
Inhibitors of angiogenesis have long been confused with the potential of a “miracle solution” treatment applicable to many types of cancer. Inhibitors of angiogenesis and other cancer treatments are used in combination to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality.
Experimental cancer treatments are being investigated in clinical trials to compare treatment with the best available treatment. Treatments that have been successful in one type of cancer can be tested against other types. Diagnostic tests are in the development phase to properly treat the right patients based on their biology.
Cancer research focuses on the following questions:
- Agents (such as viruses) and events (such as mutations) that cause or contribute to genetic alterations in the cells identified for cancer.
- The exact nature of the genetic damage and genes affected.
- The effects of these genetic modifications on cell biology, both to determine the determinant properties of cancer cells and to facilitate other genetic events leading to further cancer progression.
Since then, the country has spent more than 10 million on cancer research, including public and private resources. The cancer mortality rate (adjusted for population size and age) decreased by five percent.
Competition for financial resources seems to have suppressed the creativity, collaboration, risk-taking and original thinking needed for fundamental discoveries, inadvertently contributing to low-risk research on small advances in risk-based and more innovative research.
The other consequences of competition are, it seems, studies of the dramatic demands that results cannot be replicated and the perverse incentives that contribute to the growth of granting agencies without sufficient investment in their faculties and institutions. Viral surgery using converting viruses is under study.
Cancer on Pregnancy
Cancer affects approximately pregnant women. The most common cancers during pregnancy are the same as those identified during pregnancy: breast cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian cancer, and cancer.
It is difficult to diagnose new cancers in pregnant women, in part because it is generally assumed that all symptoms are normal pregnancy-related anxiety.
As a result, cancer is usually detected a little later than the average. Some imaging procedures, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT scans, ultrasound scans, and fetal shield mammograms are considered safe during pregnancy; some, like a PET scan, no.
Treatment is usually the same as in non-pregnant women. However, radiation and radioactive drugs are usually avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose may exceed CG.
In some cases, some or all of the treatments are delayed until birth if the cancer is diagnosed at an advanced stage of pregnancy. Early births are often used to advance treatment. Surgery is usually safe, but pelvic surgeries can cause miscarriage in the first trimester.
Some treatments, including some chemotherapy drugs given in the first trimester, increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss (abortions and spontaneous deliveries).
Non-urgent miscarriages are not needed and the most common forms and stages of cancer do not improve the mother’s survival. In some cases, such as advanced cancer of the uterus, pregnancy may not be continued and in others, the patient may terminate it so that she can begin aggressive chemotherapy.
Some treatments may interfere with the ability to give birth easily or breastfeed. Cervical cancer can occur by cesarean section. Breast exposure reduces breast milk production capacity and increases the risk of mastitis. Also, when chemotherapy is given after birth, many drugs appear in breast milk, which can harm the baby.
Cancer on Other animals
Veterinary oncology, which targets mainly dogs and cats, is a growing profession in rich countries and can offer basic treatments for humans, such as surgery and radiation therapy.
The most common types of cancer vary, but the burden of cancer seems at least as high in pets as in humans. Animals, usual rodents, are often used in cancer research, and studies of large animals with natural cancers may benefit from cancer research.
Non-humans have described several types of transmissible cancers, in which cancer spreads among animals by transmitting the tumor cells themselves. This phenomenon is observed in dogs with Streak’s sarcoma (also known as a venereal tumor of cattle), and in Tasmanian devils with DFD.
Most common type of Cancer in Nepalese women
Symptoms of breast cancer may include breast nodules, breast changes, dark skin, secretions from the breast, a new nipple in rotation, or red or scaly patches of skin. People with distant diseases can have bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath or yellow skin.
Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical activity, alcohol use, hormone replacement therapy, ionizing radiation, menstrual cycle, early adolescence, childbirth later in life: cancer and family history.
Incidence cases are linked to genes inherited from his parents, including BRCA and BRCA. Breast cancer develops most often in cells, from the lining of the lymph nodes and lobes that feed the tubes into milk.
Currents that develop from the flow are known as duct cancers and those from legumes are called lung carcinomas. Also, there is more than any other subtype of breast cancer. Some cancers, such as intestinal cancers in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions.
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Nepal
The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by this biopsy. Once the diagnosis is made, additional tests are performed to determine if cancer has spread beyond the breast and if the treatments are likely to be effective.
The other benefits of breast cancer screening are controversial. Cochran notes that it is unclear whether mammography screening is better or harmful. A study by the NCO Task Force on Preventive Services found benefits for older adults and the organization recommends researching women every two years.
