Budha Subba Temple: – Dharan is a beautiful city in eastern Nepal surrounded by hills. This city has something to offer guests. It is famous not only for its natural beauties and religious places but also for its unique sense of style and fashion.
It is located in the southern foothills of the Mahabharat mountain range, about 40 km north of the city of Biratnagar, at an altitude of 349 m above sea level. On three sides (from the west, north, and east) the city is surrounded by mountains, and in the south, it is limited by the Charkose Jhari forest.
On the eastern outskirts of the city flows the Seuti River, and on the western outskirts – the Shardu River. Dharan is an important trading center between the mountainous region (in the north) and the plains of the physical and geographical region of Terai (in the south). The nearest airport is Biratnagar.
Attractions of Dharan
Some of the attractions of Dharan are:
This beautiful mountain village can be reached in twenty minutes from the main bazaar of Dharan. Bhedetar has cool weather all year round, which is why the residents of Dharana like to hide here from the summer heat.
The Charles Point observation deck, located on a hilltop, offers panoramic views of the fort, waterfalls, and forests. Pathibhara Temple and Namaste Jharna Falls are the main attractions that attract pilgrims and tourists.
CNN called the small village of Namye, where the Maghars live, one of the 12 best unknown places. The picturesque village is a 20-minute walk uphill from Bhedatar.
It is an ideal place to relax from the hustle and bustle of the city. Friendly locals, beautiful views and mouth-watering local cuisine served at roadside cafes will make your trip to this village unforgettable.
The Nirvana Country Club Dharan Golf Club has the cheapest membership – Rs. 2,000 per month.
Therefore, golf ceases to seem like an expensive sport. If you love golf, then Nirvana Country Club is a must-see. Be sure you will not regret your decision!
Institute of Medical Sciences:
BP Koirala Institute of Medical Sciences occupies a rather large territory and is one of the most famous healthcare institutes in Nepal.
You can walk along with its territory, it is good for health. This is best done in the evening when a cool breeze gently strokes your face.
Dharan is one of the most fashionable and stylish cities in Nepal. The best way to watch the latest trends in the city is to visit a local pub.
Most establishments close at 8 p.m., but there are several places with live music that are open until 10 p.m.
Pilgrimage to the holy places:
In Dharan are the famous temples of Dantakali, Pindeshvor, Budha Subba and Pancha Kanya. In these temples, rituals, fairs, and various events are held.
It is believed that in the temple of Dantakali, the sacred tooth of Sati Devi, the wife of the god Shiva, is kept.
Picnic in Jalambar Park:
There are several public parks in Dharan, among which Jalambar Park is a great place for a picnic. Dharan is truly a paradise for pork barbecue lovers.
Introduction of Budhasubba Temple and Bijayapur
Bijaypur is the hill and settlement on the east of the present Dharan. Prior to the unification of Nepal, it was the capital of the state of Limbuwan and it was also the headquarters of the Limbuwan Territory. It is clear from the Puranas and the people that four names are synonymous to Bijayapur.
The names are Rudraksharanya, Vedipur, Vijayapur, and Shitshail. Rudraksharanya Mahatmya has promoted its religious significance by giving it the name of Rudraksharanyama. Since Bijayapur is a forest of many Rudraksha.
Similarly, it is said that as bijayapur was once ruled by Sen king Bijaya Sen so its name remained bijayapur. It has been said in the Rudraksharanya Mahatmya that peaceful cold airflow here so it is also referred to as Shitshail. And the story of why it is known as Vedapur is associated with the Mahabharata.
However, since the story is not mentioned in the Mahabharata, the scholars who have been investigating the whereabouts and the origin of the story have not been written to this day. An analysis of the history of Bijayapur based on the Puranas and the people is as follows.
A. In Purana, Bijayapur:
The evidence of Rudraksharanya from the Vedic period is ample. There are fourteen main forests mentioned in connection with the bath performed on Rishitarpini Purnima. The first thing Yogi Narhari Nath brought to the publication was that Rudraksharanya was in Bijayapur.
He received some ancient texts including Rudraksharanya Mahatmya at the house of Tari Prasad Baral, who lives in Dhankuta Kurulegaon. Mahashiva came to rest in this area, which stretched from Koshi to Dus Yojana, to eliminate fatigue after killing Tripurasur.
