Cancer is a group of diseases in which cell growth is abnormal. Get here all information about cancer disease in Nepal with causes, symptoms and natural treatment & diagnosis.
Short description of Cancer
Cancer is a group of diseases in which cell growth is abnormal and can invade or spread to other parts of the body. These are opposed to benign tumors that do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump sum, abnormal bleeding, persistent cough, unexplained weight loss, and changes in bowel movements.
Smoking is the cause of death by cancer. Others are caused by overweight, malnutrition, lack of physical activity or excessive alcohol consumption. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental contaminants.
In developing countries, cancers are caused by infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).). These factors at least partially modify the genes of the cell.
Generally, many genetic changes are needed before cancer develops. Cancer is caused by genetic defects inherited from human parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or by screening tests. Subsequently, it is usually examined by medical imaging and confirmed by a biopsy.
“Early detection is useful for cervical cancer and colorectal cancer. The benefits of breast cancer screening are contradictory Cancer is often treated with a combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
The treatment of pain and symptoms is an important area of attention. Palliative care is especially important for people with advanced disease. The probability of survival depends on the type of cancer and the degree of disease at the start of treatment.
For diabetic children, the average five-year survival rate in industrialized countries is on average. The average five-year cancer survival rate in Nepal.
About millions of people have had cancer. There are millions of new cases each year (except for melanoma, except for skin cancer). The reasons are over. Millions of deaths). The most common cancers in men are cancers of the lung, prostate, colon, and stomach.
The most common types of women are breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. If skin cancer, which is not melanoma, was included in the total number of new cancers each year, this would be the case.
In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are more common, except in Africa, where non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are more common.
For example, cancer has been diagnosed in children under 6 years of age. The risk of cancer increases with age and many cancers are more common in developed countries. Values are rising as more and more people live in old age and change their lifestyle in developing countries.
The financial cost of cancer is estimated at billions of dollars a year. In the context of Nepal, it is so common. ye they form a subgroup of tumors. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have grown uncontrollably and often form a mass or size that can nonetheless propagate diffusely.
All tumor cells have six characteristics of cancer. These properties are necessary to cause a malignant tumor. include:
- Growth and cell division without relevant signals.
- Continuous growth and division even with opposing signals.
- Avoid programmed cell death.
- Unlimited cellular divisions.
- Contribute to the construction of blood vessels.
- Tissue invasion and metastasis.
The progression of normal cells into cells, which can form a detectable mass by an absolute cancer, involves several stages called malignant progression.
Nepal cancer Data Collection and Registry
The hospital-based cancer registry has been established in Nepal since 2003 with the support of the World Health Organization (Pun et al., 2015). Nepal is located between India and China, where both countries have substantial information on cancer rates.
According to previous studies, the number of cancer cases in Nepal has found that lung cancer is leading cancer in men, while cervical cancer is leading cancer in women (Pun et al., Poudel et al., 2016).
Due to the lack of a population-based cancer registry in Nepal, we used hospital cases and appointments based on the census data (Nepali Population Monograph, 2014).
The burden of cancer will increase both in Nepal and for men and women. Due to the inaccessibility of the population-based cancer registry, it is difficult to accurately predict the level of future cases.
However, using hospital data for cancer prediction in Nepal, it has been found that it will certainly increase among men and women between 2013 and 2020.
Natural treatment in Nepal
Natural medicine aims to restore the body’s ability to protect, regulate and heal itself. This analyzes your physical, mental and emotional well-being. It is also called phytomedicine, herbal medicine or botanical therapy. Alternative therapy for cancer patients is an herbal remedy.
- Gerson Therapy and Juice
- Protocol for quarters of egg yolk
- Enzymatic protein therapy
- Cleaning vitamin C
- Therapy of essential oil with aroma
- Probiotic foods and supplements
- Sun and vitamin D
- Oxygen therapy and hyperparetic chambers.
How to solve mouth dry problem for Nepalese people when there is cancer?
Cancer treatment, especially at the head and neck, can reduce saliva. Dry mouth can make food difficult to chew and swallow. It can also change the taste of food. Eat healthy foods and drink fluids that will help you feel better during treatment.
Try these tips to help dry mouth.
- Take a bottle of water with you. Drink a tablespoon of water every few minutes.
- Avoid sweet candies, popcorn and ice chips.
- Chewing gum.
- Ask your doctor which products moisturize your mouth.
- Eat soft foods and moisten them with sauces, cereals or salad bars.
- Do not drink beer, wine or other spirits. Alcohol can dry the mouth.