Tamoxifen or raloxifene medicines can be used to prevent breast cancer in women at high risk of developing it. Surgical removal of both breasts is also a highly preventative measure for some high-risk women. People diagnosed with cancer can benefit from many treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy.
The types of surgery vary from breast conservation surgery to mastectomy. Breast reconstruction can occur at the time of surgery or later. For those whose cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are primarily aimed at improving the quality of life and comfort.
The outcome of breast cancer varies according to the type of cancer, the degree of the disease and the age of the person. In developed countries, the survival rate is high. England and Nepal are in good health for at least many years. In developing countries, the survival rate is lower.
Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer among women worldwide at all costs. This has resulted in millions of new cases and deaths. It is more common in developed countries and among women than men.
Signs and symptoms during breast cancer
Breast cancer, which presents a deafening twist, a size and a lightening of the skin. The first visible symptom of breast cancer is usually a stiffness different from the rest of the breast tissue.
There are more cases of breast cancer when a woman feels bumpy. The earliest breast cancer is detected by mammography. The trunks found in the lymph nodes located in Armavir may also indicate breast cancer.
In addition to indications for breast cancer, it may include a different condensation than another breast tissue, with a breast becoming larger or lower, the nurse’s position or shape-changing or turning. deaf / d, permanent pain, and swelling of part of the chest or chair under the jaw or under the cable.
Pain (“mastodynia”) is an unreliable tool for determining the presence or absence of breast cancer but may be related to other breast health problems.
Another symptomatic complex of breast cancer is Paget’s disease. This syndrome is in the form of skin changes similar to those of eczema; as redness, discoloration or a slight blotch of dull skin.
As a progressive disease of Paget’s breast, symptoms may include congestion, itching, increased sensitivity, burning, and pain. There may also be a mucus leak. About half of the women diagnosed with Paget’s disease also have breast cancer.
Inflammatory breast cancer has similar effects. Inflammatory breast cancer is rare (seen in less than one diagnosis of breast cancer), but it is an aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by a red and swollen area that forms on the top of the breast.
The visual effects of inflammatory breast cancer result from the blockage of lymphatic vessels by cancer cells. This type of breast cancer is most often diagnosed at an earlier age, in obese women and African-American women. Because inflammatory breast cancer does not occur as a mass, the diagnosis can sometimes be delayed.
In rare cases, what initially appears as a fibroadenoma (a serious, non-cancerous, removable tumor) may be a fibrous tumor. Phyllode tumors are formed within the breast stroma (connective tissue) and contain glandular and stromal tissues. Filamentous tumors are usually not staged; they are classified under a microscope according to their benign, borderline or malignant appearance.
Malignant tumors can cause metastases, secondary tumors (of the original primary tumor) that extend beyond the origin. The symptoms of metastatic breast cancer depend on the location of the metastases. Common areas of metastasis include bones, liver, lungs, and brain.
When cancer has reached such an invasive stage that it is classified as a phase cancer, cancer of this condition is often fatal. Common symptoms of stage cancers include unexplained weight loss, bone and joint pain, jaundice and neurological symptoms. These symptoms are called nonspecific symptoms because they can be a manifestation of many other diseases.
Many of the symptoms of breast cancer, including those of the majority, seem to be underlying. For example, less than cancers, and benign breast diseases, such as breast mastitis and fibroadenoma, are more common than breast cancer symptoms.
Screening on Breast cancer
Breast cancer research is testing breast cancer in healthy women, trying to get an earlier diagnosis, suggesting that early detection would improve outcomes.
Several screening tests were used including clinical and breast self-examinations, mammography, genetic testing, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical examination or breast self-examination involves a sense of loss or other abnormality. Clinical breast exams are performed by health care providers and individual breast examination is performed by one person.
The evidence does not support the effectiveness of any type of breast exam, because it is large enough to be found over time, probably for several years, and will soon be large enough to be found without examination. Mammographic screening for breast cancer uses X-rays to analyze any unwanted mass or lesion to examine the breast.
During the screening, the breast is compressed and the technician takes pictures from several angles. General mammography captures the entire breast, while diagnostic mammography focuses on a specific mass or area of concern.
Several national authorities recommend breast cancer research. For the average woman, the US Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Physicians offer mammograms to women about two years of age every two years.
The Council of Europe recommends monographs between the two-year programs and most of them, and in Canada. Recommended for children under 10 years old.
The reports of this working group indicate that in addition to unnecessary surgical procedures and anxiety, the more common mammogram risks include a slight but significant increase in breast cancer due to radiation.
Cochrane Collaboration points out that the evidence of the best quality does not show any reduction in the specificities of cancer nor reduction of all-cause mortality after screening mammography.
