History of Nepal from Ancient to Monarchy, Democracy & Republic
History of Nepal: – Nepal is one of the most beautiful places in the world. It has not the long story of beauties but also a long history. Let’s go in detail. Have a read.
How old is Nepal country?
As all the other rest countries in the world, Nepal has its pen pre-historic period, which is shrouded in obscurity. Nepal emerged as a unified state over 200 years ago, centered on the
Kathmandu Valley with its 2000 years of urban civilization. But this has an evidence that about 13000 years ago the hand axe man was found in the Dang and Satpati, but later people find this land favourable for the livelihood hence around 1700 BC, there begin the Indo-Aryan movement into the Indian Subcontinent and hence they moved to the region of Nepal and started to begin the civilization in Nepal.
There is the written evidence that at 400 BC there was the birth of the Lord Buddha at Lumbini. He was from the royal family and this evidence shows the evidence how the medieval period of Nepal was developed. In a similar way, there were several evidence and myths as well legends who tell us of its origin. Regarding the main incident that signifies the origin of Nepal was taken to mean by the valley of Kathmandu when Swayambu dome was found. Earlier it is supposed to be the big lake surrounded by the hills and the Bodhisatwa (potentially Buddha) came to Nepal from China as being a pilgrimage and he seemed the lotus seed over the Kathmandu valley the dome grown over the lotus on the lake,
Later Manjushree cut the rock through, and drain out the lake from the valley and make it well suited for habitable. Hence as the honor, the hillock from the Swayambhu to Guhyeswari is named as Manjupattan after him. He made Dharmakar as the king of the valley and he returned to the China. According to some source that it was about 723AD that the Kathmandu Valley was founded which is about twelve hundred forty-eight years ago. From this, it can be affirmed that Gunakama Deva must have only extended the city but he has not found the city, and this authenticity still needs the research and investigation. It was the time which corresponds to the reign of the Harsha Vardhan from Northern India, as well Pulkeshin II from southern India. Whereas in China, it was ruled by Sui dynasty. And it’s the time when the great wall being constructed.
Although with the Gopal Dynasty and Ahir Dynasty is found as the starting of the system administration in Nepal, but Nepal has entered into its real historical era with the Kirantis conquest of Kathmandu valley. They are also said to be the aborigines inhabiting actually from the eastern part of Nepal, having their own Administrative setup. They defeated the last king of Ahir dynasty named Bhuwan Singh under their sway. From Hindu myth, Yalambar first king of Kirati is connected with the Pandavas.
From that, he is supposed to be the observer to siding with the losing party being the witness of the Battle. God Shree Krishna knowing the intention of Yalambar and their unity makes him think that Mahabharat war will be prolonged if he sided to the Kauravas, so by the clever stroke made by the Krishna, made Yalambar to dead.
Similarly, from another Myth, it is said that Lord Gautam Buddha visited Nepal after being enlighted during the regime of Jitedasti, and he was the seventh ruler of the Kirati. Ashoka visited Nepal in about 250 BC during the regime of Sthunko, the fourteenth ruler of Kiranti Dynasty. He made four “stupas” erected in the four square of Lalitpattan in order to commemorate his visit. And even up to this day, they exist making the historical memory. Additionally, he makes another relation with the royal family of Nepal by marrying Devapal, a Kshatriya prince with her daughter Charumati. Similarly, the twenty-eighth Kirati King Patuka extend his regime by the repeated invasions of Somavamshis (Lunar Dynasty), and he builds Patuko Palace with the memory of his victory. In this way, the Kiranti rule seems to have covered the period some three hundred years of the time of Mahabharat to the reign of King Ashoka. And during this period there was the drastic development of civilization, with the diplomatic relation with the neighboring states and countries.
There goes on series of concurring and throne, there goes on the kingdom of Lichhivi period, followed by Soma Dynasty in the time of 6-5 century inside the valley. This period of Nepal is considered as the golden age of Nepal, and have flourished in trade, diplomacy, economics, medical and administrative reform with the commanding view of the Amsubharma. Later Malla dynasty rule over the Valley around the time of 13-15 the century. Kathmandu Valley was then like sum of a number of the province of Malla Dynasty named after Kantipur, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur ruled by different Malla ruler.
A similar condition was there in whole over Nepal. It was divided into 22 states into the east and 24 states in the west. So a brilliant visionary ruler of Gorkha King Prithvi Narayan Shah, start to unite the nation concurring and through the series of war and agreement. He has well predicted that, if Nepal would not get reunite then third power and spreading colony of British would conquer Nepal. The British Empire, spreading in Asia, after getting hold of its influence in India had eyed on the mountainous region of Nepal. It was not an easy task to fight British imperialistic force in the mid 18th century.SoIn the year 1768, King Prithvi Narayan Shah shifted his capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu and laid the foundation of the Gorkhali Empire.