- Rinse your mouth every day with baking soda, a mouthful (tsp) of salt. You can also use a mouthwash that does not contain alcohol. Wash and spit. Do not swallow. After finishing, rinse your mouth with clear water.
How Nepalese people Improve when there is Cancer problem with Loss of appetite?
Loss of appetite is one of the most common problems in the treatment of cancer. Eating healthy foods and fluids will help you feel better during treatment.
Follow these tips to improve your appetite:
- Drink liquids if you do not want to eat solid foods. Try juices, soups, milkshakes, and liquid or powdered foods such as the essentials for Carnation, Boost or Provide breakfast.
- Keep snacks with you and eat when you feel it.
- Drink fluids between meals so you do not overload your meal.
Cancer Curing for Nepalese in their Own Home by Control their Sore Throat
Cancer treatment can cause sore mouth, mouth ulcers, weak gums or sore throats. This makes it difficult to chew or swallow. Ask your doctor to give you medicine to help relieve the pain in your mouth and throat. To relieve and prevent sore mouth or throat, you can take certain steps:
- Eat soft foods.
- Bananas, apples or other soft
- Cottage cheese or yoghurt
- Potatoes Mashed potatoes or noodles
- Cheese macaroni
- Canned, pudding or gelatin
- Scrambled eggs
- Oatmeal or cooked cereals
- Vegetables Condensed or puréed vegetables
Avoid foods that could damage your mouth.
- Orange, grapefruit, lemon, etc.
- citrus fruits and juice
- Tomato sauce or juice
- spicy foods
- acid dishes
- Raw vegetables, berries, toast,
- crackers or other raw foods
- Hot foods or liquids
Signs and symptoms During Cancer
The symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor. When the cancer starts, there are no symptoms. The signs and symptoms appear when the body gets fat or becomes infected. The results may depend on the type and location of the cancer.
Only a few symptoms are specific. Many are common among people with other diseases. Cancer is difficult to diagnose and can be considered an “excellent imitator”. After the diagnosis, people may be worried or depressed. The risk of suicide in cancer patients is twice as high.
Local symptoms may be due to the tumor mass or its ulcers. For example, the massive effects of lung cancer can obstruct the bronchus and cause coughing or pneumonia. Esophageal cancer can cause the narrowing of the esophagus, making it difficult or difficult to swallow.
Colorectal cancer can cause intestinal disorders or constipation, which can affect intestinal habits. Masses in the chest or testes can form visible clusters. Although localized cancers may cause localized pain, the primary tumor is usually an analgesic. Some types of cancer can cause fluid build-up in the chest or abdomen.
Systemic symptoms may occur due to the body’s reaction to cancer. This can include fatigue, voluntary weight loss or skin changes. Certain types of cancer can cause systemic inflammatory conditions, resulting in permanent muscle loss and weakness called cachexia. Some cancers, such as Hodgkin’s disease, leukemia, and liver or kidney cancer, can cause fever.
Some systemic symptoms of cancer are caused by hormones or other oncogenic molecules known as paraneoplastic syndromes. The common syndromes of the paraneoplastic syndrome include hypercalcemia, which can lead to impaired mental status, constipation and dehydration or hyponatremia, as well as changes in mental status, vomiting, headache or convulsions.
Cancer can spread from its home site through the local spread, lymphatic spread in regional lymph nodes, or blood-borne spread to distant sites called metastases.
When cancer spreads through the blood, it can spread to the whole body but is more likely to spread to certain areas depending on the type of cancer.
The symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on the location of the tumor and may include enlarged lymph nodes (which may feel under the skin or sometimes appear and are usually severe), enlarged liver or enlarged spleen, susceptible to affect the abdomen or abdominal tract, pain or abdominal pain. Symptoms.
Causes of Cancer in Nepal (Especially in Unawareness people)
Most cancers, about 89 cases, are caused by genetic mutations in the environment and lifestyle. The other 11 are due to hereditary genetics. Environmental refers to any non-genetically inherited cause, such as lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors, and not just pollution.
Tobacco, diet, and obesity, (-) infections, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, lack of physical activity and contamination are common environmental factors contributing to cancer death. Psychological stress does not appear to be a risk factor for cancer, although it may worsen the consequences for people already suffering from cancer.
It is usually not possible to prove the cause of particular cancer because different causes do not have specific fingerprints.
For example, if a person who uses cigarettes develops lung cancer significantly, this is probably due to smoking, but as they are all unlikely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution or radiation, cancer can be the cause.