When less severe tests are added to the tests, there is a decrease in breast cancer mortality. (Reduced breast cancer mortality over time or relatively low incidence of breast cancer). Years of research have led to an increase in the level of excessive growth and excessive growth (each), and more than half will have at least one false-positive test.
This led to thinking that it is not clear if the mammogram is better or worse. Cochrane stresses that because of recent improvements in breast cancer treatment and the risk of false positives resulting from breast cancer screening, which leads to inappropriate treatment, “it does not appear to be more beneficial to breast cancer”.
It is not known whether MRI, as a screening method, has greater harm or benefit than standard mammography.
The stage of breast cancer is the most important element of traditional breast cancer classification because it has a greater impact on prognosis than other considerations.
The performance takes into account size, local involvement, lymph node status, and metastatic disease. The higher the diagnostic stage, the worse the prediction. The stage increases the invasiveness of the disease to the lymph nodes, chest wall, skin or beyond, and the aggressiveness of the cancer cells.
The stage is lowered by the presence of areas without cancer and normal behavior (classification) in the cells. Size is not a determining factor in staging until there is cancer invasive.
For example, the localized cancer of cancer (DCIS), which encompasses the entire breast, will always be at zero stage and, therefore, highly predictable with a two-year disease-free survival. Stage cancers (and DCIS, LCIS) have an excellent prognosis and are usually treated with lumpectomy and sometimes radiotherapy.
Stages and cancers that are less and less prognostic and have an increased risk of recurrence are generally treated surgically (lumpectomy or mastectomy with or without removal of the lymph nodes), chemotherapy (more TRAFICIAL: HER + cancer) and numerous lymph node cancers. positive) or lumpectomy). metastatic cancer (that is, spreading to distant sites) has a poor prognosis and is treated with a different combination of surgical operations, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. The 10-year survival rate is untreated and optimal.
The level of breast cancer is estimated by comparing cancer cells to normal breast cancer. The closer the normal cancer cells are, the slower their growth and prediction.
If the cells are not well differentiated, they will look unhealthy, crack faster and tend to spread. The differential is given to one degree, the moderate to the class, and the poor or the poor to the highest or (depending on the scale used). The most common classification system is the Nottingham system.
Younger women or older women generally have a poorer prognosis than menopausal women due to several factors. Their breasts can change during their menstrual cycles, they can be breastfed and they may not be aware of their breast changes.
As a result, young women are usually at a more advanced stage of diagnosis. Certain biological factors may also contribute to increasing the risk of recurrence of the disease in young women with breast cancer.
Pregnancy period on Nepalese women while Cancer
Early pregnancy reduces the risk of developing breast cancer later. The risk of breast cancer is also reduced by the number of women who have it. Breast cancer becomes more prevalent during or after pregnancy but becomes less prevalent than in the general population.
This cancer, called postnatal breast cancer, has more serious consequences, including the risk of spread of the disease and mortality. Other cancers found during or shortly after pregnancy are at about the same rate as other women of the same age.
Is Radiation therapy effect to mother or not during pregnancy?
Radiation therapy can affect the mother’s ability to breastfeed because it reduces the capacity to produce breast milk and increases the risk of developing mastitis.
Besides, after chemotherapy after delivery, many drugs pass the breast milk to the baby, which can harm the child. About future pregnancy among breast cancer survivors, there is often a fear of recurrence. On the other hand, many still consider pregnancy and parenthood to be normal, happy and satisfying.
Breast cancer, also known as leukemia, is a group of blood cancers that usually starts in the bone marrow and causes an abnormal blood cell count.
These blood cells are not fully developed and are called blast cells or leukemia cells. Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, fatigue, fever, and a high risk of infection. These symptoms are due to the absence of normal blood cells. The diagnosis is usually made with a blood test or a bone marrow biopsy.
The exact cause of leukemia is unknown. It is assumed that a combination of genetic and environmental (non-heritable) factors play a role. Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals (such as gasoline), pre-chemotherapy, and Down syndrome. People with a family history of leukemia are also at greater risk.
There are four main types of leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as well as several fewer common types. Leukemias and lymphomas belong to a larger group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue tumors.
Treatment may include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, in addition to the need for attendant care and palliative care. Some types of leukemia can be managed with caution. The average five-year survival rate is in Nepal.
The survival rate of children under five years is higher than that depending on the type of leukemia. In children with acute leukemia and no cancer after five years, cancer will not return. By the way, leukemia was present. and millions of people have died.
There are newly developed people. It is the most common type of cancer in children, three-quarters of them with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, all leukemias are diagnosed in adults, in adults with AML and CLL. It is more common in developed countries.
By Shishir Acharya