At the moment where he rested, Mahashiva was thrilled with joy and his cheerful tears dropped. As soon as they burst into tears, they turned to Rudraksha. From these four Rudraksha, the Rudraksha trees became viscous and over time they became the Rudraksha forests.
It is also stated in the Rudraksharanya Mahatmya Chapter 10 that the place immediately after the touching by the holy foot of Mahashiva became gold.
Here, as the cool breeze was blowing, it had exhausted the fatigue of Maha shiva. In this regard, Majashiva named the place as Shitshail. Another mention is that it is called Bijayapur because of the residence of Bijayi Maharudra.
B. Bijayapur in folklores:
The stories mentioned in these Puranas have also been imported into folktales. One of the tales is that Shivaji slept here for an era. Whatever area his body touched turned to gold.
In this connection, another story is about the waterfall in the north. It is said that Shivaji was sleeping here while his jatas were stationed in the north. At that time, the Ganges flowing through his Jata or hair was falling from this cliff. Today it is called Sevtikhola.
The river, which is the pillar of the pilgrimage, is also named Shiv Ganga. This area is still called Shivajata. Here, pilgrims come from far away to bathe. It is said that the Pandavas took gold from this place for the expense of the Rajasuya Yagya.
Later, all the treasures they had taken buried here before ascending to heaven. Another popular saying is that the Pandavas came to this holy place of Pindeshwar and performed the famous Rajusuya Yagya. Since the fire of the sacrifice has melted the gold, Bhimasen had brought the clay from khandbari and pour on top.
Since that time Bijayapur has been in the form as we see today. The clay and the stones are reddish in Bijayapur due to the fire of this Yagya. There is another saying in it again – the Pandavas were in secret, and they found the clue of this golden mountain.
In this holy land, they want to perform the Yagya. But since gold cannot be rested by feet. So bhimsen brought clay from Sankhuwasabha and pour on top of it. Then he built an altar there and performed the Yagya. After the sacrifice was made, they eradicated the altar and established the Shivalinga from above.
From that point on, the area was called Vedipur. The Shivilang that they founded was called Pandeshwar and eventually became Pindeshwar. Both these stories confirm that the land of Rudrakshyaranya was made of gold.
And that the soil was brought from Sankhuwasabha, to the northwest, to retrieve it. Though the story is not mentioned in Mahabharata so the story itself originated from the place only.
In this case, the soil of Vijayapur which is very different from the adjoining areas and is similar to that seen in Sankhuwasabha. And even the appearance of the mountain seemed to be collected in a pile hiding something. It would not be unusual for the religious people of that time to create such stories.
The conquest of Bijayapur must have increased especially during the reign of the Senbansi kings. Narahari Nath and Lakshmi Acharya have made it clear that the Rudraksharanya Mahatmya which they obtained from Tarini Prasad Baral who was the Purohit or the astrologer of the Sen Kings.
This means that the Rudraksharanya Mahatmya was created in the efforts during the senkings. And the composer made full use of the Puranas and the Vedas in order to make Bijayapur a sanctuary. Due to the same mention, a lot of excitement was prevalent in Bijayapur.
Eventually, geography and its features were painted accordingly. Its geographical position is immediately evident in the fact that it is cold in Bijayapur, which is connected with the Terai. Bijayapur is a small hill attached to the Terai.
This place is higher than the Terai and it also feels windy. Even with the red soil of this mountain, the geological explanation can be done in such a way that there was already a flat red soil with all the three planks of Rudrakshyaranya. A plain sloping land with two rivers flowing from the two corners.
These two rivers cut the upper scarlet from both sides, leaving only this red mountain. Looking at the current nature of Sardu and Seuti, this is hardly fiction. This is certainly an interesting topic for geographers.
Introduction of Budhasubba Temple
Budha Subba Temple is a well known religious temple of the eastern Nepal people. It is situated in Bijayapur of Dharan, Nepal. It is believed to fulfill the wishes and bring good luck to the people visiting there.
Especially on Saturday, devotees and worshippers sacrifice pigs, chicken, and many other animals as their offering for the God of the temple. Not only local but devotees from national and international nations visit the temple with their enormous faith.
An additional feature of this temple is the enclosure of non-tip bamboo. Dharan Bijayapur’s ancient temple is considered to be an important temple for Kiranti devotees. Within the old temple, there are two earthen bases raised in the temple, which is worshipped by the devotees as Budha Subba and Budhi Subbeni.