Chemical products in different foods
Lung cancer is strongly linked to smoking. The impact of specific substances is linked to specific types of cancer. These substances are called carcinogens. For example, tobacco smoke causes lung cancer.
It also causes cancers of the neck, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidneys, esophagus and pancreas. Tobacco smoke contains more than fifty known carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Tobacco is responsible for one cancer death worldwide and one in three in developed countries. Lung cancer mortality rates in Nepal have mirrored smoking patterns, increased smoking followed by a sharp increase in lung cancer mortality and, recently, a decline in smoking rates, men having had lower rates of lung cancer mortality.
In Nepal, cancers in men and women are attributed to the influence of alcohol, particularly cancers of the liver and digestive tract. Occupational exposure to work-related cancers can cause and cause at least one death. Lung cancer and mesothelioma can be caused by the penetration of cigarette smoke or asbestos fibers or by the effect of benzene on leukemia.
Diet and exercise in Context of Nepal
Diet, physical inactivity and obesity are related to cancer mortality. In Nepal, overweight is associated with the development of many types of cancer and is a leading cause of cancer death.
A Medical study of more than one million people has shown that a high body mass index is associated with at least one type of cancer and is responsible for the incidence in that country every year.
Physical inactivity is thought to contribute to the risk of cancer, not only by its effects on body weight but also by its negative effects on the immune system and the endocrine system. More than half of the dietary impact is mainly due to nutrition (eating a lot) rather than eating fewer vegetables or other healthy foods.
Some special foods are related to cancer. A high-salt diet is associated with stomach cancer. Frequently contaminated food Aflatoxin B causes liver cancer. Better chewing nuts can cause cancer of the mouth.
For example, stomach cancer in aponia is more common due to a high-salt diet, while colon cancer is more common in Nepal. Immigrant cancer profiles are reflected in their new country, often within a single generation.
Cancer deaths worldwide are approximately related to infectious diseases. This proportion varies from high in Africa to lower in developed countries. Viruses are common infectious agents that cause cancer, but cancers and parasites can also play a role.
Bacterial infection can also increase the risk of cancer, as in stomach cancer caused by Helicobacter pylori. Parasitic infections associated with cancer include Schistosoma haematobium (dirty bladder cancer) and liver fragments, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis Sinensis (cholangiocarcinoma).
The effects of ionizing radiation, such as UV radiation and radioactive material, are risk factors for cancer. Most skin cancers other than melanoma are caused by ultraviolet radiation, mainly from the sun.
Ionizing radiation is not a particularly powerful mutagen. For example, exposure to radon has the same risks as cancer, such as passive smoking. Radiation exposure is a more powerful source of cancer when combined with other carcinogens, such as radon and cigarette smoke.
Exposure can cause cancer in most parts of the body, in all animals and at any age. Radiation before birth is ten times more effective. The use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes is a small but growing source of cancer caused by radiation.
Ionizing radiation can be used to treat other cancers, but in some cases, it can cause a second form of cancer. It is also used in some types of medical imaging. Long-term exposure to UV light can cause melanoma and other malignant skin tumors.
It is well established that ultraviolet radiation, especially ultraviolet radiation on a non-ionizing medium, is the cause of most skin cancers other than melanoma, which are the most common forms of cancer worldwide.
According to the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization has described non-ionizing radiation from mobile phones, electricity and similar sources. The evidence, however, is not troubling.
This suggests that studies have not found a consistent link between mobile phone radiation and cancer risk.
The vast majority of cancers are non-hereditary (sporadic). Hereditary cancer is mainly due to inherited genetic abnormalities.
Fewer populations than genetic mutations that have a major impact on cancer risk and are less likely than cancers. Some of these syndromes include: Certain hereditary mutations in the BRCA and BRCA genes, in addition to the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC syndrome or Lynch syndrome), present in individuals with colorectal cancer, including:
For cancers that cause the majority of deaths statistically, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when diagnosed with first-degree relatives (parent, sister or child). Relative risk. for lung cancer, and. for prostate cancer.
There is a relative risk of breast cancer. with a first-degree relative who developed it at the age of one year or more; when the parent developed it when he was younger. Higher people have a higher risk of cancer because they have more cells than smaller people. Since the size is largely genetically determined, the risk of cancer is hereditary in people of large size.
Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical and non-chemical effects. A notable example is a long-term impact on asbestos, the natural mineral fibers, which are the main cause of mesothelioma (serous membrane cancer), usually the serosal membrane surrounding the lungs.
Other materials in this category, such as natural and synthetic asbestos fibers such as wollastonite, attapulgite, glass wool, and Rockwool, would have similar effects.
