After the death of Prithvi Narayan Shah, his successors continued the unification campaign. Prithvi Narayan Shah was succeeded by his son Pratap Singh Shah. He died at a young age of 26 years on 26th Mangsir 1834 BS. During his short rule, Upordang Gadi, Kavitaspur Gadi, Somesher Gadi and Chitwan were united in Nepal. Rajendra Laxmi was the Queen of Pratap Singh Shah. They had a son called Ranabahadur Shah, who was only two and half years when Pratapsingh died. So Rajendra Laxmi began to rule the country as the regent of Ranabahadur Shah.
Bahadur Shah, King Pratap Singh’s younger brother who was exiled to Betia, India when the king died, returned back, and both of them began to rule jointly as co-regents. But soon they began to quarrel and Bahadur Shah went again to Betia.
Amarsingh Thapa, Baiabhadra Kunwar, Damodar Pandey Bansaraj Pandey etc were then the commanders of Gorkhali forces. Under their able leadership, some of the Chaubise Rajya like Tanahu, Kaski, Parbat, Lamjung, Bhirkot, Rishing, Satahun, Gorahun, Dhor, Paiyun etc fell into the hands of the Gorkha. In this way, Rajendra Laxmi made an important contribution in carrying further the unification campaign. She died on 2nd Shrawan 1842 BS from tuberculosis.
After the death of Rajendra Laxmi, Bahadur Shah returned to Nepal again and ruled as a regent of King Ranabahadur Shah. Among the Chaubise states, Palpa was not conquered. Knowing that Palpa was a strong state, Bahadur Shah got married to the daughter of King Mahadatta Sen of Palpa. Then he invaded Guimi, Arghakhanchi Dhurkot, Kusma, and Baglung. Encouraged by this success, he sent his forces to Biasi Rajyas and Pyuthan, Dang, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dailekh, Achham and Jumla etc were conquered one after another under the leadership of Amarsingh Thapa.
After the successful annexation of Chaubise and Baise states, the Gorkhali troop moved towards Aimorah, Kumaon, Gadhwal and reached up to Alcanda. At the same. time, a war broke out with Tibet. So, the Gorkhali forces signed a treaty and returned to Kathmandu. According to this treaty, Gadhwal agreed to pay nine thousand rupees to Nepal annually. In the year 1849 BS, Nepal-Tibet War ended on the arbitration of China. Nepal suffered heavy losses during this war. Consequently, she was forced to sign a humiliating treaty known as Betrawati Treaty. According to the treaty, the Northern border of Nepal remained up to Tatopani Thus, under Bahadur Shah, Nepal expanded greatly. He fulfilled the dream of his father. This great son of Nepal died a tragic death in 1854 BS in jail.
history of kirtipur Nepal, history shah king Nepal, history lessons Nepal, history madhesh Nepal, history of Nepal maoist party, history of Nepal monarchy, history of Nepal malla period, history of Nepal maoist movement, history of Nepal maoist movement, history of Nepali congress, Nepal history pdf, Nepal history ppt, Nepal history place, Nepal history ranas, Nepal history with India.
Prithvi Narayan Shah has not established the Kingdom of Nepal, it is likely that the smaller and weaker nation states would have come under the control of the British Empire, whose influence was increasing in India at the time. If the British Indian Army had not been stopped and defeated at Makawanpur Gandhi-Sindhuligadhi, Nepal would not have born as a country, and the Nepalese would not have been known as an independent, sovereign, political entity. The majority of the credit for preventing these outcomes goes to Prithvi Narayan Shah. Despite this historical legacy, however, there are some who criticize his aggressive campaigns of conquest and empire-building.
The rise of Jung Bahadur Rana in 1846 introduced another important chapter in the history of Nepal. After succeeding in various intrigues and feuds between the different factions of the Nepalese court, Jung Bahadur established himself as the most powerful Prime Minister and a de facto ruler of the country and made Prime Minister-ship hereditary.