According to historian Iman Singh Chemjong, Bijayapur was the capital of the then Kirant Kingdom of king Bijayanarayan. According to others, Bijayapur was named after Sen King Bijaya. This temple is considered to be one of the most unique temples in the world. Where there is a temple, there is no idol. Along with this, the temple is offered pigs as well as wine.
The bamboo, which has no tip, is found at the site of some former Seuti river basin from the Dantakali temple. The absence of the tip of the bamboos is believed to be due to Budha Subba who had broken the tips off the bamboo.
In this temple, not only the kirantis but devotees of other religions vow and sacrifice the animals. The Budha Subba Temple is the tombstone of King Buddhi Karnaraya Khebang, the last Limbu king of Limbuwan. He was taken to Bijaypur- Dharan for negotiation, then killed by the assassins of King Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Kingdom of Nepal.
The Soul of Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang is believed to wander around the area of his tomb around Bijaypur and was said to be a friendly and helpful spirit.
So local Limbu people started worshiping the soul like the old king (Subba or Haang means King in Limbu language) believing to be good luck. Bijaypur was the capital of Morang and the political and economic center of eastern Nepal.
In the vicinity of the temple, people first write their names in the bamboos. It is believed that the young couple who came to visit the temple returned only after writing the name on the bamboo.
As they hope that their love affair would be successful by writing their names in the bamboos. However, this practice has proved to be corrosive for the bamboos. So for their preservation, the committee of the temple has banned from writing on the bamboo.
Devotees also tie the yarn on the bamboo for their vows and wills to be fulfilled soon.
History of Origin
Budhasubba and his sister Subbini used to play hunting on the mountain with pellet bow and clay pellet. One day, when they were aiming to hit the crow, the bamboo tip broke due to the clay pellet hit by Budhasubba. Since that day, the tip of the bamboo didn’t grow.
So Budha Subba stopped hunting and buried his pellet bow under the earth. He then meditated there where the temple now stands. His sister Subbini’s temple is also nearby.
Buddhikarna Rai Khebang
According to Iman Singh Chemjong, this is the tomb of the last Limbu king Buddhikarn Khebang of Morang. During the unification of the kingdom, Prithvi Narayan Shah diplomatically killed the king in Bijayapur.
So his followers came to worship for the dead by erecting the tomb for the eternal peace of the soul of the king. According to the people, Karni Rai Khebang started helping people through spirit. Local Limbu started worshiping as a good influence of the king’s spirit.
The tomb is venerated as a Kiranteshwar Mahadev. According to some, Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati came to Bijayapur while hunting as the kiranti King and queen in the disguised form of Khewasang. And Yuvasamang where they kept their bows and performed penance.
At that time, they understood the beginning of Kaliyug and vanished. This incident is called Budhasubba in the Kiranti language. The bamboo sprouted without the tip from the bow.
The Budhasubba is also described as a mausoleum of Eklavya who had participated in the Mahabharata war from the Kaurava side. Once upon a time, brave soldier Eklavya came to this place roaming around and rested in solitary confinement in contemplation.
His followers then entombed him and later renamed his tomb as Budha Subba. They began to worship the temple as Siddhapith and even started preaching.
It is said that Budhasubba is said to be Yalambahang and Eklavya who are the same. But in Mahabharata, Eklavya and Yalambahang are supposed to be different characters.
Some other historians believe that Eklavya while intended to participate in the Mahabharata war later meditated in the temple. As he thought that no matter who won or lost in the war, it would be brothers only.
So he came to Himalaya and from there reach Budhasubba and done his penance. But he could not bear the cold of Budhasubba so he took the samadhi. His tomb is now worshipped as the Budhasubba.
Some other legend
According to some legend, it is also said that Budhasubba is actually the tomb of Magar Kazi. These legends have originated because there is a tradition of Magars being the priests of the temple.
In the surrounding areas including Dharan in eastern Nepal, the story of Budha Subba is prevalent in people’s lives. He is portrayed as a hunter with pellet bow and clay pellet. It is also a tradition to worship him as a deity.