Non-fibrous carcinogenic particles include cobalt and nickel metal powders and crystalline silica (quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite). Usually, physical carcinogens must enter the body (for example by inhalation) and require years of exposure to cause cancer.
Physical injuries caused by cancer are relatively rare. Claims that bone fractures have led to bone cancer, for example, have not been proven. Similarly, physical trauma is not considered a cause of cervical cancer, breast cancer or brain cancer.
One of the accepted sources is the frequent and prolonged use of hot objects on the body. It is possible that repeated burns in the same part of the body, such as Kanger and Kairo heaters (charcoal heaters), can cause skin cancer, especially if there are also carcinogenic chemicals. Frequent consumption of iced tea can cause cancer of the esophagus.
Generally, it is cancer, or prenatal cancer is encouraged during treatment rather than directly by trauma. However, repetitive lesions of the same tissues can contribute to cell growth, which may further increase the risk of cancer mutation.
Chronic inflammation is likely to produce a direct mutation. Inflammation can promote the proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and migration of cancer cells, affecting the tumor microenvironment. Oncogenes produce pro-tumor inflammatory microbiology.
Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by stimulating cell proliferation. Insulin-like growth factors and their associated proteins play a key role in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cancer cells, suggesting possible involvement in cancer.
Hormones are important sex-related carcinogens, such as breast, endometrial, prostate, ovarian and testicular cancers, as well as thyroid and bone cancers.
For example, girls with breast cancer have significantly higher levels of estrogen and progesterone than women who do not have breast cancer. Higher levels of this hormone may explain the higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast cancer gene.
Similarly, men of African descent have higher testosterone levels than men of European descent and therefore have a higher level of prostate cancer. Men of Asian descent who have the lowest levels of testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
Other factors are important: Obese people have higher rates of certain cancer-associated hormones and a higher rate of this cancer. Women who receive hormone replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing cancer-related hormones.
On the other hand, people who exercise well above average have lower levels of these hormones and a lower risk of cancer. Osteosarcoma can promote growth hormones. Some treatments and preventative approaches facilitate this work by artificially reducing hormone levels and discouraging hormone-sensitive cancers.
There is a link between celiac disease and the increased risk of all cancers. Untreated sickle cell patients are at higher risk, but over time, after diagnosis and strict treatment, this risk is reduced, probably because of the adoption of a gluten-free diet, which seems to play a protective role in the development of the malignant disease.
However, delaying the diagnosis and starting a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancy. The increased price of gastric cancer due to chronic inflammation in people with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Also, immunomodulators and biological agents.
Cancer is essentially a disease of the regulation of tissue growth. For a normal cell to become a cancer cell, genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be modified.
The affected genes fall into two broad categories. Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Malignant transformation may occur through the formation of new oncologists, inappropriate overexpression of normal tumors, or inadequate expression or dysfunction of ovarian tumor suppressor genes. Usually, many gene modifications are needed to turn a normal cell into a cancer cell.
Genetic changes can occur at different levels and with different mechanisms. Mitosis errors can lead to losses or losses for the entire chromosome. The most common are mutations, which are alterations of the nucleotide sequence of the sex DNA.
Large-scale mutations include the removal or gain of part of the chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when the cell gets copies (often or more) of a small chromosomal site, which usually contains one or more tumors and the associated genetic material.
Translocation occurs when two distinct chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a specific site. A well-known example is the Philadelphia chromosome or chromosome transfer, that occurs in chronic myeloid leukemia and leads to the production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, a tyrosine kinase in the tumor.
A gene and alter the function or stability of its protein product. The disruption of a single gene may also be due to the integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or a retrovirus, resulting in the expression of viral viruses in the affected cell and its offspring.
The duplication of the data contained in the DNA of living cells is liable to generate errors. Complex error correction and prevention is built into the process and protects the cell against cancer.
In case of a significant error, the damaged cell may be burned by programmed cell death, called apoptosis. If the error control processes fail, the mutations will survive and move to the child cells.
Some environments that make mistakes are more likely to occur and spread. These environments may include disruptive substances known as carcinogens, repetitive physical injuries, fever, ionizing radiation or hypoxia.
Carcinogenic errors are self-promotional and complicated, for example:
- The mutation in a cell error correction machine can cause this cell and its children to accumulate errors more quickly.
- Further mutation in oncology may result in faster and more frequent reproduction of the cell compared to its normal counterparts.
- Further mutation may result in the loss of a suppressor tumor gene, disruption of the apoptotic signaling pathway, and immortalization of the cell.