As in other countries, Nepalese history of Kings and rulers are full of intrigues and assassinations. King Jaya Prakash Malla (1736-1768 A.D.) of Kathmandu behaved treacherously towards his ministers and killed many of them. Though Bahadur Shah, the younger son of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, is credited with the farthest expansion of the Nepalese Kingdom, he was cold-bloodedly murdered for outsmarting his elders in the lineage of federal inheritance. After this murder, the palace became the focus of conspiracies. The third King (after King Prithvi Narayan Shah) RanaBahadur Shah broke the traditional rules by enthroning his second son, born of his concubine Girban Youdha Bikram Shah. During the period, the murder of rivals became the order of the day. Stalwarts in the Nepalese history like Kaji Amar Singh Thapa and Bhimsen Thapa (Prime Ministers) were killed through palatial conspiracies. The period from the reign of King Rana Bahadur Shah (1777-1799 A.D.) to his grandson King Surendra Bikram (1847-81 A.D.) saw the death of hundreds of patriotic officers inside the palace.
Finally, in September 1846, Jung Bahadur Rana, then a junior army officer, prevailed over the conspiratorial games. Taking advantage of the whims of Regent Queen Rajya Laxmi, Jung Bahadur succeeded in dramatically organizing what is known as Kot Massacre to finish almost all of his practical and potential rivals in the palatial court on the fateful night of September 14, 1846, A.D.
Rana hereditary Prime Ministership also had its history of intrigues and murders. “Currying favor with the British rulers in India, the Rana rulers imposed a strict isolationist and tyrannical rule in the country for 104 years. This period was full of political exiles, murders, and intrigues. Every Rana ruler lived under proverbial Demo cel’s sword of palatial conspiracies. It is widely believed that most of the then rulers met with unnatural death.”2
The Nepalese people overthrew the repressive regime of the Ranas in 1951. Thereafter multi-party democracy was introduced. In 1960 the multi-party democracy was replaced by King Mahendra by the non-party traditional political system, called Panchayat system.
Nepali Congress and United Left Front jointly launched a movement in 1990. After 50 days agitation, King Birendra abolished the Panchayat system and re-introduced multi-party democracy.
Facts about Ancient History of Nepal
- Prithvi Narayan Shah, the eldest son of Narabhupal Shah of Gorkha, was born on 27 Push 1779 BS. Prithvi Narayan Shah is known as the founder of modern Nepal.
- The unification campaign was completed in three phases: Phase I: Prithvi Narayan Shah; Phase II: Rajendra Laxmi and Bahadur Shah and Phase III: Girbanuddha Bikram Shah.
- Nuwakot which was conquered in the third attempt opened the way to the unification of modern Nepal.
- In the first attempt over Kirtipur, the Gorkhali forces were badly defeated and suffered a heavy loss.
- Capturing of Makawanpur on 9th Bhadra 1819 BS largely contributed to the victory over the Kathmandu Valley.
- Kirtipur, which was captured in the third attempt in 1823 BS, led the capture of Kantipur, Patan, and Bhaktapur.
- Prithvi Narayan Shah had to halt his attack along the Marshyangdi River in the West.
- Chaudandi, Bijapur, and Limbuwan came under one by one and the eastern boundary of Nepal expanded up to Tista River during Prithvi Narayan Shah’s rule.
- Ranabahadur Shah was only 29 months when Pratapsing died, so Rajendra Laxmi became his regent.
- During her nine years of rule, she conquered Chaubise states like Kaski, Lamjung, Tanahun, Satahun, Garahun etc.
- Bahadur Shah, the youngest son of Prithvi Narayan Shah, ruled as a regent after the death of Rajendra Laxmi.
- During Bahadur Shah’s regency, Nepal conquered remaining Chaubise and all of Baise states and expanded up to Almora, Kumaon, and Gadhwal in the west.
Delhi Agreement and End of 2007 Revolution