The fame of Budha Subba is also found in the Bhogtene, Tadi and Bhawar regions of Dharan. Therefore, in the beginning, it is believed that Budhasubba was the ruler or heir of this region, whose fame is believed to have increased immensely.
According to some other legend, Budhasubba was known initially as Siddhababa but later he was known as Subba and then Budhasubba.
People of all faiths come to it because the story of the Buddhasubba temple origin is connected in all angles, historical and modern. In addition to the peasants, people of Vedic tradition and Buddhist faith also visit the Buddhasubba temple.
Structure of the Temple
The Budhasubba temple is of the normal type. In the earthen pile of temple worship, many types of the trident are buried and bells are hung. It is customary to sacrifice a chicken and a pig.
There is a belief that giving him animal sacrifices, Budhasubba would give his devotees happiness and prosperity. Therefore, every Saturday there is a crowd of devotees offering animal sacrifices.
What is strange is that in this temple only the male animal is sacrificed. While in the temple of his sister Subbini which is next to the Budha Subba temple, only the female chicken is sacrificed.
The Budhasubba temple is pagoda-style and the roof is covered with bronze. Clay pellet is abundant in the Budhasubba area. It is believed to have been built and used by the Budhasubba. It is also used by local residents as a means of curing illness.
Meanwhile, at Hasina Simsar, located at Sundarpur in Morang, also has a common temple of Buddhasubba. In this area, there is a belief that Bijayapur Budhasubba used to come for hunting.
According to legend, it is believed that if three pair of yarn is tied at three places of the bamboo in the vicinity of the temple. The wishes of the devotees get fulfilled quickly.
Therefore, the bamboo in the temple premises has been surrounded by wire mesh. There the devotees seem to have tied different colored ropes. As modern as it may be, when people arrive at the temple premises, they buy yarn rope and tie it around the bamboo wire.
Regardless of the modernity of man, religious belief and faith still remain in his heart. This is explained by a string of bamboo thread in the temple premises. The thread ropes are so large in number that there is no longer any place for the new cord to tie.
The atmosphere of the temple is also very attractive. Upon arriving here, a calm, cool atmosphere gives positive energy to a person. This place seems like a piece of heaven as mentioned in the religious texts. Though so attractive and religiously important, the place has been obscured by a lack of publicity.
How to reach Budhasubba Temple
Budhasubba Temple can be reached by bus from Pokhara to Dharan. Every day the bus leaves from Pokhara at 4:30. After reaching Dharan Bazar, one can take reserve Tempu from there and reach the Buddha Subba Temple in 15 minutes.
Who or What is Budhasubba?
When you come to Bijayapur in the city of Dharan, you will hear a lot of people talking about Budha Subba. You will be amazed to hear the name of Budha Subba whose name resembles the name of a general person.
But who is worshipped as the deity and that too in Hindu traditional way. In other temples usually, there are brahmins as the priests of the temple. But here all the priests are Magars. So who exactly is Budha Subba.
It is said that Budha Subba is a Sidhbaba who used to go hunting in Bijayapur. It is also said that he was here as an altar guard during the sacrifice Yagya of the Pandavas.
Thus he is considered a supernatural being who is worshiped in this Bijayapur area. It is still disputed that it was Siddhababa who is worshiped in such a manner. Nowhere has an authentic fact been found. Some quotations call this mausoleum as Yalmohang’s tomb.
There are also legends to take Yalmohang as Eklavya. Legends have that Eklavya after being defeated by Krishna and Balrama in Dwarka disappeared in the ocean of Dwarka to save his life. He had come to the Himalayas, his homeland, to die in old age.
When he reached to Rudraksharanya, a Supreme Tapovumi, he lived here and was buried later.
In Rudraksharanya Mahatmya, it is said that one of the disgraced Brahmin of Kerala came to Rudrakshyaranya. And his body was buried under Rudraksha so he received Rudralok and his tomb is located here.
Other than this mention, no such tombs and biographies of these saints are mentioned anywhere in the Puranas. It is clear from this that the man named Budhusubba was not from the Mahabharata and Bhatabhunge period. There may be some siddhababa of a later period.
The story of Ekalavya mentioned in Rudraksharanya and the context of the fallen Bahun mausoleum may not be consistent with this.
Yogendra Timilsina and Gopal Raj Joshi, who has studied the area, have stated that he was a brave warrior who received the status of Subba from a king of the Shaha dynasty.