- Another mutation in the cellular signal machine may send erroneous signals to nearby cells.
Transforming a normal cell into cancer is similar to a chain reaction caused by initial errors, which are aggravated by more serious errors, each of which progressively allows the cell to avoid several controls that limit normal tissue growth.
The scenario of such a revolt is the most powerful where the forces of evolution act against the shaping and order of the body. Since cancer began, this ongoing process, called clonal evolution, is pushing progress toward more invasive stages.
Clonal evolution leads to intra-uterine oncogenic heterogeneity (cancerous cells with heterogeneous mutations), which complicates the development of effective treatment strategies.
Characteristic capabilities developed by cancer are divided into categories such as avoidance of apoptosis, self-induction of growth signals, insensitivity to anti-crisis signals, stable angiogenesis, infinite repetitive potential, non-metastasis, and metastases.
Epigenetics While Cancer
The role of DNA damage and epigenetic deficiencies in cancer DNA recovery genes the classic view of cancer is a series of diseases caused by advanced genetic abnormalities, including mutations in oncogenic suppressor genes, oncologists, and chromosomal abnormalities. Later, the role of epigenetic changes became evident.
Epigenetic changes are functionally relevant changes in the genome that do not alter the nucleotide sequence. Each of these modifications regulates gene expression without modifying the DNA-based sequence. These changes can be maintained through cell divisions, last for many generations and can be considered as epithets (equivalent to mutations).
Epigenetic changes often occur in cancer. For example, genes encoding proteins have been reported in one study, often modified in their methylation relative to bowel cancer.
These included hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes. Hypermethylated genes have been hypermethylated with bowel cancer, and many others have been hypermethylated more than bowel cancer.
While epigenetic alterations are present in cancer, epigenetic alterations in DNA repair genes that result in reduced expression of DNA repair proteins may be of particular importance. They believe that such changes occur at an early stage of cancer development and are a likely cause of genetic instability inherent in cancer.
The red formulation shows the central role of DNA damage and DNA repair defects in cancer development.) When DNA repair is incomplete, the lesions of the DNA DNAs remain in cells above the normal level (i.e. level) and generate mutation and/or epithelialization growth rates (level 2).
Stop rates are significantly increased in defective cells in repair of DNA mismatch or homologous rearrangement (HRR). Chromosome rearrangements and aneuploidies also develop in defective HRR cells.
Higher levels of DNA damage lead to increased mutation (right side of the line) and increased epimutation. Unfinished purified sites during double-strand breaks in DNA or other DNA damage repairs can cause epigenetic gene silencing.
Inadequate expression of DNA repair proteins due to an inherited mutation may increase the risk of cancer. People with inherited DNA repair genes (see DNA repair deficiency disorder) have an increased risk of cancer, with some shortcomings in the probability of life of cancer (e.g., mutations p).
The mutations of the germline DNA restoration are shown on the left side of the figure. However, these germline mutations (which cause highly permeable cancer syndromes) account for only about one percent of cancers.
In sports cancers, deficiencies in DNA repair sometimes result from DNA repair gene mutations but are more often caused by epigenetic changes that reduce or inhibit the release of DNA repair genes. DNA.
This is shown in the picture at the 3rd level. Many studies on heavy metal carcinogenesis have shown that these metals cause a decrease in the expression of DNA repair enzymes, sometimes through epigenetic mechanisms.
Preventing the reorganization of DNA would be a predominant mechanism in the carcinogenicity of heavy metals. Also, frequent epigenetic modifications in the DNA sequence code for small RNAs called microRNAs (or miRNAs). MiRNAs do not code for proteins, but can “target” the genes encoding proteins and reduce their expression.
Cancer usually comes from a collection of mutations and epithets offering an optional benefit that leads to clonal expansion (see Existing Cancer Field Defects).
However, mutations in cancer may not be as frequent as epigenetic changes. Mid-sized breast cancer or colon cancer may be close to mutations that change proteins, of which about three or four maybe “conductive” mutations, and the rest may be “transient” mutations.
Metastases are the spread of cancer to other parts of the body. Distributed tumors are called metastatic tumors, while the original is called primary tumors. Almost all cancers can be metastasized. Most cancer deaths are related to transformed cancer.
Metastases are common in the late stages of cancer and can be caused by the blood, lymphatic system or both. Typical stages of metastasis are a local invasion, blood or lymphatic penetration, circulation in the body, excretion of new tissues, proliferation, and angiogenesis.
Different types of cancers tend to metastasize to certain organs, but the most common sites of metastasis are usually the lungs, liver, brain, and bones.