In 1814, the Empire fought a disastrous war with the East India Company government in India, and consequently found itself reduced in size and status to a kingdom. His unifying process was continued by his son Bahadur Shah and his team continue to unite his kingdom and extend the territory of Nepal to Tista on East and Kangada on the west part of Nepal including Himalayan belt on the north and plain land of Terai. Later in an anglo-Nepal war with British Colony, Nepal had to lose some of their territories and did Sugauli Treaty with which Nepal territory came to the west part of the Mechi River in the east and east part of Mahakali river in the west. This is the territory of Nepal up to this day with its long journey history.
Ancient History of Nepal
In the beginning, Kathmandu valley was a lake. River Bagmati made its way to the south of the valley and the water drained outside. The Valley their became fertile and suitable for settlement and people started to live here.
Nepal’s recorded history began with the Kiratis, who arrived in the Kathmandu in the 7th or 8th century BCE from the East. The Kirats ruled for about 1225 years (800 BCE-300 CE), they had a total of 29 kings during that time. Their first and remembered king were Yotamba Huang, better known as Yolambor, who is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata.
The first record of the word ‘Nepal’ is found in ancient Indian annals such as Puranas from the 4th century A.D where an area is known as.’Newal‘ or sometimes as ‘Newar’ is mentioned, referring to what is now known as the Kathmandu valley. However, the area of the sovereign state of Nepal has changed from time to time during its history, expanding and shrinking in an area since ancient times.
Rule of Gopal dynasty in the history of Nepal:
In ancient time plenty of grasses were available in Kathmandu valley. So the Gopals came to the valley from Mathura (India) and settled here. Later on, they started to rule over the valley. Animal husbandry was their main occupation. They raised cows. The Gopals were also called “Neep” or “Nep”. It is said that ‘Nepal’ was named after their name. The first king of Gopal dynasty was King Bhuktaman. Eight Gopal kings ruled over Nepal for 521 years. The last king of Gopal dynasty was Yaksha Gupta.
Rule of Mahishpal dynasty in the history of Nepal:
After Gopals, Mahishpals came to power. They were also called Ahir or Abhir. The last king of Gopal dynasty, Yaksha Gupta was childless. So, after his rule, his relative Jaya Singh became the king of Nepal. The Mahishpal used to keep buffaloes. In Sanskrit buffalo is called Mahis. So they were started to be called Mahishpal. Only three kings of Mahishpal dynasty ruled for 161 years. The last king of this dynasty was Bhuvan Singh. Both animal husbandry and agriculture were the main occupations of the people in this period.
Rule of Kirants in the history of Nepal:
After Mahishpal, Kirant kings ruled over Nepal. In the beginning, Kirant people lived by hunting in the jungle. Later on, they started agriculture. The Kirants ruled over Nepal for about 1000 years. Present Gokarna was their capital. They worshipped Kiranteshwor Mahadev of Pashupati. King Sirijunga introduced the Sirijunga script to the Limbus which is still in use today. The Kirants were the ancestor of present Rai, Limbus of Nepal. Gasti was the last Kirat king. During the rule of a seventh Kirant King, Gautam Buddha visited Kathmandu and spread Buddhism.
Rule of Lichchhavi in the history of Nepal:
After the defeat of Gasti, the Lichchhavi rule began in Nepal. Mandev, Amshuverma, Shiva Dev and Narendra Dev were some of the famous kings of Lichchhavi dynasty.
The Lichchhavis was rich in art and culture. They maintained good relations with Tibet, China, and India. They improved trade and made all around the development of the country. So the Lichchhavi period is called the “Golden Period” in the history of Nepal.
Nepal had been ruled throughout its history by the kings of different dynasties until the monarchy was abolished in 2063 BS. Nepal as a political region has been united by different kings of different kingdoms at various times in Nepalese history.
The ancient history of Nepal is obscured in various myths and legends. Besides, it was basically the history of Kathmandu valley. In the fifth century A.D., over the ‘Lichchhavis’over the Valley. Before the Iichhbis’ rule the valley, the ‘Kiratis’ had ruled. There are tales that before the ‘Kiratis’ the valley was once ruled by ‘Abhiras’, though there exists no reliable historical evidence in support of this fact. ‘Lichchhavis’ ruled the valley up to thirteenth century A.D.
‘Lichchhavis’ was replaced by ‘Mallas’ in the 13th century A.D. The ‘Malla’ period was the flowering period for the Newari culture. After the death of King Yaksha Malla, the last ruler of the unified Malla Kingdom, the Kingdom was divided among his descendants, forming more Kingdoms. The multiplicity of the Kingdoms was the cause of weakness and they soon fell into a state of anarchy, which paved the way for their eventual unification by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha.
By 1767 King Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the small states around. His unification move was later carried on by his son Bahadur Shah and grandson Rana Bahadur Shah. The territory of Nepal by this time extended up to the Ganges in the south, Kangra valley in the northwest and the river Teesta in the east.