They have not presented any historical evidence in this regard and have stated that these theories are the basis of some other legend. In fact, no concession to this context has been found. In fact, history is very clear in this part of the post-Shah Dynasty.
History does not indicate the existence of such an extraordinary man. If this man was some Sidhababa, then the question arises who exactly was he. History is silent about this too.
The historian F. Hamilton has made it known that he might be Budhikarn Rai, the last minister of the last king of the Sen dynasty. In the book ‘Human Origin and Khewa Dynasty’, genealogist and author Lokendra Bahadur Tigela strongly disagreed with F Hamilton’s view.
With some compelling evidence, he had presented the fact that Budhasubba was not Buddhikarna Rai but he was Bhartavir belonged to the Tigela Khewa Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Illihang and his eldest wife born in 1822 B. S.
Illihang was the 9th generation of ancestor Muktihang of Dhankuta Hatikharka. He was also an archer from his childhood, and once made two bows from a 5-foot-long bamboo. One he put it in a house, and other he took it with him and went hunting to Bijayapur with Magars named Dixang and Boxing.
But there he mentions that he missed his aim. So thinking his time was up, he left his bow and took samadhi. Finally, there is some evidence to prove that Bhartavir is Budhasubba.
Of which, the descendants of the sixth generation of Bhartavir and the descendants of allied Magars brought the left bow of the house in the temple and worshipped it in the temple. So the priest of the temple was Magar.
In this book, the name of Buddhikarna Rai is very honored. The historical facts given in it are more carefully presented. It is mentioned that Buddhikarna Rai can be the only person who can get in line with the legend of Budhasubba.
Buddhikarna Rai died in 1831 B. S. And Bhartavir born on 1812 B. S. These dates seem to be contemporary with each other.
In spite of this, it is worth noting that Bhartavir, whose personality does not appear at that height as of Buddhikarna Rai to be considered as Budhasubba. In simple terms, if Budhasubba is the great man as he is considered to be then the idea that Buddhikarna Rai was that person must have been strong.
Although the term “Subba” is currently used by the Limbus to denote their ethnicity. The term was the name given to the post by the Sen Kings to their officers. Such words include Raya, Subha, Chautariya, and Diwan. Raya later became Rai and Subha later became Subba.
According to that book, Bhartavir was a Sidhababa not a man of governmental rank. But Buddhikarn was the Prime Minister.
It is not unusual for an imaginary person to become a supernatural man because its basis is superstition. But here Budhasubba who is considered to be the legendary person worth of worshipping who is only the person of 200 years ago. If Buddhikarna Rai was the person then the reason for this may be interesting.
Budhikarni Rai was the son of Bichitra Rai and the minister of Kamdatta Sen. Kamdatta Sen did not have a good relationship with the Rai. This fight was ancestral. Buddhikarni’s father Bichitra Rai had driven the king to the Bhot and when he returned, the kingdom was divided into two parts.
In a divided country, Kamdatta sen became king of Morang Vijayapur. After this incident, Bichitra Rai died and his son became a minister. The son Buddhikarna was no less than his father. He forced the king to leave the country and seek refuge in the East India Company.
But the king did not get any help from the company government and took some troops and attacked Vijaypur. He was king. He was accepted as king again. But Kamadatta Sen deceived and killed Buddhikarna Rai’s brother Buddhakarna in pursuit of his ego.
Buddhikarna did not tolerate this, and for a few days, he remained undercover and deceived the king with the help of his men. Then Buddhikarna made Raghunathsen, uncle of Kamdatta sen, as the king. He was also very afraid of Buddhikarna and sought the help of the British to end him forever.
Later, the king himself had to flee when his deception was known. Buddhikarna made Karnasen as the king who was the king of Chaudandi later succeeded by king Prithvi Narayan Shah. Buddhikarna assumed the title of ‘Rajbhar Samarth’ and became the successor of Vijayapur in 1770 A. D.
At the same time, the Gorkhali under the leadership of Abhiman Singh attacked Bijayapur. King Karnasen knew about the attack but Buddhikarna didn’t think such an attack would take place.
As it was a mid-year monsoon, and even the Koshi river was flooded. He was forced to flee to India as he could not take measures for his defense. The king had already fled to India to save his offspring from the attack.
Even he lost his kingdom, Buddhikarna tried to regain control of the kingdom and seek help from the East India Company. He visited Bijayapur from time to time in hopes of getting help from his people.
The Gorkhalis knew this and planned to kill him. The local people were always ready to assist in the organization’s work and to give him shelter underground. The Magar priests of the Sens followed him with similar reverence.
In this regard, it can be said that the local people were very impressed with the bravery of Buddhikarna. As he seeking help from the foreigners bravely engaged in such a dangerous task to return his land. This man was certainly an ideal man for all Kirantis and overall he was a beloved leader of the local people.
The imagination of the supernatural forces must surely have been aroused upon the person who is seen today in one place and in many places the next day. This kind of man must be worshipped later on by the people.
The Gorkhalis learned that Buddhikarna was organizing inside the state to overthrow the gorkhali king. They arrested him in the village chiefs’ house one day. He died in prison.
In the above book of the Khewa Limbu family, author Lokendra Bahadur Tigela has stated that he was killed by a gun on the spot. This is how history has said about the end of Buddhikarna. It is alleged that he is Budha Subba because his body was buried on the hill of Bijayapur and his devotees worshipped the place where he was buried.
In the entire history of Bijayapur, Buddhikarna was the most powerful wise and capable Kirat representative. He was the symbol of the entire Limbuwan nationality.
Although he was old, he was a tireless warrior. In this case, the historical figure of any Kirat tribe was Buddhasubba, while that person can be Buddhikarna.
Budhasubba Temple and bamboo without a tip
Dharan is a city of natural and religious importance. Along with Dharan, Bijayapur is considered as a landmark. According to historian Emansingh Chemjong, the period of the reign of King Bijayanarayan Rai and then Bijayapur was considered as the capital of the state of Kiranti.
There are different opinions on how the name of Bijayapur was originated. Some historians have said as the kingdom was ruled by King Bijaya of the Sen dynasty. Therefore, it is said that the name Bijayapur stuck to the place.
There are various famous temples in Dharan. For example, Budhasubba, DantaKali, Pindeshwari. Among them, the importance of the Budhasubba and the bamboo which tip is absent is of vital importance.
It is believed that Siddhababa or Budhasubba was not actually God but he was a simple Hunter. But some regarded him as the deity from the very beginning. The day when he was going to vanish, he shoots the arrow from his bow. From that arrow sprout the bamboo.
Therefore, the bamboo around the temple has no tip. Other reasons that many wise men give regarding the missing tip of the bamboos in the vicinity of the temple are:
- While Budhasubba taught his disciples to use a bow, the tips of the bamboos were targeted and cut off.
- The Budhasubba had disappeared one day from this place with a bow made of bamboo, and these bamboos grew from the same bow.
- Earlier Pandavas did the Yagya in this place and buried many Lingas made from bamboos. These Lingas later grew to be the bamboos that are present in the vicinity of the temple.
- Such bamboo does not grow anywhere. It is cut only once a year on the previous day of Chandipurna. But they have moved anywhere. This kind of bamboo should not be taken off the end and should not be used for any other purpose.
- The young bamboo has tops, but after being scraped, the tops dry up. The cause for these is yet to be discovered.
Budhasubba as the symbol of love
Though the Buddhasubba temple is linked to the Mahabharata mythology, kirantis or thebwang, it does not add to the love story. However, there are some well-known reasons why the Buddhasubba temple becomes a temple of love.
- The lush, quiet and secluded place of the Budhasubba vicinity should be the reason why lovers here come to tie the thread on the bamboo.
- The temple complex is an attractive area surrounded by the bamboo hut. As people reach this temple, they can feel the romantic environment. So the temple may have gradually become the temple of love.
- When the coupe times the thread on the bamboo, some kind of faith arises in their heart. That only better and positive things will happen from now on. When the desire for the love of the couple fulfills, it seems as if Budhasubba has heard their prayers. So this temple gradually became the love temple which fulfills all the desires of the couple in love.
- The Budhasubba is also a religious and spiritual area. Now the couple made it even more beautiful by making it a love temple.
The temple, the premises and Bijayapur itself are full of interesting legends and stories. The religious soul, the natural beauty of the area and the temple are calling for its preservation.
Responsible authorities, traders and citizens should raise their efforts in unification for the protection and promotion of such areas.
By Ankur Pradhan